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had been establithed at the revolu- from the regiment was arrested at tion.
Paris. M. de la Tour du Pin, the In the same spirit the utmost minister of war, made a formidable pains were employed to produce dis. representation of the rebellious contrust and mutual abhorrence between duct of the regiment. The miseries the citizens and the soldiers. Men resulting from a want of subordinawere dressed in the uniform of the tion, and the necessity of an example, king's regiment (one of the regie were echoed through the assembly. ments in garrison there), and em- On the 16th of August, a fevere ployed to wound and insult the citi- decree was passed, which authorised zens.
One of these persons was the commander in chief of the protaken, and banished from the city vince to reduce the insurgents by at the requeit of the regiment; at force. the same time, some young
officers In the mean time the other regiwere encouraged by their superiors ments in garrison, the Swiss .regi, to behave in the most indecent man- ment of Chateau-vieux, and the rener to several of the peaceable inha. giment of cavalry called Mestre de bitants; and even hired ruffians Camp, irritated by similar opprefwere engaged for the same purpose. fions, had concurred in the rebel. Several of these were arrested, and a lion, had seized some of their officourt-martial appointed, at the re- cers, and were joined by great numquest of the regiment, for their trial; bers of the populace. but M. Bouillé, who commanded in The decree of the 16th was no the province, had set himself in op- sooner made public than, from know position to this measure. One of the ing the character of the commander grenadiers who had been active in in chief, the most serious confethese prosecutions, was menaced in quences were apprehended by all the most insulting manner by an of- good citizens. The national guard ficer, who soon after deserted to the of Nancy assembled, and offered to king of Hungary.
the regiments to undertake the part Wearied with these repeated in- of mediators, and to send the terms dignities and acts of oppression, the of their submission by a deputation regiment at length threw off its als from their own body to the national legiance, a Terted loudly that they assembly. The deputation proceeda were wronged of their pay and their ed immediately to Paris, and on the allowance, and demanded the regi- 31st of August appeared before the mental accounts. M. Denou threat. ailembly. On their representation, ened with the gauntlet all who pre- the decree of the roth was repealed, fumed to call for the accounts. The and commissioners were appointed regiment therefore immediately seiz. for the purpose of inquiring mied the military chelt, and dispatched nutely into the circumstances of the a deputation to Paris, to represent case, and to punish the guilty, and these facts to the national assembly. reward the deserving.
The officers, however, took care Such an arrangement however did to anticipate the representation of not suit the views of the perfidious the foldiers, and were too intimately and fanguinary Bouillé. Without connected with the ministers, and waiting the result of the deputation fume members of the assembly, to from Nancy, he haftened with a fatal permit the complaints of the pri- raluess (as was confc sed even by vates to be heard. The deputation his advocates) to enforce the de1791.
eree of the 16th. He collected all vented by unusual circumspection the troops that he could assemble and care. It is only necessary to from every part, and fuch of the na- add with respect to this business, tional guard as preferred a patriotic that in the month of December folfubordination to the immediate dic- lowing, the assembly reversed, all tates of their feelings and their con- its own decrees againft the insur sciences. In spite of their offers of gents at Nancy, liberated all the fubmiflion, he fell upon the regi prisoners, and recompensed them as ments of Chateau-vieux and Mestre men who had unjustly suffered at de Camp; and after putting an im- the same time they decreed public mense number to the sword, he com- honours to the memory of the brave pletely routed them, and took 400 Dellilles, and placed his family unprisoners.
der the protection of the state. : The king's regiment had been The decline of M. Neckar's pos retained in their barracks by the ex. pularity has been already noticed. ertions of some patriotic persons He had not lessened it by a pamwho urged them to submiflion. Even phlet which he published on the abo, when M. Bouillé arrived, they were lition of nobility, or at least of titles, Prevented from acting by the intre. which supported with some ingepidity and virtue of a young officer nuity the aristocratical order. Both of the name of Desfilles. This in- previous to this step, and after it, he trepid young man, after urging his must have felt the gradual loss of fellowesoldiers by every motive to the public esteem, and possibly had submit, assuring them that sooner for some time meditated a retreat or later, they would experience the from office. The measure was howjustice of the legißature, placed bim- ever probably accelerated by the pofelf before the mouth of a cannon, pular chamours on the affair of Nanwhich they were going to fire. He cy, whicb involved him (oertainly was forcibly dragged from this dan- unfairly) with the rest of the migerous situation, but in the struggle niters in the guilt of that transacreceived three or four wounding of tion. On the 4th of September he which he afterwards died.
