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to the solemn declaration of the re. tuents, several of the patriotic memspective contributors. The assembly bers proposed, that the king fhould were terrified at the boldness of the be requested to accept that part of project ; but the count de Mira. the constitution which was already beau, who posibly repented the determined, previous to presenting fhare he had taken in defeating the him with the decree concerning former project of the miniiter, now this extraordinary impoft. M. Micxerted the full force of his irre- rabeau, happily combining the diffiftible talents in his favour. “ He ferent views upon this subject, proproved that the exigencies of the posed to make the first part of M. itate required an immediate supply; Neekar's plan the preamble to the and that it was impoflible to substi- decree, in order that the prospect tate a new scheme of finance in the of relief might be as conspicuous asplace of that proposed by M. the demand. His plan was thereNeckar, or even to examine that fore adopted, notwithstanding the which he had submitted to them; clamours of opposition; and the desince to go through the very figures cree, along with the declaration of which the statement contained would rights, was in this state presented to require a period of not less than the king. three entire months. He urged the The events which follow, are by necessity of confidence in such a the candid of all parties allowed to conjuncture ; a confidence which be enveloped in an almoft impenehe observed the former conduct of trable cloud of mystery. The de the minister entirely warranted ; and mocratic writers affert, that a plot which ought now to be accorded was concerted of immense extent to him, even though his plan might for the totał ruin of the liberties of not be the best that human inge- France ; the principal articles of nuity could devise, because there which were-That the king was was no other before them which to be transported voluntarily, or ina they could adopt." The assembly voluntarily, to Metz ; where the upon these reasons accepted the plan royal standard was to be erected ; of M. Neckar; and on the rit of where all the ancient instruments October he presented it in its perfect of despotism, the ministers, generals, form, and with it his own contri- and parliaments, were to be aflembution, which amounted to 100,000 bled, and to iffue manifestoes livres.
against the representatives of the · Though the scheme however was nation—That a subscription was acaccepted in the general, the execu-' tually opened, by those who termed tion of it in detail appeared to be theniselves the king's party, for the attended with some difficulties ; the express purpose of carrying on a principal of which was, that all the civil war--That both the capital and cahier's or instructions had prohibited Versailles were once more to be iuthe imposing of any taxes till the vested with a powerful army-and constitution should be established. that the national assembly was to be In this case, however, the necessities forcibly diffolved. These affertions of the Itate rendered a strict com- undoubtedly receive some countepliance with the instructions impof- nance from the fragment of a lible; but as a pledge to the public letter from the count d'Estaing that the asembly were not inat- to the qacen,“ in which he menteative to the will of their confti- tions such rumours having reached
his ears, and in which he earnestly too, that the more ardent of the padiffuades her from becoming a party triotic party might entertain fufpiin so rash a measure.” The court cions, that the sovereign might one party, on the other hand, throw the day effect an escape from the unblame upon their adversaries, and guarded palace of Versailles to put affirm that the whole was a precon- himself into the hands of their enecerted plan of the popular leaders mies, and might fecretly wish to see to foree the king and the assembly him lodged in the centre of a city to reside within the walls of Paris. devoted to their interests, and from
All however that is known with which there was but little probacertainty respecting the circumstan- bility of retreat. ces which conduced to the commo- An incident which occurred at tion at Versailles is, that the minds Versailles (which stamps the conof the two great parties which had duct of the court with at least the already begun to assume the factious ftigma of imprudence, and which epithets of democratic and aristocratic, evinced that they were not without were at this period inflamed to a hopes that, as the revolution was moit extravagant pitch of resent- chiefly effected by the change which ment, and disposed to suspect each was produced in the minds of the other of the most atrocious deligns; soldiery, a similar change might opethat the declaration of rights and rate in their favour) contributed to the first articles of the constitution blow the glowing embers into an had remained for some days in the open flame. The count d'Estaing, hand of the king, who had delayed who commanded the national guard to give them the expected fanction; of Verfailles, either influenced by the that the clainours of the aristocratic court, or jealous of the inclination party were louder than ever ; that which the French guards had maevery mode was essayed to work nifested to partake in the honour of upon the compassion and the loyalty guarding their monarch, requested of the nation; that the king was re- an additional regiment to altit kim presented as dethroned, and reduced in preserving tranquillity and order to the most abject state of slavery; at the palace; and the regiment of and that some of the dependants of Flanders dragoons was accordingly the court, in the plenitude of their ordered for this dirvice. On the zeal, were heard to boast “ that a ift of October an entertainment few days would restore affairs to (the first that was ever given in pub. their ancient footing, and that the lic at Versailles by that body) was king and his minifters would resume given by the gardes-du-corps, or their power.” It is well known on king's body guard, to the officers of the other hand, that the old French the regiment of Flanders; and to guards, who compofed, as we have augment the unpopularity of the already seen, the centre company in circumstance, it was given in the each battalion of the city militia, royal saloon. Several of the oiliand who had been accustomed to cers of the national guard, with the honour of guarding the king's others of the military, were invited. person, saw with a molt jealous eye At the second course, four toails that important trust committed to were given : “ The king, the queen, the body guard and the militia of the dauphin, and the royal family.” Varsailles. It is not improbable “ The nation” was propofed, but,
according to a number of witnesses, bad a quality, that the populace, expressly reje&ed by the gardes-du- always mistruftful and fufpicious, corps.
