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the famine, was in some degree re- to the king, the most inviolable obes alised. The abundance and profu- dience to the national assembly, and fion which always accompany a a fincere paternal regard to all the court, procured some relief to the municipalities of the kingdom.” indigent; and the consciousness of Though this address might prothe supply that would be necessary, bably diminish the fears of a part of ferved to replenish the impoverished the assembly, and certainly haftened markets.

their removal ; yet the apprehenThe aristocratic party, connected fions of the aristocratic part of that with the court, were the only per. body, on the eve of their departure, sons who manifested any degree of are scarcely to be imagined. Numregret. The presence of the king berless pallports were folicited on in Paris gave a fatal blow to their various excuses; and among these hopes and designs; and they had in fome deferters from the popular reality some cause to be apprehen- cause were observed with regret. five of the fury of the populace, M. Mounier, despairing of meeting, Thould any incident happen to ex

in Paris a full toleration of his pocite their ardent and fanguinary re- litical opinions, retired into Daufentment.

phiné to search for auxiliaries to fupIn the affembly itself, notwith- port the absolute veto of his proftanding the vote which declared the jected fenate and of the king. national assembly to be inseparable Count Lally Tolendal, equally bifrom the person of the monarch, goted to the visionary balance of fome objections were strongly in- powers in the constitution, retired listed on against the projected remo- also in disgust. Many of the high val. It was faid, that the deputies aristocratic members took refuge in would no longer be the legislators of foreign countries, where they apthe nation ; they must obey the ar- plied themselves indefatigably to the bitrary mandates of the populace, laudable purpose of exciting war and even the freedom of debate against their country. To prevent would be annihilated. To remove however as much as possible fimitheir scruples, a letter was directed lar emigrations, the national assemto them by the king, inviting them bly decreed, " that passports to the to resume their fellion in the me- members should be only granted for tropolis ; and this was powerfully a short and limited periud; and that feconded by a deputation from the as to unlimited passports on account citizens of Paris. — By the mouth of of ill health, they should not be their speaker, M. Briffot, the citi- granted till substitutes were elected;

professed their joy at the that in future all fubstitutes should expected removal of the representa- be elected by the citizens at large, tive body; they pledged themselves or by their representatives, without by a folemn oath to protect the per- any regard to orders; and that fons of the deputies, and the free- eight days after the firit session at dom of debate ; they intimated Paris, a call of the house should be that they had forwarded an address instituted.” to all the provinces and communities A proclamation ascertaining the of France to satisfy them relative rights of citizens was next decreed; to the late proceedings, to assure the power of originating laws was them that the commune of Paris was exclusively confined to the assemactuated by the most perfect loyalty bly; and the executive power was

prohibited

zens

prohibited the liberty of creating to the union of order and good goor suppressing posts or offices with vernment with the blessings of liout an act of the legislature. The berty, undertook to perfuade the power of laying taxes was also velted duke to withdraw himself from the exclusively in the representatives of public for a short time at least. He the people; the responsibility of was invested with fome public comministers was established; and the mission, rather nominal than real, pernicious phraseology in the pro- and solicited_from the assembly a clamations and other acts of the passport for England. The count king, " such is our pleasure,&c, de Mirabeau, and some other of the was abolished. The title of the more intimate friends of the duke, king was changed from the king opposed strenuously his retiring, as of France” to that of “ king of the more likely to give credit to the Trench,” as more expresive of the calumnies which were fabricated office, which is a king or ruler of against him than to disprove them; men, and not of the soil or territory. but he chose to facrifice his private Some difficulty arose respecting interest to what the known friends the title of king of Navarre ; for of the people considered as the pubthat petty state, considering itself lic good. At Boulogne his highrather as the ally than as a part of ness was stopped by the municipathe empire, had not sent represen- lity, notwithstanding his passport, tatives to the national assembly. and detained till set free by a subfeThe deputies of the great provinces, quent order of the assembly. howevever, strenuously opposed this On the 19th of October the retitle, and asserted that the king presentatives of the French nation might as well be styled count of Pro- held their first seslion at Paris. A vence, duke of Brittany, king of deputation from the commune waitCorsica, as king of Navarre : it was ed on them immediately with the therefore agreed to expunge the title. congratulations of the city, at the

