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re-establishment of episcopacy and the liturgy (both which, it is well known, were abolished by the usurpers under Cromwell) revived the question of the lawfulness of both the one and the other, and gave rise to a controversy which is never likely to end.
Hooker's book is written with great force of argument, and in a truly christian temper: it contains a wonderful variety of learning and curious information; and for richness, correctness, and elegance of style, may be justly deemed the standard of perfection in the English language.
This excellent man, Hooker, was by a crafty woman, betrayed into a marriage with her daughter; a homely ill-bred wench, and, when married, a shrew; who is more than suspected to have destroyed, at the instigation of his adversaries, the corrected copy of the three last books of his invaluable work, of which only the former five were published by himself. He was sometime Master of the Temple; but his last preferment was to the rectory of Bishop's Bourne, near Canterbury. In his passage from Gravesend to London, in the tilt-boat, he caught a cold; which brought on a sickness that put an end to his days, in 1600, when he had but just completed his forty-seventh year.
HERBERT was of the noble family of that name; and a younger brother of the first of modern Deists,' the famous Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury. He was a King's scholar at Westminster, and, after that, a fellow of Trinity College, in Cambridge. In 1619, he was chosen university orator; and, while in that station, studied the modern languages, with a view to the office of Secretary of State: but being of a constitution that indicated a consumption, and withal of an ascetic turn of mind, he gave up the thoughts of a court life, and entered into holy orders. His
1 So, truly, termed; as being the author of a treatise De Veritate prout distinguitur à revelatione, à verisimili, à possibili, à falsa. Touching which book, and the religious opinions of the author, I shall here take occasion to mention a fact that I find related in a collection of periodical papers, entitled the "Weekly Miscellany," published in 1736, in two vols. 8vo. Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, being dangerously ill, and apprehensive that his end was approaching, sent for Dr. Jeremy Taylor, and signified a desire of receiving the sacrament at his hands; the doctor objected to him the tenets contained in his writings, particularly those wherein he asserts the sufficiency and absolute perfection of natural religion, with a view to show that any extraordinary revelation is needless; and exhorted him to retract them; but his lordship refusing, the doctor declared that he could not administer so holy and solemn a right to an unbeliever.
The doctor upon this left him; and, conceiving hopes that his lordship's sickness was not mortal, he wrote that discourse-proving that the religion of Jesus Christ is from God-which is printed in his "Ductor Dubitantium."-H.
first preferment in the church was to a prebendary in the cathedral of Lincoln and his next and last the rectory of Bemerton, near Salisbury. About 1630, he married a near relation of the Earl of Danby; and died about 1635, aged forty-two, without issue.
His elder brother, Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, mentions him in his own "Life;" and gives his character in the following words:"My brother George was so excellent a scholar, that he was made the publick orator of the university in Cambridge: some of whose English works are extant, which, though they be rare in their kind, yet are far short of expressing those perfections he had in the Greek and Latin tongues, and all divine and human literature. His life was mostly holy and exemplary; insomuch that about Salisbury, where he lived beneficed for many years, he was little less than sainted: he was not exempt from passion and choler, being infirmities to which all our race is subject-but, that one excepted, without reproach in his actions.”
A collection of religious poems, entitled the "Temple," and a small tract, "The Priest to the Temple; or, the Country Parson his Character," with his "Remains," are all of his works that are generally known to be in print; but he translated Cornaro's book of "Temperance and long Life;" printed in 12mo. Cambridge, 1639. Among the "Remains" is a collection of foreign proverbs translated into English, well worthy of a place in some future edition, with those of Ray.