were not without their alarms of a The king was just returned from criminal design upon the lives, or at hunting; and the queen, having been least the health, of the inhabitants. informed of the gaiety of the Scene, Such was the Itate of things when persuaded his majesty to accompany the news arrived of the fatal banquet her with the heir apparent to the at Versailles. The circumftances faloon, which was now filled with which we have related were strangeLoldiers-the grenadiers of Flanders ly magnified; and all the fufpicions and the Swiss chaffeurs having been which were entertained respecting admitted to the dessert. The queen the design of diffolving the assembly, appeared with the dauphin in her and carrying off the fovereign, were arms, affectionate as she was lovely, added in exaggeration. At the and carried the royal infant through same time the mutual resentment of the saloon, amidit the acclamations the contending parties hourly aug. and murmurs of the spectators. Fired mented; and the imprudent conduct with enthusiasm the soldiers drank of the minority exposed them to the health of the king, the queen, every insult, White and black and the dauphin, with their swords cockades were worn as signals of drawn ; and the royal guests bowed defiance. They were torn out of respectfully and retired.
the hats of the wearers by the mob; The entertainment, which had but such was the enthusiasm of one hitherto been conducted with some of these votaries of party, that he is degree of order, now became a scene said to have picked up from the of entire confusion. Nothing was ground this relic of loyalty, to have omitted to inflame the passions of killed it respectfully, and attempted the military. The music played the to replace it in his hat. Every meafavourite air—“O Richard, O my sure that could be taken by the king, the world abandons thee;" tnree hundred directors of the muthe ladies of the court distributed nicipality to prevent the spreading white cockades, the anti-patriot en- of the insurrection was taken-in fign; and even some of the national vain! Early on the morning of guard, it is said, had the weaknefs the memorable 5th of October, a to accept them. In the height of this woman fallied out from the quarter political banquet, it is allirmed, and of St. Euftacia, and entering the there is indeed little cause to doubt corps-de-garde, and seizing a drum, it, that many expressions of marked paraded the adjacent ftreets beating disrespect towards the allembly and an alarm, and exciting the people by the nation escaped from the officers clamours respecting the scarcity of of the gardes-du-corps, and others bread. She was soon joined by of the military: this however might a very numerous mob, chiefly of easily have happened in such cir- women, and repaired immediately cumstances, without the least of pre- to the Hôtel de Ville. A few of meditation or evil defign.
the committee of the commune were During these transactions the city assembled ; and M. Gouvion, at the of Paris was amicted with all the head of the national guard, endeaevils of famine. Either no bread voured to prevent their entrance ; was to be obtained, or bread of so but the foldiers, swayed either by
gallantry gallantry or humanity, gave way, dezvous their numbers amounted to and permitted them to pass. Some, upwards of eight thousand ; and who by their air and manner ap- their first measure was to surround peared of a fuperior class, entered their chief, and to infilt upon his with good humour into conversation leading them to the arsenal to equip with the committee, and pleaded themselves completely with arms. eloquently the cause of their com- Fortunately he had authority enough panions, who under various circum- to make himself heard, and to confiances of misery came to ask for vince them that the arms had been relief. But the greater number, removed from the arsenal; and he both by their appearance and their bad even sufficient address to enconduct, shewed that they were col- gage them to lay aside the wealected from the loweit rank of indi- pons with which they had provided gence and depravity. With horrid themselves, by representing to them, imprecations they demanded bread thật since their object was to suppliand arms; they exclaimed with vio- cate the assembly for justice and for lence against the pusillanimity of the bread, they would operate more men, and threatened the lives of the forcibly on the compassion of that whole committee, and particularly body, by appearing as distressed peof M. Bailly and the marquis de la titioners, than with arms in their Fayette. Others penetrated the ma- hands. They departed for Vergazine of arms; and a third troop af- failles about noon, preceded by a cended the belfry, where they at- company of armed men, and guarded tempted to strangle the abbé Le in the rear by the volunteers of the fevre. In one of the halls two furies Baltille, whom Maillard had preendeavoured to set fire to the public pared for that purpose. papers, but were happily prevented Unfortunately the fanaticism of by Stanislaus Maillard, who had ren- the moment was communicated to dered himself fo famous at the tak- the grenadiers. They not only deing of the Bastille.
