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evils of French innovation. In this power of the nation was velted in an country in particular, no comparison affembly chosen by the people, then
can be intituted but with an invi- ranks were in reality levelled; for - dious design between the British rank without power will soon cease house of peers and the noblesse of to be fuch, and no longer deserves France. No resemblance exists be- the name. As to liveries and armo. tween them, nor is there either any rial bearings, they are trifles, which ching to be feared or to be defied were, on the one hand, beneath the
from the example. In France the notice of the national assembly, and noblesse amounted to upwards of on the other, their aboli ion can ne1.200,000 persons ; in England to not • ver be a matter of serious disappro" more than goo. In France the bation with men of sense. The prin.
whole race was ennobled; in Eng- eipal motive for passing these decrees land only the eldest fon, and the reit was, doubtless, that po badge of fepaof the family is returned to the mass ration might remain to distinguish of private citizens. In England' no- the privileged cast from the rest of bility is trather title attached to a the nation,
and that no regular order certain function; in France it was might sublilt, thus diftinguished, privilege attached to a title. The inimical to the new conttitution.
house of peers of Great Britain is a But could the assembly have foremember of the state, a legislature seen what a degree of odium this
and a fupreme court of justice; in transaction was to bring upon their - France nubility was something with- proceedings, they would have been -out defignation, without function, greatly wanting in prudence net to without respectability. There the have declined the measure; but the pobility formed a peculiar caft or more reasonable conjecture is, that Oribe which diselaimed to mix with they did not foresee it. They confithe rost of the nation ; in England dered it as an act much more inthere is fcarcely a family which is different and less invidious than many not, or has not been, in fome manner which they had passed; and conceived allied to the nobility, and all are that, where no person was deprived mequal except the actual representa- of any thing substantial, no person
tives of noble families. in France would conceive himself substantially the offices and emoluments of the injured. state 'were monopolized by the no- 'In the mean time the prepara mbleffe ; in England they are equally tions for the general confederation open to every commoner. In reality proceeded with confiderable rapito titles were legal in France, but dity. The Champ de Mars, so fathose of the few who were termed mous for having been the rendezvous peers of France : the rest were af- of the troops which in the prefumed at the pleasure of the perfon; ceding year were intended to overand it was only necessary to be of a awe the capital, was chosen for this noble family, in order to decorate folemnity. This piece of ground, themselves with whatever title sound. which is about 400 toises, or 800 ed most agreeably to the car of the yards in diameter, is bounded on the individual. When the noblesse were right and left by lofty trees, and difrobed of their feudal privileges, commands at the further extremity then in truth and reality they were a view of the military academy. In abolished. When they ceafed to re- the middle of this vait plain an altar prefent their own body, when the was erected for the purpose of ad
thinistering the civic oath; and round of the departments, diftinguished it an immense amphitheatre was by their respective standards, the thrown up, of a league in circumfe- battalions of infantry, and the difrence, and capable of containing four ferent troops of cavalry, the ma. hundred thousand spectators. The rine of France, and the foreigner's entránce into the Champ de Confé. who served under its banners, being deration (as it was now called) was all arranged in military order, the tfirough triumphal arches. The king and the national assembly took king's throne was placed under a solemn oath to maintain the conan elegant pavilion in the middle, ftitution; the armed citizens reand on each side of it were feats peated it amongst the applauses of for the members of the national innumerable spectators. They swore affembly.
