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there. The other objects are the Virgin and Child, Tour des Halles, or Market Tower.-In the Grand the Marriage of St. Catherine, the Decapitation of Square, or market-place, is held the annual fair, St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist commencing 4th May, and lasting 15 days. There at Patmos, with a Crucifixion by Franks, and a are also two horse fairs, of two days each, held the Holy Family by Vandyke. The Belegary, or Chasse
first Thursday after Easter, and the 25th July. de St. Ursula, is worth notice, consisting of a The meat market in this square is exquisitely wooden coffer, painted by Hemling, in which is neat and well arranged. At the extremity of the the arm of the saint. The sides are painted with square is a steeple or belfry, the
“ Belfry Of representations of St. Ursula's pilgrimages and Bruges," "old and brown;" celebrated in Longmartyrdom. The history of these paintings is
fellow's poem, and also in his “Carillon." It is singular and merits a short notice. Hemling was
320 feet high, and is esteemed one of the most originally a libertine and dissipated character at
beautiful in Europe; the ascent to it is by 533 Bruges. He was engulphed in misery and became steps, and it contains a splendid set of chimes, a soldier. He was not known as a painter when which are set in motion every quarter of an hour a wound, received in 1477 at the battle of Nancy, by an immense cylinder, acting like the barrel of compelled him to enter the hospital as a patient.
an organ, and setting in motion the keys of the His wound was healed in a short time, but he so
instrument. well liked the mode of life, &c., of the hospital,
Near this Belfry is the splendid building forthat he remained in it for 6 years, and paid his merly occupied as the Drapers' hall; it is now expenses by painting these pictures.
divided into two coffee-houses, and contains a The Hôtel de Ville is a beautiful Gothic monu- fine vaulted saloon, in which the National Society ment, well preserved, founded in 1377, by Count of Literature hold their meetings. Opposite to Louis de Maele. It was formerly surmounted by this building, and forming the corners of the six beautiful towers. The niches seen in front street of St. Arnaud, were two old houses, one of contained 33 statues of the Counts of Flanders, which was the residence of the Emperor Charles, the designs of which are preserved in the beautiful and of Charles II. of England, during his exile, work of M. Delpuire-The Annals of Bruges. To- when he used to shoot here. The burghers of day these niches are empty. In 1792, the troops Bruges elected him Roi des Arba letriers, King of of the French revolution caused the statues to be the Cross-bowmen. This house has been cleared destroyed as “images of tyrants." They were away for a Normal School; and its neighbour, the burnt in the Grand Square in a bonfire, the mate- Hall of St. Barbara, is now replaced by an English rials of which were composed of the gallows, scaf
Seminary, founded by the late Sir John Sutton. fold, and the wheel. In the Grand Hall of the The Covered Fish Market, with its granite building is the public library containing 8,000 columns, is a handsome building, lately erected. volumes and 500 MSS. The staircase of the Hotel
In the opposite corner of the Rue St. Arnaud is deserves notice, and also the paintings adorning it. the site of the Craenenberg, traditionally interest
Palais de Justice is close to the Hôtel de Ville, ing as being the prison of Maximilian in 1487-8. and was formerly the residence of the Counts of Near the Rue Noordzand is the Prinssenhof, Flanders, and was anciently called Palais du Franc In it Marguerite of York, sister to Edward IV., de Bruges—the Palace of the Liberty of Bruges- was married, in 1468, to Charles the Bold. a large district independent of the city. The The Academy of Painting is in the building interior contains little remarkable save the council known as Het Poorters Huis, formerly the factory chamber of the magistrates and the magnificent of the Biscayens, and contains some very fine old chimney or mantel-piece. It is carved in wood, paintings, by J. Van Eyck, Hans Hemling, and is a chef-d'ouvre of sculpture in its way, Pourbus, and Claessens. including statues of Charles V., Mary of Burgundy, The principal manufactures of Bruges are lace, Maximilian, Charles the Bold, and Marguerite of woollen stuffs, camlets, hats, snuff, china, carpets, York. The Story of Susannah is roprosented on ticking, dimities, and a blue dye which is peculiar the marble bas-reliefs decorating it.
to the loom.
