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AND potentates now began to be alarmed, protestations of his amicable intenand there was much reason to ap- tions towards France ; but intiprehend that a league 'was formed mates at the fame time, that " it is againīt the rising liberties of France, necessary' that all the itinovations among the moit pourerful nations of that have taken place in confethe continent. Cordons' of troops quence of the decrees of the 4th of were advanced from Germany on August be done away, and matters the north, from Spain on the south, put upon the ancient footing" and from Italy and Savoy on the The king, when he communicated welt; and France might be said lie the letter, treated it merely as an terally to be besieged with hoftile official measure of the emperor, as armies. The events which took head of the German empire; and place in France, tetarded for a while observed, that he received at the the execution of this plan: but the fame time the most pacific assurances dispositions of despotic courts never from the court' of Vienna. "The alter; their action is occafionally in affembly, however, were not to be terrupted by circumstances; but their imposed upon by the fineffe of Leo. tenour is direct, and their conduct pold; they immediately decreed a commonly consistent : what Leo- considerable augmentation of the pold left unperformed, Francis will national force, and that every defenprobably endeavour to accomplish. five measure should be expeditiously

The only plea which the conduct adopted. of France afforded these powers for

Several caufes conspired to pre interfering in her domestic concerns, vent the re-establisnment of order in was the claims of the German princes the provinces. The people in many who had estates in Alface and Lor- places were too little inftructed to raine. On the subversion of the enjoy legal and temperate liberty. feudal institutions, the claims of The hopes of those who were ad. vaffalage, mortmain, &c. &c which verfe to the new constitution were thefe princes considered as their elevated by the prospect of a counright, were necessarily abolished. It ter-revolution, and the movements was in vain that the national affem- of the hostile powers; and the rebly repeatedly decreed them the sentment of the refractory and ejectamplest compensation. The views ed priests operated every where upon of the German courts were different. the fanaticism of the populace. At Alface and Lorraine afforded the "Aix, a club or society, calling it. excuse, but the object of the pro- felf “ Friends of the kin jected war was certainly not the the clergy," was instituted; the Seignorial rights of a few petty members of which, on the 12th of princes, who would think themelves December, indulged themselves in amply recompensed by the receipt of the imprudent measure of wearing a few louis in their empty treasuries. the white cockade. In the evening The cautious politics of Leopold, of that day, some of the party met however, led him to pursue the most with a number of persons who be. courtly measures in treating with longed to a club of oppolite princiFrance. On the 22d of January, ples; fome pistols were discharged, the king communicated to the ass and a riot immediately ensued. The sembly a letter from the emperor mob haltened immediately to the of Germany, in which that mo-prifon, where a M. Pachalis, an parch makes the most unqualified advocate, had for some time been

confined

confined for feditious writings and and that, as he was persuaded that pra&tices; and, in defiance of the they could not legally be deprived municipality and the national guard, of the liberty which the constitution tore him from his place of confine gave to every citizen to travel wherement, and hanged him, with two ever he would, he had not atothers of the aristocratic party, tempted to prevent their departure. Messrs. Roquette and Dorimont, on This report was no sooner made the neighbouring trees.

is than M. Camus proposed that the At Lyons, on the other hand, a civil lift should be diminished in prodefperate, but ill-concerted confpi- portion to the provision which the şacy was discovered, which had for nation allotted them :

this was again its object, to corrupt the populace of opposed by M, Martineau ; but the that city, by, distributing money assembly considering the subject una among them; to bring back thither worthy of their notice, passed to tho the ex-princes; to make that city order of the day. On the following the retreat of the king, if he could day however the subject was rea be detached from the national allem- newed by M. Barnave, who, as the bly; and if not, the assembly was constitutional committee were at forcibly to be conveyed thither along present occupied in providing a set with him,

of regulations for the government In the neighbourhood of Vannes of the royal family, proposed that in Brittany the fanatic clergy openly they should be instructed to present preached against the conftitution : to the affembly the plan of a decree and in one country parish, the priest, to ascertain the right which per after having celebrated mafs, desired fons allied to the throne should have his congregation to kiss the crucifix, to travel out of the kingdom. This and gave them absolution, " Go proposal produced another from now," said he, “ and plunge your Meilrs. Martineau, Goupil, and daggers into the hearts of those impi- others, that the law against emi, ous persons who have degraded your grants should extend not only to holy religion : you are saved !" The the royal fainily, but to all other in infatuated multitude, instigated by dividuals; and that a reasonable ab this incendiary exhortation, marched fentee tax Mould be imposed, in orin a body to Vannes. At this place, der to discourage emigration in ge however, they found the Irish regi peral. ment of Walth and the national In the mean time the ladies conguard of l'Orient prepared for their ţinued their journey, and with a reception, and they were easily re- train of carriages presented them pulled and dispersed.