to live free, or die; and this oatha . Two thousand workmen were was taken on the same day througle employed upon this immense la- the whole extent of the king1 dour; but the citizens of Paris, dom. fearing leit the preparations should Previous to the confederation, not be completed at the appointed the duke d'Orleans, having comperiod, focked from every quarter pleted the object of his miffon, to alift in the patriotic under- detured leave to return and alit s raking. Not only the military, but at this auguit ceremony. On the
the clergy and even the ladies lent receipt of his letter, M. de la Faytheir cheerful aflittance. With afto- ette ascended the tribune, and extilhment ftrangers beheld the most plained his motives for having addelicate and elegant of the female tiled the departure of the duke ; sex dragging the wheel-barrow, or which were in brief, - that he aphandling with willing but sometimes prehended an ill uíu might be made ineffective endeavours the weighty of his naine, while present, in urder mallet or the spade. The provin- to difturb the public tranquillity. 'eials, who came from the remotest These reasons, M. de la Fayette parts of the kingdom to join in added, did he believe ftill fubfift,
the confederation, emulated the ci- though he saw nothing to make tizens in their ardour and enthu him apprehentive at prefent for
fialm; and the work was completed, the public safety.” The duke arto as both with respect to time rived on the oth of July, and, after and manner to surpriic every spec- first renewing his civic oath in tlic tator.
national assembly, aflisted perfonally The important 14th of July at at the confederation. length arrived. The national guards
Courts of Fustice. New Taxes. Droit d'Aubaine, &c. abolished. Accufa.
tion of the Chatelet against M. M. d'Orleans and Mirabeau. Provincial Disturbances.' Affair of Nancy. Resignation of M. Neckar. Mutiny af Bref. Riot at Paris. Affairs of Avignon. Lje&ment of the non-juring Clergy from tbeir Benefices. League formed by Foreign Powers again France. Troubles at Aix, Lyons, and Brittany. Emigration of the King's Aunts. Armed Men found in the Palace. Decrees relative to the Army, the Regency, &c. Difusion of the Law of Inheritances. Death and Charakter
M. de Mirabeau. Organization of the Ministry. The King stopped as he was going to St. Cloud. Insurrealions in the French Colonies. Flight of Whe King. His Return. Hoftile Preparations on the Frontiers. Martial Law proclaimed at Paris. The new Constitution presented, and accepted by
NONTRARY to general expec- partments; and a high national
tation, the grand confederation court for the trial of crimes againtt was performedwithout tumult or con- the state completed the edifices fufion, and nothing but the weather, One inftitution, however, demands which was damp and unfavourable, our attention, and we believe it is occurred to cloud or to disturb the peculiar to the new jurisprudence of magnificent scene. Though to the France.-Boards of conciliation cye of a philosopher these ceremo- were appointed in every distriết, nies convey little more than the idea where the parties in a suit were to of a great national pantomime, yet in be cited personally, and where the minds of the populace this solem- every means were to be employed to nity stamped an additional legality effect an amicable termination, beon the proceedings of the national fore the cause could be brought to affembly, and strengthened their a hearing before the ordinary courts hands.
of justice. Family arbitrators were The legislature made an advanta- also authorized to terminate petty geous use of the calm which fuc- disputes between near relations, and ceeded the confederation, in com- the formy prescribed in all these cases pleting the organization of the ju. were the simplest that could be indicial department. Judges or juf- vented. We have already remarked tices of the peace were to be elected that the trial by jury was only in each canton, for the determina- adopted in criminal cases : an aristotion of petty differences ; tribunals cratic writer observes on this subject, for the adjudication of more import- with some archness, that "the trial ant causes were established in dif- by jury would also have beer estatricts; and a tribunal of caffation, or blished in civil causes, if there had court of appeal, was appointed for not been too many lawyers in the the whole kingdom, where, under constituting assembly." This is in. certain restrictions, the proceedings deed not the only objection to the of the inferior courts might be re- new jurisprudence of France, since vised. Courts of criminal justice there is much room to doubt whewere established in cach of the de. ther temporary and ele&tive judges will be found effe&ual to the pur- responsible the bank on which it is poses of fubftantial justice. Not- dependent, is always attended with withstanding these defects, however, a temporary inconvenience. It cirche French code is deserving of ad- culates with less facility than fpecie, miration for its fimplicity, its
consist and commonly increases the balance ency for the gratuitous admini. of exchange in favour of foreige Itration of justice ; for the easy access nations. which the poorest fubject, when in- Several decrees of lefser moment, jured, finds to the means of redress ; but which reflcct no less credit on for the discouragement which it the liberality and wisdom of the afholds forth to litigious and vexa- sembly, were passed about this per rious contests: and however the riod. That in particular which reFrench revolution may terminate, stored to the protestants those porn in this part of the constitution sessions of which their ancestors bad other nations may find much worthy been deprived by the revocation of of imitation, and many inftitutions the edict of Nantes, is deserving of for the obvious ease and advantage the highest encomiums; and that of the people.