Tranquillity however was by no head of which were M. Bailly the means perfectly restored, and to re- mayor, and the marquis de la peat the vague and idle reports that Fayette. After the answer of the every day were spread, to the alarm president, which was interrupted of the citizens, would require vo- by peals of applause, the count de lumes: for several nights the houses Mirabeau embraced the opportunity of individuals were marked with to press a vote of thanks for their chalk, and the colours, it was faid, essential services to the nation, and denoted whether they were to be “ thus (he faid) to signalize their plundered, burnt, or the inhabitants first feffion in the metropolis, by a murdered. In this state of suspie public act of justice, which was calcion and ferment, the most injurious culated to confirm the authority of Teports were spread to the disad- the civil powers, and to repress the vantage even of the most distin: false zeal of imprudent friends, as guished friends of liberty : among well as the malignant designs of the others, the duke d'Orleans was ca. enemies of freedom." The vote lumniated as harbouring criminal of thanks was decreed amidst the designs upon the crown, or the re- loudest acclamations, and the fellion gency at least. The marquis de la of that day concluded, contrary to Fayette, who was always forward general expectation, without the in every thing that might contribute Imallett disturbance.

Neither

1- Neither this act of respect to- fury, on their deliverance from defwards the magistracy of the city, potism, might seem excusable ; but however, nor the departure of the the populace of Paris had now duke d'Orleans, could entirely pre- reached the summit of licentiousness vent the horrors of maffacre and in- and injustice. They had erected surrection ; and the allembly had themselves into a power superior to scarcely been eltablished two days the magiftrates; and unless some de. at Paris, before a moft atrocious cisive measure was taken, there was murder, committed almost in its danger that the representative body very prefence, obliged them to itself would no longer be able to adopt a stronger measure to pre maintain its authority. An act was rent civil outrage and bloodshed: immediately pafTed for the preven, On the 21st of October an unfor- tion and the dispersion of riots, tunate baker, of the name of Fran. whichi authorised the magistrates, on cois, who refided in the street any number of persons assembling, Marché Palu, close to the Archeveché, to call in the aid of the military, where the 'assembly at that pe- and to proclaim martial law, Ared riod was convened, was singled out flag was to be displayed from the as the victim of popular phrensy, principal window of the town. After having served out his usual house; and from that moment all quantity of bread in the morning, allemblies of the populace, with or he found his door fill besieged by without arms, were to be confi. feveral persons who had not yet dered as criminal

. Should the mob been able to obtain a supply. refuse

fupply: refufe to disperse on being required Among thefe was a woman, who is by the magiflrates, the military were faid to have borne a particular en- then to act on the offensive; those mity against the unfortunate baker, who escaped might be arrested; and and who inffted on fiarching the if unarmed, and they had been house for bread. On entering, the guilty of no act of violence, they found three loaves which the jour- were to be imprisoned for one year neymen had referved for their own if found in arms, they were declared afe ; and snatching up one of them liable to three years imprisonment; in her hand, the raised the injurious and if they had committed any vio outcry, that François had reserved lence, were judged guilty of a capy a part of the provision which ought tal offence." To give effect and vi, to have been distributed for the gour to this law, the committee of ase of the poor, and that he was a refearch was ordered to make all monopolist and a moniter. The mecellary enquiries into treasonable complaint was no sooner made pub- offences ; and the constitutional lic than an immense mob was cola commitice to form a plan as foon as lected; the baker was dragged for- possible of a tribunal for the trial cibly to the Grève; and there, not- of all crimes of læe-nation ;, and in withitanding all the efforts of the the mean time this power was for mumicipality in his favour, he was the present velted in the court of hanged.

the Chatelet. So outrageous a defiance of au: These efforts of the assembly thority, fo complete a subverfion of were vigorously, seconded by the law and justice, could not escape the municipality. The murderer of pointeef notice of the legislature:- François was arrested on the very The first movements of popular day on which he commitied the

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crime ;

crime ; and on the following day provisions incurred a fimilar danger was executed, with another unfortu- with M. Planter. A detachment, nate person who was also convicted however, of the national guard from of exciting sedition. The king Brest soon restored order and tranand queen sympathised in the diftreis quillity, and obliged the inhabitants of the unfortunate widow of Fran- of Lanion to make fatisfaction for çois : by the hands of the duke de the

outrages they had committed. Liancourt they ' fent her 2000 The next important object which crowns ; the commune also sent a occupied the attention of the ledeputation with a present to her; gislative body, was to reform and his remains were decently interred organize the representation of the at the public expence ; and the kingdom. A plan was proposed by king and queen undertook to be the abbé Sieyes, in whích the procome the sponsors at the baptism foundeft policy was united with of the child with which his widow the fairest and most equitable prinwas pregnant at the time of his ciples. The ancient division of death.