clared, “that they could not turn This young patriot, finding all their bayonets against the poor woendeavours to resist the fury of the men who came to ask for bread, but mob in vain, employed a new strata- intimated aninclination themselves to gem to preserve his country. He proceed to Versailles.” Their spokefapplied to the commanding officer man declaimed loudly againit the for his authority; and having ob- committee of subsistence, against tained it, he proceeded down the thegardes-du-corps--and concluded, fairs of the Hôtel de Ville, which “ that the people were miserable, were filled with women, and seizing and the source of the evil was at a drum, which lay at the door, he Versailles ; that they must go and offered to put himself at the head find out the king, and bring him to of the insurgents, the universal cla- Paris.” While the marquis de la mour of whom was to proceed to Fayette reasoned, infilted, threatVersailles. By a unanimous shout of ened, the tumult increased from all applause Maillard was chosen cap. quarters ; an immenfe crowd armed tain of this turbulent troop; and by with sticks, pikes, guns, &c. ruthed his authority the assembly was ad- from the fuburbs; and though the journed to the Champs Elisées. national guard appeared not in the When arrived at this general ren- molt tractable difpofition, the mayor and municipality probably conceived to the nation and the national cockit the only means of preventing mis- ade were pointedly mentioned, as chief at Versailles, to permit their well as the menaces of the soldiery. departure with their commander at A motion was at length made, that their head. The marquis therefore the guilty persons on that occasion received an order to depart for Ver. should be delivered up to the rigour sailles, and it was most cheerfully of the law, and that the accusations obeyed by the national guard. which had been now infinuated
The representatives of the nation, should be formed into a criminal totally unconscious of what was pafs- process. At these words the count ing in Paris, were assembled on the de Mirabeau rose. “I begin,” said 5th, in expectation of receiving back he, “ by declaring that I confider the constitutional articles sanctioned the motion as supremely impolitic; by the king. M. Mounier was then nevertheless, if it is persisted in, I am president. The sitting opened with ready to produce the details, and to reading a letter from the king, in sign them with my own hand. But which he pleaded “the difficulty of this affembly must first declare that judging partially of the constitution; the person of the king alone is sacred, adding, however, that in the confi- and that all other individuals
, whiatdence that the new articles were ever their Itation, are equally subcalculated to establish the happiness jects, and responsible to the laws." and prosperity of the kingdom, he The prudence of the president and accepted them; but with one positive the assembly prevailed over the raihcondition, that from the spirit of ness of both parties. The motion the whole system the executive pow. was withdrawn; and it was decreed, er should have its entire effect in the that the president should wait on hands of the monarch. He con- the king to request a simple acceptcluded with observing, that though ance of the constitutional articles. these constitutional articles did not The assembly was frequently a. all indiscriminately present him larmed, during the course of this with the idea of perfection, yet he discussion, by repeated intelligence thought it proper to pay this re- that all Paris was advancing to Verspect to the with of the assembly, sailles. Maillard conducted his tuland to the alarning circumstances multuous troop with uncommon adwhich so strongly preifed him to de- dress. When he came within fight of Gre the recitablishment of peace, Verfailles he arranged them in three order, and confidence.”
ranks; and advertised them, that This letter by no means proved as they were entering a place where acceptable to the allembly; the pa- they were not expected, they must triotic members marked in Itrong be careful, by the cheerfulness of terms their disapprobation of this their appearance and the regularity provisional assent, which only seem- of their conduct, to excite no alarms ed to be given in consequence of the in the inhabitants. When arrived alarming circumstances of the na- at the gate of the national assembly, tion. In the course of the debate Maillard undertook to speak for many allusions were made to the them, that he might prevent their indecent festival of the military speaking for themselves. He enwhich disgraced Versailles on the tered attended by fifteen of the wo. preceding weck. The insults offered men, and persuaded the rest to wait