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was to follow. At Nimes a number companies of the military, put on the of forks or halberds had been -ma.. white cockade, the fignal of rebel nufactured for the purpose of arm, liont several tunults were excited ing the catholic party; and at the by contests betweeen the different ceremony of his intallation, several parties; and on the 4th of May thie persons of the militia appeared armed devastation and carnage would have with these weapons, contrary to the been universal, has not the regiment express order of the commandant of of Guyenne infifted on the mayor the national guard.

proclaiming the martial lavi, which The following day, one of the once more restored tranquillity, and {erjeants who had in this mapaer order. transgressed the orders of his com- M. Marguerites was cited before manding officer, was reproached the national assembly to answer for with his disobedience. He replied, these disorders; but his defence that he was authorised by the mayor. was ingenious, and the tenderness of A protestant serjeant who happened his colleagues for a member of their : to be present obliged the other to own body prevented the infiiation follow him to that magiftrate, who of punishment. On the 4th of June. denied the fact, and ordered the ca- the discontents and disorders were, tholic ferjeant to be imprisoned for renewed before the gate of the pan. half an hour, Such a sentence was lace, where the electoral body were, considered rather as a triumph than assembled. The rebellious compas as a punishment; and he was no nies who had worn the white coctv sooner released, than with an im- kade would forcihly prevent the mense troop of desperadoes he re, dragoons and the regiment of Guy. paired to the house of the protestant enne from forming the patrols, ferjeant, who was fortunate enough and doing the regular duty of the to escape by a back way. The city... They openly attacked tlac alarm soon spread in almost every unarmed dragoons, fired on the ci-, quarter ; the protestants were every tizens from the windows, and ine wbere attacked, and several of them trenched themselves in a tower ad, grievously wounded.

jacent to the house of M. Froment. The city continued in a fate of After some attempts at a parlega ferment, owing to the desire of the which it is said were broken by the inagiftrates to disarm gradually the firing of the aristocrats, the reginational guard, and inlisting on their ment of Guyenne forced the tower;. taking, besides the usual civic oath, and on both sides about twenty-four a particular oath of obedience and persons were killed. submision to themselves. On the Innumerable jealousies took place 2117 of April twenty companies were between the officers and soldiers of affembled for this purpose, when the the different regiments; and in one general cry was, “. Long live the of these contelts the viscount de king, down with the pation, cut the Mirabean ran off with the colours of throats of the blacks!" so they his regiment, but was pursued, and termed the protestants. In a few obliged to furrender them. In the days after an incendiary libel' was capital the same causes operated to distributed among the regiment of promote disunion and diltruit ; and, Guyenne, entitled, ". Important ad- this, united to the batty and impevice to the French army ;'! the-an tuous spirit of the French nation, ti-patriats in general, and even some was frequently on the point of bom




traying them into the most despe- connexion between the respective rate excesses. An instance of this courts, rendered it probable that à kind occurred on the 19th of May, demand would be made by the latter which is worthy of being recorded. for the stipulated affiftance: on the On that day an unfortunate man was other hand, a war might be fatal ta detected in the act of itcaling a fack the nascent liberties of France; and of gats. Some soldiers of the na- the love of freedom which dignifies tional guard took him immediately the British nation rendered her an under their protection, and were object of veneration with the French conveying him as a prisoner to the patriots, and her increasing power Chatelet ; but the populace, who made her no less an object of ap. were in the habit of indicting fum- prehenfion. On the 14th of May, mary justice, tore him from the fol- M. de Montmorin communicated to diers, and were in the act of beating the national assembly the preparahim to death with their clubs, when tions for war in which the neighthe marquis de la Fayette happened bouring nations were engaged, and to pass by the horrible scene. He the precautions which the king had plunged instantly into the thickest of thought necessary to adopt for the the mob, and in despite of their out. preservation of his dominions. The cries and menaces seized the person discussions into which this commu. who had begun the tumult, and nication led, were as various as the

conducted him with his own hands alarms which it excited: the leffer to the Chatelet. He next delivered objects were, however, all at length the unfortunate criminal from the absorbed by one important quer

fury of the mob; and, exhorting tion-" To whose hands ought the them to disperse and conduct them- nation to delegate thae right of mak. felves like orderly citizens, had the ing war and peace?" happiness to see the tumult entirely Two opposite opinions for a consuppressed, and the people return to siderable period divided the affembly. their houses, full of the praises of -The count Clermont Tonnerre, the man who had fo intrepidly ref- Messrs. de Serent, Virieu, Dupont cued them, from their own phrensy, and others, defended warmly the and prevented them from conta concession of this prerogative to the minating themselves with human king—They frated, "that the conblood.

