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whom we had rather call Amadis, like some of our old Englishwriters; it is a name of more knightly sound. Amadis obtained the appellation of the Green Earl;' for this good knight always appeared in the livery of the spring; his armour was green ; the surcoats of his squires were green ; and the trappings of his steed were green. 'The shields, and bearings, and devices, however, are now completely
. obliterated. The duty of officiating at the cathedral happened, unfortunately for the admirers of chivalry, to devolve upon the White Friars; and as the disciples of the prophet Elisha entertain great aversion to all worldly pomp and vanity, they covered over the bright emblems of love and war with a thick coat of whitewash.
The tournaments used to be held in the Verney, a kind of park thickly planted with trees, and which is now the favourite promenade of the inhabitants of Chambery. The ancient Verney has been improved in the modern French fashion ; and these improvements have not increased its pleasantness. A • Champ de Mars' has been annexed to it, in which the soldiers who were lodged in the immense Caserne' erected by the French Government, were occasionally drawn out and reviewed. These military works have occasioned a loss which excites the regret of our traveller. The old · Jardin de l'Arquebuse' has been destroyed, in order to make room for the Parade, and the Champ de Mars, and the barracks. Here they used to shoot the popinjay; and, according to the custom which prevailed in many other countries where this pastime was practised, the successful marksman obtained the title of the king of the game. The match was succeeded by processions and balls; and when his majesty of the popinjay bad attained his honours, he was bound to share them with a queen, and, by a singular regulation, this queen was to be chosen from the class of inhabitants to which he, the king, did not belong ; that is to say, if he was a noble, the lady was to be a citizen's daughter, or the victorious citizen was to be mated with a lady of patrician rank, Six young candidates for the queenship, either noble or ignoble, according to the rank of the king, were chosen from amongst the fairest ones of the town, by the grave Burghercouncil, the prudhommes' of Chambery; and the king selected his companion from this little band of maidens bright of blee,' who were collectively called the Rose.'
The dance was led off by the King and Queen: and the rest of the dancers were matched, or rather mismatched, by the same joyous rule which had brought the sovereigns of the feast together. Each roturier had a partner of high degree, and each nobleman danced with the wife or daughter of a burgess. The Princes of Savoy sometimes joined in the sport. It once happened that Victor Amadeus hit the popinjay, upon which he was duly declared the king of the Arquebusiers. When it was time for him to chuse his queen, all Chambery was in an uproar. Such a thing had never happened before, it was quite a new case; a case to which the existing laws did not appear to be applicable. The judges were puzzled sorely; they could not decide whether the queen ought to be taken from the nobility, or from the burgesses; for it was evident that the victor belonged to neither class. The Prince evaded giving a final determination upon this difficult point; and put an end to the dispute, by taking the hand of a girl, a lawyer's daughter, who was not and could not be included in either of the rival Roses which had been named by the contending parties. Our graver readers must pardon us for these little details.
The Abbey of Haute Combe was founded by Amadeus the Vtb, in 1225; and afterwards became the burial-place of a long line of Princes. According to the usual fate of pious foundations situated in the countries which have been annexed to France, the Abbey has been spoiled and desecrated. It is converted into a porcelain manufactory, and as M. Millin expresses himself, des
fours a faience, symbole de la fragilité humaine, ont remplacé ces . illustres tombes.' In this church are deposited the remains of an English prelate, the tyrannical Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose sacrilegious oaths and pugilistic prowess are dolefully bewailed by Matthew Paris. This monument escaped the first general devastation ; but it has since been annihilated.
Former travellers described Aquabella as a poor town; but to M. Millin it appeared prosperous and full of life. The total cessation of all maritime commerce had given a temporary activity to all the towns on the road of Mount Cenis. Aquabella, so called from the limpid streams by which it is watered, ought to be a place of note in English history, as it is the birth-place of Peter de Egeblanke, Bishop of Hereford, a prelate who acted a conspicuous part in the reign of Henry the Illd, and whose memory
exhales a loathsome and brimstone stink;' as we are told in the bitter pages of the venerable monk of St Alban's, who never spares pope, prince or prelate.
This Bishop, of hateful memory, is buried in the collegiate church of Aquabella, which he founded, built and endowed.” The same church also contained the sepulchral monument of Peter of Savoy, Earl of Richmond, the uncle of our Queen Eleanor, who was as little liked in England as the bishop, his namesake and relation. The church has been ruined in the late wars--the walls alone
are standing. The site of Peter of Aquabella's tomb, however, is still pointed out;--but the monument has disappeared. In the opinion of Mr Kerrich, a most competent judge, it was a work of
considerable intrinsic merit, and not without great beauty, al• though in rather a hard dry style, such as, if the figure were
antique, would be dignified with the title of severe :--the 6 whole is executed with the utmost delicacy. The monument was further remarkable, by preserving the name of the artist ; this occurs rarely--and Master Henry of Colonia' is almost the only ultramontane sculptor of the middle ages whose existence is thus recorded.
