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and unpopular into which the Belgic, trymen as might have suffered in the congreis was 'not impelled by his general destruction of monaftic oradvice and authority, and those of ders in France, they fequeftered Van Eyren. The Vonkilts, or pa-, themselves the estates of the French triotic committee (fo called from monks in the Belgic provinces; and the name of their president:Vonk), thus to punish this heretical nation were coery where persecuted. The for what they had done, they exactly dungeons were crowded with fate did what the French themselves prisoners. The most fanguinary and would have done, had they been in fevere code of military laws that poffeffion of the Supreme authority perhaps ever was invented, was in Brabant, enacted for the regulation of the ar- · Baron Schoenfeld, a Prussian, fucmies. If a soldier was heard to mur- ceeded Van der Mersch in the commur, he was put in irons, and chal- mand, and in the outlet of his career tised with the flat side of a sabre, ad evinècd himself a fit minister of the libitum. If he threatened his officer, decrees of congress. In one day he was fhot dead on the spot, with.. he hanged thirty soldiers who had out form or process. It was deatk deserted their post. Without form for a soldier to defert his post, to lose or ceremony he broke all the officers his arms, or fly from the enemy; who were obnoxious to him; M. and even if he were to absent him- Lochée, colonel of the Belgic legion, felf from his company for

fo was obliged to resign, and many short a time without a pass, he was other foreign officers of great'merit considered as a deserter, and inevi. quitted the service, Still the contably punished with death. To com-, grefs determined to relift ; and fuch. plete the impolicy and absurdity of was the detestation of the Auftrian their proceedings, the duke d'Ursely yoke, that, amidt all thefe discou-* the viscount de Walkiers, and several ragements, the majority both of folof the first nobility were arrested as diers and of the people continued to traitors. The victorious general Van second them in all their operations, der Mersch was put under arrelt, and and the war was still carried on'with committed to the castle of Anvers, various fuccess. The weight how: upon charges which in themselves ever of power and of discipline was were frivolous, though it must be at length felt in several unsuccessful confessed that there is some reason encounters with the Auftrians; and, to believe that this commander had as an expiring effort, the peafantry devoted himself to the views of of Brabant and Flanders was embos Austria.

died; and M. Van der Noot, who apA fact of a lefs important natyre pears to have been more deficient in will serve perhaps still better to-thew conduct than either in principle or the weakness and inconfiitency of; in courage, determined to put him; this adminiftration, When the nar self at their head. On the 2 3d of tional assembly of France fequeftered: September 1990, this undiseiplined ihe estates of the monasteries, the multitude, to the amount of 60,000 Belgic eongress which was com i nen, entered the province of Limposed of monks, or of men devoted burgh, which the Austrians Irad re, . to that order, beheld the facrilegot covered by a series of little advanwith horror and refentment and tages. On their approach, the to evinge their sifapprobation, and Auftrians, to the amount of about Lo retaliate for such of their coun, 15,000, appeared to retreat before:

them.

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them. But it was a fatal ftratagem the 13th of November, when M.
to the Belgic peasants. In their Van Euren entered the hall of con-
pursuit of the fiying enemy, they gress with a large crucifix. in his
fuffered themselves to be allured into hand, which with much folemnity
a parrow pals between Huy and he depofited on a velvet cushion,
Liege, where numbers or even van and took a sacred oath, never to
lour itself could no longer avail. agree to any proposal of accommo-
There the Austrians fell upon the dation with the tyrant Leopold,
with all the advantages of generals He was followed by M. Van der
fhip and of discipline, and the un, Nontbut, to their unspeakable lur:
fortunate Van der Noot saw his army prifc, by no other member of the
completely fouted. The fugitives congress. The representatives of
were pursued even to the gates of Hainault, of Flanders, of Tournay,
Liege, where the inhabitants. fut and Malines, declared even
their gates against them, and re they were instructed by their cons
fused them an asylum. The Aula tituents to treat with the emperor.
trian laurels were Itained with blood. The feflion concluded with the mis,
Immense multitudes were massacred fion of four members, one from each
while crying out for quarter, and a of those provinces, to negociate an
number were hanged on the spot as accommodation through the mini-
rebels, among whom were thirty Cat Aters of the mediating powers. In
puchins, and eighty fecular clergy, the mean time the Austrians ad,
The loss of the Flemish in this action yanced with a body of 43,000 chosen
was estimated at from seven to ten troops s on the 24th of November
thousand.