ftitution originally established two An unexpected event, which oc- diitinct powers, the legislative and curred about the middle of May, ex- the executive. The one was intended cited the attention of the national folely to express the public will; assembly to one of the most im- the other to execute it-That: unportant questions that can agitato a der the latter of these predicaments political society. The dispute which fell the right of directing the public took place between Great Britain force, for the defence or for the ad and Spain, the particulars of which vantage of the nation. That gewe itated in our former volunie, bę neral principles and general laws come extremely embarrasling to the are the objects of legislation ; but

politics of France. The strict alli- that the detail of political action ance which for almost a century had fell entirely within the limits of Sublisted between the nations of executive government. The pro. France and Spain, strengthened by ceedings of popular allemblies; the once inviolable bond of family they added, are neceffarily too. flow


and too public in a business where scarcely be necessary to the act of secrecy and dispatch are commonly declaring war. They proved from required. Minitters too are respon history, that the ruin of moft-nafible to the nation for their conduct; tions had been erfe&ted by the false but to the members of the national glory of their rulers. They ridiassembly no refponfibility whatever culed the imaginary control thatoa is attached : and if ministers are legislature might be thought to poffound to be not free from corruption, fels, after the commencement of experience equally evinces that hoftilities, by withholding fupplies; the members of legislative bodies fince the safety, the exiftence of a are not less exposed to temptation. Atate was committed by the declaEng and, fo: remarkable for its jea- ration of war--and to say we will louiy with respect to its liberties, withhold supplies, is to say we will has delegated to its monarchs this not defend ourfelves. They doubted

formidable prerogative, and has only the eficiency of that responsibility I thought iuncceffary to guard against which was attributed to ministers; babuses by the authority which the and demonftrated that there was no → degishtre retains over the treasures responsibility for incapacity, for mil

of the nation-If, in fine, said these taken opinions, for erroneous fpeadvocates of regal power, we have culations; and that even corruption reak a to dread the folly or the de- and intrigue might not unfrequently Pravity of a monarch, is there no shelter themselves under some of reason to apprehend those rapid these pretences.”—Thefe arguments movements of popular enthusiasm, were enforced by a resolution, pro that falle and national pride, that posed by M. Pethion" that the unfounded and halty resentment, French nation 'renounced for ever which so frequently agitate mixed all idea of conquest, and confined and numerous assemblies?"

itfelf entirely to defensive war;" : Among the orators who appeared which was paffed with universal acon the contrary side of the question, clamations. were Messrs. d'Aiguillon, Garat,jun. From this collision of sentiinent a Freteau, Jellet, Charles Lameth, Sil. third opinion arose, which, while it lery; Pethion, Robertspierre, &c.- contradicted in some measure, served In wishing to contine to the legisla- at the same time to conciliate the tive body the right of making peace others ; and this was, that to the or war, they urged, “ that the only king should be confided the prero proper judges of the expediency of gative of announcing to the affembly war were those who were to feel its the necessity of war or peace, and, af. inconveniences; and not those who ter a folemn deliberation, it should were far removed from all experience be declared " on the part of the king of its erils-- That the entering into of the French in the name of the na2. war could not be considered as a tion.?! This was nearly the opinion mere function of executive govern. which was supported by the count de ment, which consists only in putting Mirabeau; and though much obloquy the existing laws in execution-and wasthrown upon him while the affair that the fecrecy and dispatch, for continued under deliberation, which which the partisans of the royal was 'to the 22d of May, it was at prerogative lo strongly pleaded, were length victorious. , indeed effential to the conduct of On the sith of June the affembly military operations, but could went into mourning for three days on account of the death of Dr. will be preventive of those evils tenFranklin ; and nearly about the same which such an institution would be period the expences of the civil lit bable, where the old forms of eleco. were fettled at twenty-five millions tion are preserved, are experiments per annum, or about 1,250,000 l. which are yet to be tried, and which Iterling; and the dowry of the queen will require the sanction of time to at four millions, or 200,000 L per warrant and confirm. annurn fterling. The civil list of The assembly had scarcely com. France includes ift, the king's per- pleted this arduous talk, before it. fonal expences, and those of the ventured upon a measure wbich has queen; the education of the royal drawn upon them the censure and children, and a provision for the indignation of all Europe-a meaother branches of the royal family: sure, which was the firit to awake 2d, the buildings; the garde meuble, that malignant jealousy with which &c. of the crown : 3d, the royal mi. the privileged orders and their delitary establishment, viz. the body. pendants in every civilized country guarda, &c. However liberal this have fince continued to view the allowance may at first fight appear, French revolution; and which is the .. if we recollect the immense domains principal theme of those who cene. which the reigning family brought sure the conduct and reprobate the to the nation, it will perhaps not principles of the patriots. Early in. appear enormous: beside that, what- the month of June, the mayor of: ever the parsimonious fpirit of re- Paris had communicated to the af. publicanitin may allege, it is always sembly a plan for the celebration of found policy to attach by the strong- a grand confederation, in which the eft interefts the head of the state to representatives of the nation, the the support of the constitution. A king, the soldiery, and all who were: million a year is too little to bribe in ostensible situations, should fox: fo'numerous a representation, bien- lemnly and in the face of the whole. nially elected, as that of France; nation renew their oaths of fidelity) and yet it is such as will enable the to the new constitution; and this: monarch to live in a state becoming confederation was decreed to taker the chief magiftrate of a great na place on the 14th of July, in honour tion.