SANDERSON was a man of very acute parts, and famous for deep skill in casuistry: a sort of learning formerly much cultivated among the Romish divines, with a view to qualify the younger clergy for the office of confession; and it continued in fashion here longer after the Reformation than it was useful. In the year 1647, he drew up the famous Oxford "Reasons against the Covenant;" which discover amazing penetration and sagacity, and so distinguished him, that at the Restoration, he was promoted to the bishopric of Lincoln. In 1671, by virtue of a commission from King Charles II., he assisted at a conference at the Savoy, between the episcopal clergy and nonconforming divines, for settling a Liturgy; and, upon a review of the book of "Common Prayer "that followed it, composed sundry of the new Collects and additional offices; it is said that the form of general thanksgiving is in the number of the former: and he drew up the Preface, "It hath been the wisdom of the Church," &c. This great man died in 1662. There are extant, of his works-besides a volume of Sermons, in folio,-2 treatise, "De Juramenti promissorii obligatione," which was translated into English by King Charles I., while a prisoner in the Isle of Wight; and several other pieces. Walton's acquaintance with him had a very early commencement: and what degree
of intimacy subsisted between them will appear by the following account:" About the time of his printing this excellent "Preface,' [to his "Sermons" first printed in 1655], I met him accidentally in London, in sad-coloured clothes, and, God knows, far from being costly. The place of our meeting was near to Little Britain; where he had been to buy a book, which he then had in his hand. We had no inclination to part presently; and therefore turned to stand in a corner, under a penthouse; (for it began to rain ;) and immediately the wind rose, and the rain increased so much, that both became so inconvenient, as to force us into a cleanly house; where we had bread, cheese, ale, and a fire for our money. This rain and wind were so obliging to me as to force our stay there, for at least an hour, to my great content and advantage; for in that time he made to me many useful observations, with much clearness and conscientious freedom."1
It was not till long after that period when the faculties of man begin to decline, that Walton undertook to write the "Life of Sanderson:" nevertheless, far from being deficient in any of those excellencies that distinguish the former "Lives," this abounds with the evidences of a vigorous imagination, a sound judgment, and a memory unimpaired; and for the nervous sentiments and pious simplicity therein displayed, let the concluding paragraph thereof, pointed out to me by an eminent writer, and here given, serve as a specimen.
"Thus, this pattern of meekness and primitive innocence changed this for a better life: 'tis now too late to wish that mine may be like his; (for I am in the eighty-fifth year of my age: and God knows it hath not ;) but I most humbly beseech Almighty God that my death may: and I do as earnestly beg, that if any reader shall receive any satisfaction from this very plain, and as true relation, he will be so charitable as to say Amen.”
Such were the persons, whose virtues Walton was so laudably employed in celebrating and surely he has done but justice in saying, that "These were honourable men in their generations." -Ecclus. xliv. 7.3
And yet so far was he from arrogating to himself any merit in this his labour, that in the instance of Dr. Donne's "Life," he compares himself to Pompey's bondman-who being found on the sea-shore, gathering up the scattered fragments of an old broken boat, in order to burn the body of his dead master, was asked, "Who art thou that preparest the funerals of Pompey the Great?"-hoping, as he says, that if a like question should be put to him, it would be thought to have in it more of wonder than disdain.
Dr. Samuel Johnson.
1 "Life of Sanderson."
3 Motto to the "Collection of Lives."
The above passage in Scripture, assumed by Walton as a motto to the collection of "Lives," may, with equal propriety, be applied to most of his friends and intimates; who were men of such distinguished characters for learning and piety, and so many in number,' that it is matter of wonder by what means a man in his station could obtain admittance among such illustrious society; unless we suppose, as doubtless was the case, that his integrity and amiable disposition attracted the notice and conciliated the affections of all with whom he had any concern.