Namur surrendered, and Brussels on
To complete the misfortunes of the ad of December. These events
the Belgic insurgents, they found were followed by the fight of
themselves abandoned by the powers Meffrs, Van der Noot and Van Ey.
under whole expected protection and ren, and the baron Schoenfeld. Go
support they had first revolted. The neral Van der Mersch was set at lin
politics of courts are always felfth; berty, and soon after reinstated in all
and the moral principles or fenti his honours and pofleflions by the
ments which govern the conduct of Austrians, The cities and towns
individuals, in their mutual intern of Flanders and Brabant successively
course, are seldom found to mix in opened their gates to the conquera
the negociations of ilates. The new ors; and, at the commercement of
arrangements which had taken place the year 1791, Leopold had the fas
between the king of Prussia and the tisfaction to see himself completely
emperor, defeated every hope of mailer of the Austrian Netherlands,
succour from that quarter ; and even On the ait of January, Te Deum
in a congress which was held at the was sung at Brussels in celebration
Hague between the ministers of Pruty of their reduction under the domi.
fia, Eugland, Holland, and Auftria, nion of Austria ; and on ihe Sth
they were given to understand, that the inhabitants of the Belgiepro-
all which the mediating powers vinces fent an address to the emperor,
could guarantee was, the restoration expreflive of their obedience and
of the Belgic constitutions as under devotion to his authority.
the adminiftration of the late em- Several other circumilances con.
press queen Maria Theresa. curred to render Leopold delicous of
Such was the date of things on peace. The kingdom of Hungary,

though

though not in a fate of actual re- alterations with the most passive fpibellion, had yet manifested fome un- rit. His tyrannical regulations con pleasant symptoms of disquietude cerning the interment of the dead in and diffatisfaction. Wearied and particular were adopted with horaxhausted by the quixotism of Joror, and fome ferious riots had been feph, the Hungarians complained the confequence of this and some that the war had been entered into other changes. withont the confent of the fates of But if peace was desirable on thefe the kingdom.” As Jofeph too had accounts, it was almost rendered ne not confined his innovations to his ceffary by the impofing mediation Austrian dominions, there exifted of Pruffia. That imperious and infome caufes of complaint on that ac- fatiable power, who withed to be the count. Thefe however Joseph, pre- arbitress of Germany, had left novions to his death, had promised to thing unattempted toʻi humble the redress ; nor was there much proba- house of Austria, her only rival. In bility that the pacific Leopold would conjunction with another power, perfít in meafures which the obli- which on the continent of Europe bate and ambitious Jofeph had res is commonly regarded as under the linquished as 'untenable.. When, direction of Pruffia in all foreign however, the principle of discontent politics, the court of Berlin was is excited in a people, it is not eafily commonly fupposed to have been to be allayed. The demands of the the means of plunging the misguided Hungarians appeared greatly to Ottomans into the unpropitious and exceed the limits of their first pro- distrefsful.conteft in which they feflions, and fell little short of arrós were engaged. Honour, -as far as gating to the assembly of the fates we may apply that term to the ne me full fovereignty of the tation, gociations of politicians, forbad the The secret of Leopold's government total abandoning of this infatuated was perhaps venality. The same people in the extremity of their disa perfuafive eloquence which had pe tress ;- intereft, real or imaginary, netrated the hearts of the patriotic alfo,' which is by far the stronger perty in Flanders, probably served tie, forbad the total destruction gradually to diminifh the haughty of the Ottoman empire. ' Prullia pretensions of the Hungarian no- embraced the opportunity of des bles. Two methods, therefore, res grading Auftria, and of manifesting mained, by which the new monarch its own power ; and, however dif. might eftablith his authority. The agreeable or humiliating to Léopold, one was, toconciliate the malcontents began soon after his accesfion to infinit within ; and the other, to remove on a pacification between Auftria the caufe which had reduced the and the Turks,

Flir! houfe of Auftria to this predicament, After the reduction of Orsova, by a speedy termination of the wat therefore, which happened on the with the Turks.

26th of April 1790, the war was ri. There was a cause which perhaps carried on with languor on the part lay ftill nearer to the heart of Leo of Austria and in the month of pold, since it was one which affected june a conference was agreed uponi more Atrongly his self-love. He had at Reichenbach, at which the mibeen a little affected with the rage of nifters of Pruffia, Austria, England, innovation himfelf, and his Italian and the United Provinces allifted, fubjects feemed not to receive his ands at which also an envoy from

5

Poland

Poland was occasionally present. between the courts of Russia and After a negociation, which conti- Sweden, and was ratified in fix days nued till the 17th of August, it was after. The basis of the convention agreed that a peace should be con- was, a general treaty of peace and cluded between the king of Hun- amity, an alliance of the stricteft nagary and the Ottoman Porte, that ture, and an agreement that the the bafis of this treaty should be a boundaries of their refpeive terit general furrender of all the con- tories should remain the same as conquests made by the former, retain- firined by the treaties of Abo and ing only Choczim as a security till Nystadt. the Poste Should accede to the terms "At the close of the year 1790, of the agreement, when it was also the empress had the fatisfaction to to be restored. On the other hand, see her conquelts no longer bounded the king of Pruflia gave up the Bel- by the courle of the Danube. The gic provinces, and even promised his Turkish fleet was almost annihilar, aliktance in reducing them to the ed ; and even the lavish maxima of Austrian dominion.