felves before Moret, and produced The public attention was now pe. to the magistrates a passport from cupied with a transaction which the king, counterligned Montmowould have been of little conse- rin, and a declaration from the můquence in any other circumstances nicipality of Paris, itating that they of the state. On the 20th of Fe- arrogated to themselves no right to bruary, the president of the national stop any persons travelling through allembly received a letter from the the kingdom. As the municipality of king, itating that his aunts, the Moret was informed that the matter daughters of Louis XV, had left was now under the confideration of Paris that morning at fix o'clock, the constitutional committee, they

deter

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determined to arreft them. They gentleman, after walking for some had however no sovner taken this time in the gallery, requested of the determination, than a party of a hun. attendants on the dauphin to be dred or more of the chasseurs de Lor- permitted to see the prince. As he raine, with a number of the domes, paffed into the apartment, a ponitics of M. Montmorin, 'mayor of ard of a peculiar contraction was Fontainebleau, appeared before the discovered under his coat : 'he was ġates, forced them open, and made artetted, and examined before the å clear passage for the travellers. mayor of Paris, and committed to At Arnay-le-Duc, the municipality cuftody. was more successful ; there they While the mayor was occupied effectually stopped the progress of with this affair, he received intelli. the royal emigrants, and dispatched gence of a riot in another quarter. an account of their proceedings to The castle of Vincennes had been die the national affembly. Onmature con. rected to undergo fome repair; and, as fideration, however, the legislative that edifice had formerly been ufed as body decreed, that's as there was a state prison, the jealoufy of the po no positive law existing which faucs pulace immediately took fire, and tioned the arrest of meldames, aunts their imaginations' teprefented to to the king, it should be referred to them the horrible fpectre of a Bastille the executive power ;” and in con- ftill more formidable than that which fequence of this decreç, after some had been demolished. The fuburb delays, they were left to pursue their of St. Antoine was presently in mo journey to Rome.

tion, and the object of popular sufThus the country was entirely de picion was powerfully affailed. M. ferted by all the different branches Bailly' was however no fooner inof the royal family, except moné formed of this commotion, than he fieur. The people, whofe fears and proceeded thither, accompanied by fufpicions foresaw a thousand evils in M. de la Fayette and a strong partý thefe emigrations, affembled in a tu- of the national guard. The popumultuous manner at the Thuilleries; lace yere easily undeceived, and per: and a report being spread, that the fuaded to difperfe ; but what was the only remaiding brother of the king surprise of the magistrate and the was about to depart also, the mob national guard, on their return to inmediately directed their course the Thuileries, to find the gates to his palace, and insisted on a barred against them; and as soon as promise not to leave the kingdom. they were forced open, the apart: The prince conceded to the wilhes ments were discovered to be filled of ttie populace, and they dispersed with men who had afsembled under with every appearance of satisfaction the pretence of defending the king!

As no criminal intention could be O'the 28th of February an proved against them, after being event of a more extraordinary and searched, and deprived of their arms, fufpicious nature occurred, and un- they were ordered civily to depart, fortunately contributed to increase and leave the protection of the royal the jealousy and dissatisfaction of family to the national guard. The the public. On the morning of general fufpicion was, that a conspithat day, at the usual hour of di- racy had been concerted by the vine service at the royal chapel, à chiefs of the aristocratic party, to

and joy.

take advantage of the first commo- on his arrival at court, his first adtion, which would necessarily draw dress to the king was-- Here are off the national guard, to put in ef. the troops! but where is the enemy?' feet their long-projected plan of That he was made acquainted with carrying off the king. Whatever none of the measures of the court, might be the motive of the persons and heard of the dismission of M who assembled on this occasion, it is Neckar only through the medium much to be regretted, as it gave too of public report-That when he ar. much countenance to the fufpicions rived at Metz, fo fenfible had he of the people, and cherished that been of the dishonourable cause in {pirit of party which it was so much which he had been unconsciously the intereft of the nation to counter- engaged, that his spirits were funk, act and fubdue.