When Mr Kerrich saw the tomb of the Earl of Richmond, it was greatly mutilated--both the legs were broken, and one of them was lost. The people of the place seemed to know very well who he was; but they called him an Englishman, and insisted that he was related to the Bishop who was buried under the other tomb. From the silence of M. Millin, we must infer, that the tomb of the Earl has shared the fate of the tomb of the Bishop. It is fortunate, therefore, that the elegant pencil of Mr Kerrich has rescued these fine specimens of art from oblivion. This gentleman tantalizes as; he just opens his portfolio, and allows us to peep at the treasures which it contains, and then he closes it in our faces. It were greatly to be wished that he would attempt the history of the progress of the arts in France and Italy. Such a work would be most acceptable; nor is the necessity of it superseded by the appearance of Azincourt's history.- Azincourt's subjects are selected without judgment; and the plates of his expensive book are executed without taste or feeling
Whilst M. Millin was travelling through Maurienne, he met with several troops of little mountaineers, all of whom were under ten years of age. We are going to France, my good Sir, ' was the answer which he received to his inquiries. Savoy had been long united to France; but, notwithstanding this union, it was quite impossible to convince the Savoyards that they were Frenchmen. They migrate like swallows. The young Savoyards sally forth every autumn, in great flights, from the mountainous districts of Savoy. In the winter season, they disperse themselves throughout the towns of France, where they earn a scanty pittance by their industry; they clean shoes, and take upon themselves the indefinable office of Commissionaires ; and, above all, they employ themselves in the standard vocation of the country-in sweeping chimneys. Grave authors main
* Archaiologia, Vol. XVIII.- Art. 17.
tain, that their fellow inhabitants of the mountains, the bears, first taught them the art of climbing. When spring comes in again, they undergo as sudden a change as the May-day metamorphosis of our heroes of the brush and shovel. They quit France, and return to their native huts; and cheerfully pay over to their poor parents the whole amount of their winter gains. During the summer they tend the cows, and work in the fields, until the autumn, when they again quit their rural occupations, for the polluting drudgery of Paris.
The word Savoyard has become quite a technical term in the French language ; it is universally employed by the French to denote a chimney-sweeper, let him come from what part of the world he may. The natives of Savoy, therefore, feel that it degrades them, and they prefer taking the name of Savoisiens. M. Millin takes many exceptions to this innovation, which he maintains to be contrary to grammar and etymology. They • should call themselves Sabaudiens,' says he; ' or else they • should call themselves Savaudiens. And he will not admit that they are justifiable of breaking Priscian's head, even for the purpose of ridding themselves of an appellation to which the unconquerable spells of habit and custom have annexed so many humiliating associations.
The fertile plains of Piedmont are discernible from the point of Mount Cenis called the Molaret; and M. Millin thinks that it was from this station that Hannibal showed Italy to his soldiers, From the Molaret to Susa, the mountain presents only an easy descent; and the swarms of tattered beggars who now sur• round the traveller, sufficiently announce that he has entered • Italy.' The enthusiasm with which he had begun his jourhey now revived. His own words only can do justice to his ardour.
* La nuit approchoit quand j'arrivai à Suze. Apres avoir franchi le Mont Cenis, je croyois que tout alloit dejà me paroître nouveau.
• Je là tiens cette terre sacrée; la voilà enfin, m'écríai-je, cette Italie ; ce sont ses villes, ce sont ses nations que je vais voir.
? Je parcourus presque à tatons les rues de la ville et ses approches, attendant avec impatience, le lendemain pour visiter l'arc qui lui donne quelque celebrité, et commencer mes observations.'
M. Millin began his course' in search of the antiquities of Suza, in company with a 'respectable canon,' one Monsieur Marietti, who was well acquainted with the history and the • monuments of his country:
Poor Monsieur Marietti is now numbered with the departed. La mort l'a enlevé depuis : je • n'en dois pas moins temoigner ma recon":oissance pour les • bons offices qui j'en ai reçus.'
The arch of Suza, to which he walked along with Monsieur Marietti, was erected in honour of Augustus, by Marcus Julius Cottius, a deposed king of the Cottian Alps. Marcus Cottius was conquered by the Romans, who afterwards restored him to the enjoyment of a small portion of authority in his former dominions, under the title of Prefect. M. Millin gives the details of the inscriptions and sculptures on the arch; the latter of which have not been accurately described by former travellers. In the year 1805, two headless statues of excellent workmanship? were dug up near the arch. These torsos offered no distinguishable characters; but it was nevertheless! conjectured,' in the way that the cognescenti are wont to conjecture, that the one was intended for Augustus, and the other for the Prefect. According to this supposition, M. Millin observes, that • it would at least have been proper to have allowed them to • continue where they were discovered, as being local monu
ments ;' but they hastened to send the mutilated trunks to Paris, where the head of the Emperor Napoleon was placed on the shoulders of one of them, and the head of the Emperor Tiberius was fitted to the other.
The great church of Suza is well stocked with relicks. They have as much of the body of St Maur, as was left after satisfying the veneration of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who solicited a portion of it in the year 1679. They have also the body of St Stephen. There is, to be sure, another body of St Stephen in ihe church of St Lawrence at Rome: but the priests of Suza were induced to set up in opposition to the priests of St Lawrence, in consequence of a lucky discovery which took place in 1520. On the 1st day of December in that year, one John Baptist Serrano, a mason of Lugano, was employed to pull down part of the wall of a chapel in the cathedral dedicated to St Stephen. In the course of his operations, this happy workman found an enveloppe' of paper in a hole in the wall
, which immediately crumbled into dust, with the exception of one small fragment containing the following letters, C. SCTI. STEPHI PTHOM. ; these were easily deciphered, and found to signify, Corpus Sancti Stephani Prothomartiris. It was now necessary to account for the presence of the body at Suza. This was accomplished by an ingenious chain of conjectures. The Patriarch of Alexandria might have given it to Charlemagne, Charlemagne might have offered it to the Abbey of Novalaise, from thence it might have been translated to the Church of St Justus; and when it arrived there, it might, though no one knew why or wherefore, have been deposited in the hole in the wall. And upon these grounde it was determined, that this must be the main relic, and that the