The lack-workers are said to exceed 5,000 in tants, the latter one with 2,800. The railway is number. There are also numerous salt and sugar next carried over, by a bridge, the Canal de Nevile, refineries, rope walks, dyeing-houses, breweries, which joins the canal from Ghent to Bruges, and distilleries, and bleaching grounds.
arrives at Landeghem (Station), a commune of Bruges also contains a museum, with a tolerable the district of Ghent, with a population of 2,000 collection of pictures; a public library, and a souls. Leaving here we cross the Lys by a botanic garden, a theatre, an academy of fine arts, bridge, and arrive at Ghent. and several literary and scientific societies.
A description of Ghent will be found in Route ). English church service performed on Sundays. Ghent Station is on the south-east side of the town.
The tract of country surrounding Bruges, for On the high ground to the left, at the other side 25 miles, was formerly called the Free Country of of the Scheldt, is the new citadel. The church of Bruges, from the circumstance of the inhabitants St. Pierre, with its dome, is seen on the other side having succeeded in throwing off the yoke of of the hill. both the rival cities of Bruges and Ghent, and The Grand Canal between Bruges and Ghent is obtaining from the Counts of Flanders numerous bounded by high banks, and lined with tall trees, exclusive privileges, amongst which were those
entwined by pretty villas and sweet gardens. of separate magistrates and tribunals.
Ghent to Brussels.- (See Route 10). state of cultivation into which this province has
ROUTE 4. been brought by the unremitting exertions of the inhabitants, cannot be too much admired. The
London to Antwerp by the Scheldt. southern districts are fertile in flax and rape-seed.
Distance, 210 miles.
The direct route from London to Antwerp, vid A railway runs to the watering places of Blankenberg and Heyst, near the island of
the Thames and the Scheldt, is most pleasant and
convenient. Cadzand, and the Dyke which Dante commemo
The steamers start from St. Katharine's Wharf, rates in his Inferno as raised by the Flemings, "tra Gazzante è Bruggia" (between Ghent and
London, every Sunday and Wednesday, at noon. Bruges), to keep out the sea. Blankenberg is a
They are splendid vessels, with excellent accom
modation. Also by the Great Eastern Railway, growing bathing place, with a population of
via Harwich, every Tuesday, Thursday, and 2,000.
Saturday. Bruges to Ghent by the direct line. (There
Families, in particular, who are going to the is a loop via Eecloo).-Quitting the station at
Rhine, and wish to include a visit to Antwerp in Bruges, the railway is carried a little to the south
their tour, will find this route par excellence, the side of the canal, and passing to the right Oost
most advantageous. The fares are reasonably camp (Station), it runs through a country no
low; and the advantage of conveying that indig. ways interesting, and arrives at Bloemendael pensable encumbrance-the luggage-from London (Station), near a little village containing 3,150 to Antwerp without a “transfer," will be appreinhabitants, and watered by the Splenterbeck, ciated by every head of a "family." which flows into the canal.
The sail down the Thames is fraught with Shortly after leaving this station, the road winds characteristics full of interest. A perfect forest of to the left a little distance from the canal from
masts, belonging to ships of all sizes and nations, Ghent to Bruges, and entering the district of the looms out in the Pool. Colliers, coasters, steamcommune of St. George, it quits West and enters boats, and river craft, throng the Thames in every East Flanders. Shortly after arriving at Aeltre direction, and the fleet of merchantmen, and the (Station), supplying a commune of the district restless activity seen along the banks, give a vast of Ghent, with a population of 5,400 inhabitants, conception of the glories of that commerce which it is seen to the right of the canal. The road from has enriched the city of London. As the vessel here passes for some minutes through a cutting, proceeds cautiously on, we are interested by the and emerging thence commands a view of Bellem granaries and wharfs on each side, recognised as and Hansbeke, the former a village of 1,700 inhabi- the largest in the world.
The Tower is on the northern bank of the presents to us a moving panorama of animated Thames. It is a large pile of building, including interest. an area of more than 12 acres, and owes its irregu
From hence to the Nore we pass Southend, larity to having been erected and enlarged by
Sheerness, and its Dockyard; then Herne various sovereigns at distant periods of time.