and his health had been visibly ou The beginning of March was de- the decline That he was now in so dicated by the affembly chiefly to dangerous a state, that he was un the organization of the army. On able to return to his country, but the 4th it was decreed, that there had moft obitinately resisted every thould in future be only fix marshals attempt to seduce him from his al. of France, whose functions should legiance to it." be entirely military,'and whose pay In consequence of this reprefentawas fixed at the rate of 30,000 livres tion, the assembly resolved "That per annum. With regard to the for the present nothing decisive marshals of France then existing, it should be decreed with respect to was determined, that such of them the rank of marshal of France, as as should not be retained in the held by M. Broglio ; but that he actual service of the state, should re- Tould fill be considered as preceive pensions adequate to their me- serving his rank and title, &c." rits. On the fucceeding day M. Towards the conclusion of the Victor Brogħo addressed the affem- month, several decrees were passed bly in favour of his father, marshal relative to the case of a regency: Broglio. «He observed, that the " Women were excluded from that decree which had just been passed trust, as well as from the succession feemed to menace his respectable to the crown. The regency was father, after a long and glorious ca- declared to belong of right to the reer, with the deprivation of an ho- next male heir to the crown, during pour which he had obtained, not the whole minority of the king. from, favou, but by merit. His fa- The person of the minor king, howther, he faid, always a stranger tó 'ever, was not confided to the re

intrigue, and 'repulsed from court gent; and he was pronounced to be 'even for his virtud, had lived among of age at eighteen."-Nearly about the soldiers from the age of four- the fame period it was decreed, teen. He was their friend, their " that all public functionaries ought patron, their father. On the late to reside in whatever place was the unhappy occafion, he fated, tliat proper scene of their employments marthal Broglio had been drawn that the king, as the first public from his retreat in the country by functionary, should be always refie the positive order of the king- That dent, during the session, within he was not privy to the allembling twonty leagues of the legislative of the troops near’the capital ; and body; and that if he or the heir lo little conscious of the delign, that, apparent went out of the kingdom without a decree of the legislature, greater diversity of sentiment. “In they should be considered as having defence of the unlimited power of abdicated the crown,"

without

om teftators, recourse was had to the This difcuffion was fucceeded by facred light in which property ought one of till greater importance to always to be regarded to the dis, the welfare of the community. This couragement which would be held regarded the succession to property, forth to industry, if a man was not and the right of disposing of pof: permitted to dispose of his property sessions after death. In the outset agreeably to his inclination. The of the debate, a very judicious dif: power of parents over their chils tinction was eliablished ; and it was dren was another forcible argument determined, ift, to decide what was which was resorted to on this topic, proper to be decreed with respect To make children independent of to the effects of persons dying in their parents, it was said, would be

teilate; and, 2dly, whether any re- the annihilation of good morals, striction ought to be laid on the right Youth, it was added, is the torrid of tekamentary alienation. In the zone of human life, and must fall first part of this investigation, the the unresisting prey of temptation, evils of the existing law of inhe- of debauchery, of ufury, of every ritáaces were strongly depicted. The existing corruption and depravity, absurd feudal institution of primo- if possessed of an independent patri. geniture was successfully attacked. mony. The character of a father It was demonstrated, “that no fuch was represented as the most sacred inititution existed among the en- of titles; it was that which the Deity lightened nations of antiquity; that himself allumes. The equal partition it originated among the most barha- of estates, which was the principal rous tribes, and in the most uncivi- argument employed by the other lized, periods ; that, in the present side, was adduced as a proof in fącircumftances of society, it was war- vour of that arrangement which left ranted by no motive, no reason, no the disposal of his property to the excufe ; that its basis was injustice, will of the testator. In the increase its consequences profligacy and of population, it was said, the landed crimes ; that the heir to a large for- property of individuals would be tune was generally corrupted by the subdivided into atoms, and the porpoffeffion of it, and the younger tions would be so extremely imall branches devoted to beggary and as even to baffle the diligence of the prostitution; that its effects in a collectors of the land-tax.” public view were still more deplor- The arguments on the other side able ; and that it was the principal were not less forcible and ingenious. cause of that inequality among the It was said, “ that the question in citizens, which produced most of this case was fimply, whether the the vice and all the misery that exists will of the law, or the will of the inin society.” In fine, the opinion, dividual, should be obeyed? The will that an equal division of property or determination of the law ought should take place among the chil- to be preferred, because it was todren or relations of persons dying tally exeinpt from the influence of inteftate, seemed to meet with una- the passions; whereas the will of the nimous approbation, and was some individual was always under their time after the discussion decreed. direction. If the law had deterOn the other topic, there was a mined, therefore, that an equal divi

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