of the taking of the Baitille, and of. These measures were followed on the first establishment of Gallic lithe 14th and the succeeding days berty. On the 19th of June, there by a series of decrees relative to the fore, after decreeing civic honours civil conftitution of the clergy. In to the conquerors of the Bastille, the these, the injustice which we must patriotic feelings of the assembly confess had been done to that body were raised to a high pitch of enof men was in fome degree compen- thusiasm, by a deputation of fafated, by the wife regulations which reigners from every nation, who came. prevented the extreme poverty of to testify their respe&t for the next. the inferior orders, and which re. conttitution in a warm panegyric, Atrained within moderate bound the and to request a seat at the ensuing income of the higher clergy. But folemnity. They were answered by whether they have acted wisely in the prefident with dignity, and dileftablishing an elective priesthood, miffed with refpect; and they had or whether the improved mode of no sooner retired, than M. Alex. election wlajelt-ig adopted in France andre Lameth moved that the for



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reigners, and particularly the Ger- tinguished themselves in this debate, mans, who might resort to Paris to but none more than the viscount de be spectators of the approaching ce. Noailles. “ Titles," said this noble remony, might not be insulted by man, “ in this enlightened age can the representation of their ancestors, only confer honour where there is, whom the vanity of Louis XIV. had nothing internally to respect. We caused to be exhibited in chains at do not speak of duke Fox, count the feet of his statue. The deputies Walhington, the marquis Franklin, of some of the provinces, which were but of Charles Fox, George Walhrepresented in this ignominious ftu- ington, Benjamin Franklin. Permit ation, rose with indignation to de. me to add," said he, "to so many mand that these monuments of regal excellent motions, one, the object of infolence should be effaced; and ano, which is to rescue from disgrace a ther member propofed, that all the part of our fellow-citizens. Livefalse and panegyrical emblems which ries, as a portion of the feudal sysdecorated the statues of the kings tem, ought to be abolithed." To should be removed, and replaced by these motions was added another a representation of the best action from M. de Montmorency, for the of each of the monarchs.

fuppreslion of armorial bearings , At this moment M. Lambel, a and the whole of them was moulded diftinguished advocate and deputy into a decree by M. Chapelier, and for Villefranche, taking advantage passed. of the general enthufiafm, exclaimed, These decrees, which have been that “ he trusted he now saw the so much extolled by one party, and last moment of expiring vanity, and so much decried by the other, were proposed the abolition of titles.” in themselves really deserving neiMessrs. Prefelne and la Fayette ther of much censure nor of much mounted the tribune at the same praise; they were neither a subject instant; and the former read the of exultation for France, nor of imioutlines of a decree to that effect, tation for other countries differently. which he said he had prepared two situated. The inconlittency of mana months before. M. Foucault op- kind is never so decilively evinced as pofed the motion"Wha!,” said when vanity is the ruling passion. be, “would you deprive nan of the The princes and the nobility of Eumost powerful and the most noble rope had beheld with indifference motive of emulation ?-What would the plunder of the Gallican church; you do, for inilance, with the man they had seen without alarm the whom Henry II. honoured with a virtual annihilation of nobility by brevet, which recited that he was the union of the three estates in one created a count for having saved the house, and by the suppresfion of the ftate ?"-" I would omit,” faid M. feudal privileges :--but when the un. la Fayette,“ the words created a meaning titles, titles without func. Bount, and insert only that he had tion, titles without privilege, titles faved the state.” M. de St. Far- often without property, moitly with: geau observed, that the decree-in out legal claim, and frequently dequestion would not impose any hard. based and degraded, came to be fup. thip upon him, since he was pofleffed presled, then, and not till then, the of leveral counties and marquisates, the torm of noble and of regal indigna. titles of which he had never em, nation was at once excited, and the ployed. Many other members dif- alarm-bell was founded agawit the

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