which abolished for ever all extraor:- With respect to the pecuniary in- dinary taxes levied upon the Jews terests of the republic, it was also de. was at once politic and just. These ereed that the legislative body should were followed by the abolition of amually determine the sum total of the execrable droit d'aubaine, the public expences and contribu- which asiigned to the king the protions; and that, under the dire&tion perty of alt aliens nut naturalized of the king, an administration should who died in France. be eftablished in cach department, In the fate of the unfortunate with an inferior or subordinate one in Favras the tribunal of the Chatelet each district, for the regulation and had evinced themselves not the most collection of the revenue. The po- unexceptionable judges of the comlice of each city or community was petency of evidence. A more fiae committed to magiftrates chosen by grant instance, if possible, of their the citizens.
credulity or their corruption oc: To replace the falt tax, and the curred soon after the confederation. sther odious and oppressive imposts, That tribunal was charged by the which had been abolided, the af- affembly to take cognizance of the sembly, imposed an easy land-tax affair of the 5th and 6th of October. upon immoveable property, and a On the 7th of August they brought poundage upon personal property their report sealed to the bar of the ad annuities; a tax upon paienes, assembly, and in a pompous address and a stamp tax upon contracts and “ lamented the severe task which other writings. These taxes were their duty to their country had imhowever but ill paid; and to remedy poled upon them; and concluded the deficiencies of the revenue, conti. with informing the assembly that Dial emissions of alüynats became ne
two of their own body were among eellary; and even to supply the want the principal criminals." The ale of current coin, which had been sembly heard this denunciation with greatly lesened by the continual horror and confternation; the report emigrations, it was thought proper of the Chatelet was referred to as to issue assignats for the imallelt committee ; and the members against hermanyBut paper credit, however whom it was pointed appeared to be
M. d'Orleans and M. Mirabeau the some magnitude took place among
The soldiers were ferred, that the affair was dropped, frequently ill paid, and yet the most and even the guilty were permitted culpable profufion had been made of to escape.
the money voted for the support of Whatever might have been the the army. Such, by the evidence motives of the Chatelet on this oc- of a party of the national guard of cafion, it is certain that party never Nancy at the bar of the affembly, was more violent in France than was the
state of the garrison in that about the period of which we are city. The officers in general were now treating. The aristocratic bo- inimical to the new conilitution, and dy, who had previously acted chiefly had made use of every temptation to on the defensive, were now become destroy the attachment of the folthe affailants, and no means were diers to the new arrangement. These left untried to plunge the nation into means proving unsuccessful, they had a state of confusion. It must be als adopted the most rigorous discilowed too, that the impatient and pline; they had withheld the pay of irritable temper of the French po- the soldiers, and even condemned pulace was an excellent engine to them to run the gauntlet for dework with ; and the jealouty which manding neceffaries. They had enexisted between the ancient soldiery deavoured to persuade the men, that and the new militia afforded frequent all these acts were in conformity opportunities but too favourable to · with the orders of the national ató. the wishes of the malcontents. Petty sembly, which refused any longer' ta tumults and continual distrust were furnish them with the usual allowexcited in the frontier provinces, in ance of bread, and which was upon different parts of Flanders, Alsace, the point even of depriving them and Lorrain, and a defection of of the augmentation of pay which