fent a letter of resignation to the ·, The news of this event was re- assembly, and pleaded his ill Itate of ceived at Paris with horror. As M. health, which required his retiring Bouillé had not exceeded the au- to the baths in Switzerland ; though thority which the national assembly he dropped some distant intimation had unfortunately conceded to him of the uneasiness he had experienced by the ralh decree of the 16th, they in his fituation. It is not to the could not legally inflict either pu- credit of the national assembly that nishment or censure upon him. The no public notice was taken of this populace, however, who were not letter. The inflexible integrity of reduced to any such dilemma, gave M. Neckar certainly demanded the a full vent to their feelings ; they highett veneration, his abilities enopenly accused M, Bouillé of trea- titled him to respect, and this fer chery, and a desire to effect a counvices to gratitude.--But, what is the ter-revolution, and even threatened gratitude of public bodies! If, like the lives of the ministers. In a one of his predeceffors in office, he word, the resentment of the people had retired, a public defaulter, in- seemed to menace the most danger- famoully loaded with the fpoils of our exceffes, which were only pre his country, only to be employed in
exciting enemies, and provoking the de la Luzerne, who was succeeded. most profigate combinations against by M. Fleurieu ; and on the 16th of her, could he have been treated November, by that of M. Tour du with more marked contempt ? Pin, who was replaced by M. du
The fame parties, and the fame Portail. The adiniral, M. Albert factious fpirit which prevailed in the de Rioms, also retigned, with many army, pervaded also the navy of of the officers; and M. BougainFrance. The national assembly had ville was appointed to the command decreed the 'adherence of the nation of the feet. The malecontents to allexifting treaties, in which the were with some difficulty reduced family compact was necessarily in- to fubordination; but happily for cluded, and as England continued France, she was delivered from the arming on the Spanish dispute, a necessity of engaging in a war by fleut of 30 fail was ordered to be the convention which was soon after eqnipped at Brest, as it was uncer figned between Spain and England. tain how far France might be in. It was fortunate for France and volved in the expected 'hostilities. for the assembly, that, amidit all The disorders which took place thefe disturbances in the exterior among the seamen at Brelt "have parts of the kingdom, the new po. been attributed to different caufes. lice of Paris had preferved the metroOn the 13th of September, while polis tolerably quiet. The disconthe fquadron was fitting out with all tent excited by the affair of Nancy possible expedition, the Leopard are ended without violence. On the rived from St. Domingo, having on 13th of November, however, the board a part of the refractorý assema tranquillity of the capital was once bly, who were ordered over to an- more disturbed, in consequence of a swer for their conduct; and as the private dispute, which ended in a dissatisfaction commenced on board duel between M. Caftries and M. this vellet, on account of the admi- Charles Lameth, in which the latral commanding a failor to be in- ter was dangerously wounded. As prisoned for intoxication, it was sup- every report is at first exaggerated, posed by fome that the crew had the news was very generally spread been depraved by their communica- that M. Lameth was killed ; and the tion with the rebellious members of people, ever prone to suspicion, imthe St. Domingo affembly ; while on mediately conceived the formidable thers have attributed it, perhaps with idea of a general conspiracy fuccefmore probability, to the general fuf- fively to aflaflinate all the patriotic picion which the seamen entertained members. An immense mob was of their officers, the majority of presently assembled at the hôtel de whom were of the nobility, and pos- Castries, which they proceeded to fibly nor well affected to the new spoil and destroy. M. de la Fayette, constitution. M. Menou, in ’a re- whose vigilance was ever awake, no port from the military and marine sooner heard of the commotion, than committees on the zit of O&tober, with a party ofthe national guard he attempted to fix the blame on the repaired to the spot, and with a fora inaativity and inertness of the mi titude wþich never forfook him nisters. This charge however did forcibly represented to the populace not appear well founded, though it the raihness of their conduct.' It is was followed on the 27th by the re- equally to the credit of each party, signation of the naval minifter, M. that the mob immediately dehted,
andeven,on coming out of the house, and formed the active citizens into inlisted that every man should be a national guard. Such a ftate of searched, to evince that plunder was things was scarcely confiftent with not in the least their object.