the kingdom into provinces, each The same disposition to violence, possessing what it termed its pecu. the same proneness to fuspicion, that liar rights, each governed by pecu. appeared in the capital, was no less liar laws, and each forming in itself active in the provinces. At Alen- a little kingdom, with its own parçon, the viscount Caraman, who had liament, its own metropolis, its own been sent thither by marshal Con- jurisdiction, was found to be protades with a detachment of horse, ductive of a rivalship and jealousy, was on the point of being destroyed which nothing but the strong arm of by the populace, on a most impro- despotism could coerce. In the báble rumour that he was inimical present glow of patriotism, the preto the revolution. And at Vernon, fent transport of liberty, the minds a M. Planter, deputy of the com- of men were disposed to facrifices mune at Paris, who had been sent and renunciations; but there was by the magiftrates to purchase corn, the utmost reason to apprehend, was seized by the mob, and, after a that should this auspicious crisis not mock trial, the fatal cord was twice be improved, should the generous fixed round his neck ; when Mr. feelings of the moment be suffered Nelham, a young Englishman who to sublide, those petty local prejuhappened to be in the town, opposed dices which weaken and disjoint a himself fingly to the violence of the state would again revive; and as populace, and rescued from instant every government which approaches death a respectable member of so- the republican form is naturally ciety. For this noble act of courage weaker than that which partakes of and humanity, Mr. Nesham was absolute monarchy, they could only honoured with the first civic crown revive to distract, and perhaps dila which was ever decreed in France; member, the empire. Besides the and was presented by the magiftrates radical divifion into provinces, the of Paris with a sword, on which was kingdom was alfo divided fantasticalengraven the honourableteftimony of ly and irregularly upon other prinhaving saved the life of a French ci- ciples. It was divided into govern. tizen. At Lanion, a town in Brittany, ments, agreeably to the military or allo, fome gentle men who had been der; into generalities, according sent from Breft 'fir the purchase of to the order of administration ; into 1791.

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dioceses, diocefes, according to the ecclefiafti- tributed to dire&t contribution, and çal order; and also subdivided in each department is to nominate rethe judicial order into bailiwicks, presentatives in proportion to the seneschals, &c. The divisions and contribution which it pays to the subdivisions were all without regum state. The functions of the elective larity, conformity, or proportion; assemblies were limited entirely to neither adapted to population nor the right of election. The admini territory. A new arrangement was Atrative body was to be elected by the therefore not only effential to an electoral afsemblies; and in each des equal representation of the people, partment was conftituted a superior but to the uniformity of govern- board of administration ; in each ment, and the security and perma, district, an inferior or fubordinate Bence of the constitution.

administration; and to these were Three principles were attended to committed the superintendance of in forming the new representative the collection of the revenue, and fyftem : territory, population, and all the details of interior adminiftrataxation ; and it was supposed that, tion.” by the combination of these three On this great and alte system of clementary principles, they would interior policy we have only to referve mutually to correct each other. mark, thatthedivilion of the kingdom

According to the new scheme of into parts too small to act offenlively the representation, therefore," the in a separate state, was, for the rea whole kingdom was divided into sons which we have already assigned 83 larger lections, which are called a measure fraught with wisdom, and. departments, and each of which favourable to liberty. The preserv. comprehends a space of about 324 ing diftinct the electoral and admid {quare leagues"; each department nistrative powers was equally judiwas divided into districts, the num- cious. The mode of electing by ber of which were not to be less primary and secondary assemblies chan 3, nor more than 9; each dis- was assuredly the only adequate tri&t was again subdivided into can

means of obviating the fatal effects. tons of 4 square leagues in extent. of faction and venality. As to the Three degrees were preserved in basis on which the representation is the administrative assenıblies; but formed, many doubts will be enteronly two in the elective. The first tained by politicians concerning its were the assemblies of the canton, expediency: the adjusting of it to which were called primary,and which three principles is certainly a comchoose the electors for the depart, plex mode of proceeding ; nor will. ment; the second were the elec; it be easy to afügn a reason why it toral assemblies, which return the res should not have been instituted on presentatives to the national assem- the simple and obvious principle of bly. The whole number of repre population alone. sentatives was to be 745 ; of which After all that had been performed 247 are attached to the territory, by the assembly, the utter derangeand of which each department no. ment of the finances, and actual deminates 3, except that of Paris, ficiency of means to supply the exis which nominates only one.--249 are gencies of the nation, threatened attributed to population, each de loudly the destruction of the itate. partment nominating in proportion In this difficult and hazardous prein its population ; and 249 are atdicament, the popular party resolved

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