muffulman policy were kearcely fuf The king of Prussia was less suc- ficient to repress the resentment of cessful in his mediation with Ruffia. the populace in Conftantinople, and Catherine had not, like Leopold, an to prevent their engaging in the imperialcrown at stake, which (unfub- molt alarming insurrections. The tantial as it is) has always its charms last act of this protracted campaign, with those who are educated in the which was uninterrupted even by habitual adoration of rank and dig- the severity of winter, however it nities. Her conquefts alfo on the might contribute to the advantage fide of Turkey were too important certainly did not redound to the hos to be casily relinquilaed; and the nour of Ruflia; and evinces, that confidered her dignity attacked by whatever steps may have been taken the infolent style of Pruffian media- by the present or other fovereigne tion. The substance of her anfwer of this empire to produce a forced to the Pruffian memorial was there. civilization, both the monarchs and fore, " That the empress of Ruf- the people of Rulia are till barha would make peace and war with barians. The reader will easily perwhom she pleased, without the in- ceive that the taking of Ismail is alterference of any foreign power.?! luded to in this reflection. The

In the mean time, if Catherine progress of the Ruflians during the found herself, by the conference of whole of the war, was indeed marked Reichenbach, deprived of an ally, it with blood and cruelty ; but all theis was no difficult matter, on the other former executions were exceeded by hand, to disencumber herself of an the horror of their proceedings at adverfary: The fame motives which Ismail. This place had been forhad rendered Gustavus for a series of tified during the late war, and preyears, the devoted inftrument of vious to the liege had been reinFranec; the fame motives which forced by the flower of the Turkish had induced him to sacrifice the lives army. On the 22d of December of his people in the prefent contest, 1990, it was taken by itorm by gemight be employed to convert him neral Suwarow; and it is faid that from the enemy into the ally of Rus- the fiege and the capture did not ba: On the 14th of August 1790, cost the Russians less than 10,000 therefore, a convcution was figned men, The most shocking part of

the

the transaction is, that the garrison my which was computed to amount (whofe bravery merited, and would to nearly 200,000 men; and magahave received from a generous foe, zines well furnished with military the highest honours) were' mal- tores were established in Bulgaria, facred in cold blood by the merciless Romelia, and at Adrianople. Ruffians to the amount of, by their The campaign of 1791 opened on own account, upwards of 30,000 the part of Russia with the taking of men; and the place was given up Maczin, on the 4th of April, by to the unrestrained fury of the bru- prince Gallitzin ; and in a fubfetal soldiery. The most horrid out- quent victory on the 12th, by the tages were perpetrated on the de- fame general in the neighbourhood fenceless inhabitants ; and the con- of Brailow, the Turks loft not less duct of the conquerors' was more than 4000 men, and upwards of that of a horde of cannibals than of 100 officers, besides many pieces of a civilized people. After this bloody cannon. On the 14th the Ruffian scene, the Rullians went into winter arms experienced a check, by which quarters ; the vizir retired towards they loit about 700 men, and were Conftantinople, and on his return obliged to relinquish the intention fell a facrifice to the fanguinary po- of belieging Brailow. After 'reittlicy which has long diigraced the forcing this place, the vizir proOttoman counsels.

ceeded to the banks of the DaIn the mean time, the people of nube near Siiftria; and, by means Conftantinople, the janizaries, the of a bridge which he threw acrofs very inmates of the seraglio, and the river, his advanced posts were particularly the sultana mother, enabled to make incursions on the became clamorous for peace. A oppofite fide. The ability of the congress was appointed at Sitthovia, vizir, and the valour of the Turks, for the purpose of restoring tran- were however exerted in vain againft quility to Europe, at which the mid the discipline and experience of nisters of the belligerent powers af- European armies. In the month of fiited, with those of Prullia, England, June, 15,000 Turks were defeated and the United Provinces. The by a party of cavalry under general dispute between Austria and the Kutufow. On the 3d of July the Porte was easily adjusted on the ba- fortress of Anape was taken by gefis of the convention of Reichen- neral Gudowitsch, and the garrison, bach; but the demands of Rusia' to the amount of 6,000 men, made could not be fo easily satisfied. Af- prisoners. This event was followed, ter some months of deliberation, on the oth of the same month, by a the object of the congress appeared fignal victory which prince Repnin as diftant as ever, and both parties obtained near Maczin over a body made the most rigorous preparations of 70,000, the flower of the Turkith for the continuance of the war. army. The Ottomans left upwards The determined perseverance of Se. of 4000 dead upon the field of bat. lim, and the uncommon activity of tle, and lost their entire camp equithe new vizir Jusluf Pacha, seemed page, colours, and 30 pieces of canu to astonish the Ottomans, and to The Ruffians are said to have awake them from their lethargy. loft only 750 men killed, and be Notwithitanding their repeated lolies, tween 2 and 300 wounded. the vizir was enabled to take the While the war was thus vigofield early in the spring with an are roully carried on the mediating

powers

nun.

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