It is observable, that not only these, but the rest of Walton's friends, were eminent royalists; and that he himself was in great repute for his attachment to the royal cause, will appear by the following relation, taken from Ashmole's "History of the Order of the Garter," p. 228; where the author, speaking of the ensigns of the order, says: "Nor will it be here unfitly remembered, by what good fortune the present sovereign's Lesser George, set with fair diamonds, was preserved, after the defeat given to the Scotch forces at Worcester, ann. 4 Car. II. Among the rest of his attendants then dispersed, Colonel Blague was one; who, taking shelter at Blorepipe-house in Staffordshire, where one Mr. George Barlow then dwelt, delivered his wife this George, to secure. Within a week after, Mr. Barlow himself carried it to Robert Milward, Esq.; he being then a prisoner to the Parliament, in the garrison of Stafford; and by his means it was happily preserved and restored: for, not long after, he delivered it to Mr. Isaac Walton, (a man well known, and as well beloved of all good men; and will be better known to posterity, by his ingenious pen, in the "Lives of Doctor Donne, Sir Henry Wotton, Mr. Richard Hooker, and Mr. George Herbert,") to be given to Colonel Blague, then a prisoner in the Tower; who, considering it had already passed so many dangers, was persuaded it could yet secure one hazardous attempt of his own; and, thereupon, leaving the Tower without leave-taking, hasted the presentation of it to the present sovereign's hand.”
1 In the number of his intimate friends we find Archbishop Usher, Archbishop Sheldon, Bishop Morton, Bishop King, Bishop Barlow, Dr. Fuller, Dr. Price, Dr. Woodford, Dr. Featly, Dr. Holdsworth, Dr. Hammond, Sir Edward Sandys, Sir Edward Bysh, Mr. Cranmer, Mr. Chillingworth, Mich. Drayton, and that celebrated scholar and critic, Mr. John Hales, of Eaton. HAWKINS. In short he was in habits of friendly intercourse with those who were most celebrated for their piety and learning. Nor could he be deficient in urbanity of manners, or elegance of taste, who was the companion of Sir Henry Wotton, the most accomplished gentleman of his age.-Zouch.
The religious opinions of good men are of little importance to others, any farther than they conduce to virtuous practice; since we see, that as well the different persuasions of Papist and Protestant, as the several no less differing parties into which the reformed religion is unhappily subdivided, have produced men equally remarkable for their endowments, sincere in their professions, and exemplary in their lives. But were it necessary, after what has been above remarked of our author, to be particular on this head, we should say that he was a very dutiful son of the Church of England; nay further, that he was a friend to an hierarchy, or, as we should now call such a one, a high churchman; for which propensity of his, if it needs an apology, it may be said, that he had lived to see hypocrisy and fanaticism triumph in the subversion of both our ecclesiastical and civil constitution, the important question of toleration had not been discussed, the extent of regal prerogative, and the bounds of civil and religious liberty had never been ascertained,-and he, like many other good men, might look on the interests of the Church, and those of religion, as inseparable.
At a time when animosities between the Sectarian and HighChurch parties prevailed without any prospect of their termination, Walton, from solicitude for the welfare of his country-and not with a view to embarrass himself in disputation, for he was averse to controversy-gave an ingenuous and undissembled account of his faith and practice, as a true son of the Church of England: publishing, in 1680, a treatise under the title of "Love and Truth, in two modest and peaceable Letters, concerning the Distempers of the present Times; written from a quiet and conformable Citizen of London, to two busie and factious Shopkeepers in Coventry." The motto to it was, "But let none of you suffer as a busie-body in other men's matters!"-1 Pet. iv. 15. Walton suppressed his name in the title page: but for ascribing it to his pen, there is the sufficient authority of Archbishop Sancroft, who, in the volume of Miscellanies ("Miscellanea," 14; 2, 34), in the library of Emanuel College, Cambridge, has, with his own hand, marked its title thus: "Is. Walton's 2 letters conc. ye Distemps of ye Times, 1680." The style, the sentiment, the argumentation, are such as might be expected from a plain man, actuated only by an honest zeal to promote the public peace. And if we consider that it was written by our "quiet and conformable citizen," in the eighty-seventh year of his age-a season of life when the faculties of the mind are usually on the decline, it will be scarcely possible not to admire the clearness of his judgment and the unimpaired vigour of his memory. The work, which breathes