a foreign dominion.--A contest beOn the 16th and 20th of Novem- tween the vice-legate and the people ber, a business came before the af- immediately succeeded: on the oth fembly, which was pregnant with of June a violent insurrection took difficulty, and which suspended the place in the city; the people seized public opinion for fome fucceeding the palace ; the papal arms were inonths. It is well known, that the taken down, and those of France country of Avignon' is inclosed on: put up in their place; and a petievery fide by the dominions of tion was dispatched to the national France ; that it formed anciently a assembly, entreating, that the terripart of Provence ; that it was tory of Avignon might be incoralienated by a queen who was at that porated into the dominions of period both under cireumstances of France. To this firit application compulfion and a minor ; that, as the affembly only answered, by sendo foon as she came of age, she re- ing a body of troops to restore tranclaimed it ; that the cession had not quillity, and to preserve order in the been formally acknowledged by the eity; at the same time adjourning parliaments, and that several fuc- the question concerning the object ceffive monarchs had renewed their of the petition. In May 1791, the claim to the city as a part of their discussion was again resumed, and it hereditary dominions. On the other was again deferred. In the mean hand, it must be acknowledged, that time, as the papal party was strong, long possession had given to the and the clergy apprehensive of bepopes that title by which most fo. ing deprived of their influence and vereignties are held; that the cef- their wealth, a moft dreadful civil fion of Jane, queen of Naples, had war defolated this beautiful country. been ratified by the states of Pro- It would be disgusting, as well as vence; and that if some of the tedious,'to enter into a detail of the kings had denied the right of the bloody feenes and the horrid outpope, it had been acknowledged by rages which succeeded. Let it sufothers. A stronger reason solicited fice to fay, that all these circumthe assembly to incorporate this city itances being made known to the with the kingdom of France, and that affembly, after repeated deliberawas the voice of the inhabitants of tions, it was at length resolved, on Avignon themselves. The papal the 14th of September 1791, that government is notoriously the worst the territory of Avignon, with the in the world; it is even said, that adjacent county of Venaislin,
should justice was publicly bought and fold be considered as a part of the French at Avignon ; nor could any re- empire, and that a compensation in monstrances to the
obtain lieu of these countries should be of. dress for the people. In this state fered to the pope. We have anticia of oppression, a large party in the pated a little the order of these tranf. city saw with a spirit of emulation actions, for the sake of perspicuity, the new government of France; and now return to the chain of our they desired to make it their model, narrative." but still professed obedience to the We have already seen but too pope. They elected a municipality, much occafion for cenfure in the
ferere treatment which the national to the constitution, resigned their clergy experienced from the consti- benefices; and indeed the fituation tuent assembly. Their fituation was of honest men with strict notions not improved by a series of decrees of church authority, was rendered which were passed in the latter end extremely perplexing by the public of the year 1790
In the month of declaration of the pope, who testiJuly, among other ecclefiaftical re- fed in marked terms his disapprobagulations, it had been enacted, that tion of the oath. It is but justice, every beneficed clergyman ihould to add, that the severity of this desolemnly take an oath, “ to watch cree was in some degree mitigated carefully over the faithful in the by a subsequent law, which assigned parish or diocese which was entrusted to the non-juring clergy a pension of io his care; to be faithful to the 500 livres
per annum. nation, the law, and the king; and The year 1799, closed with some to maintain, to the utmost of his accession of popularity to the na power, the new constitution of France, ţional assembly. A ftatue was de: and particularly the decrees relative creed to be erected to the memory to the civil constitution of the cler, of Rousseau, and his widow was als gy:" Many of the clergy, on the lowed a penfion. Some other po Erit publishing of this decree, spon, pular acts were paffed; but what taneoufly ofered to take the oath; conferred upon them the most solid but in many places the resolution applause, was the report of the comcontinued a mere dead letter, till mittee of finances, from which it the 27th of November, when a most appeared, that the national receipt severe decree was enacted, declaring exceeded the expenditure by threç that all such clergy as thould neglect millions, and that there was up, to take the oath, hould be confi- wards of 500,000l. ferling in fpecie dered as virtually ejected from their in the public treasury. To the im bencfices; and condemning to severe mortal honour of the assembly, the pains and penalties all such as should pernicious and disgracefal tax of prove. refractory. The policy of LOTTERIES was totally abolished this measure was certainly to place and prohibited. About the close the government of the church in the of the year M. de St. Priest, mi. hands of men who were well af- nister of the interior department, re. fected to the new conftitution, and figned. to disengage the nation from a num- Thc forft act of the new year was ber of dilaffected persons, who pat lefs honourable to the consti might be dangerous if possessed of tuent legislature.
legislature. Inftead of indipower. In this view, the measure cating (as its enemies insinuated) was probably politic; but it is much an inclination to prolong its session, to bc doubted whether or not it like the long parliament of Eng: was jult. It might be a means of land, a list of articles was introgiving permanency to the new order duced, which were necessary, to be of things, bụt it certainly was a vio- discussed previous to the final eltalent infringement on toleration; and blihment of the constitution; after may we never see civil liberty pre- the determination of which the aflerved by a tyranny exerted over the sembly declared its intention of difconsciences of men. The conse- folving itself, and resigning its auquence was, that many conscientious thority. persons, who had been well affected The jealousy of the neighbouring