Bay, Margate (with Shoeburyness opposite Besides being the repository of the regalia, it is it), and the Foreland; and we sail, almost in a now used as a garrison and arsenal. St. Katha- straight line, from the Thames to the Scheldt. rine's Docks, adjacent to the tower, occupy 24
The latter stream is situated immediately opposite acres, and were opened 1828.
the mouth of the English river and the port of The London Docks come next, covering an area
London. It caught the eye of Napoleon as suitable of 34 acres. In the vaults, more than 65,500 pipes for a two-fold purpose–either to annoy the Engof wine can be stowed.
lish in war, or rival them in commerce. Entering The West India Docks, extending across the
the West Scheldt, at the mouth of the river, we northern extremity of the Isle of Dogs, from Lime
sée, on the left, Walcheren, the most extensive of house to Blackwall, were opened in 1832, and
the nine islands forming the province of Zeeland. formed the first establishment of the kind in
The district lies many feet below sea level. London.
Various branches of the river Scheldt separate The Commercial Docks are seen on the other side
the islands one from the other, which are protected of the river.
from the inroads of the ocean by sand banks and Deptford, with its Naval Victualling Yard, and dykes, or sea walls, measuring more than 300 the new Foreign Cattle Market, established by the
miles in extent, and kept in repair at an annual Corporation on the site of the Dock Yard, next cost of 2,000,000 florins. These dykes are divided claims our notice. The Dreadnought Hospital by engineers into two classes, called polders calaShip, which used to be anchored below this, is miteux, and polders non-calamiteux—the former now removed.
maintained at the expense of Government, and the Greenwich, with its fine Hospital (now turned
others by private individuals. The country is, as into a Naval College), and Observatory, standing it were, partitioned out by dykes, the interior out boldly and picturesquely from the clustering defences serving as a barrier against the further foliage of the Park, greets our view. For its de- ravages of the flood, should the outer dykes break. scription and history, see BRADSHAW's Guide through The great dyke of West Kappel ruptured in 1808, London and its Environs. The Isle of Dogs is on
and the waters burst in, inundating the greater the opposite side of the river, and an abrupt turn
part of the island. In the streets of Middleburg, in the river brings us to
the sea was up to the roofs of the houses, and the Blackwall, with its pier, and the handsome
strength of its walls only saved the town from terminus of the Blackwall Railway. Just below being destroyed. Corn and madder are the staple the railway station, on the left, are the new
produce of the province, which is very fertile. As Victoria Docks, recently opened.
we ascend the Scheldt, we see, now and then,
peering over the artificial mounds enclosing them, Woolwich on the right, with its rotunda, çannon-foundry, arsenal, and barracks, is now
the tops of the spires, roofs, and tall chimneys of seen. Further down,
the towns and villages, in which the province is
very populous. Erith, on the right, with its pretty rural church,
Cadzand we see to the right, facing Walcheren. immediately after.
Flushing (Station), in Dutch, Vlissingen. Gravesend, on the right, with the slope of the Inns : Engel; Gouden Appel. Windmill Hill rising proudly behind the town, Flushing is the first town we see on our left, will next attract our notice. Tilbury Fort, with It is situated on the right bank of the river, its gate or blockhouse of the time of Henry VIII., contains a dockyard, naval arsenal, and has a lies across the river; and the widening expanse of population of 12,000. The largest merchant veswater, enlivened by the constant transit of vessels, 1 sels are enabled to get up to the town, and unload
at the quays, by means of two deep and wide art of curing herrings. In the church here, a canals communicating with the sea. New Docks monument was erected to him, and Charles V. have been made at a cost of above a million ster- and his sister, the Queen of Hungary, visited it ling; they were begun 1867. The harbour outside through respect to his memory, who founded for is always open, and suitable for ships of any ton- Holland the great staple trade of her wealth. nage. Flushing is 92 miles from Ramsgate, 100
An inundation, in 1377, which destroyed 19 small miles from Dover, 109 miles from Harwich, 160 towns and their inhabitants, detached Biervliet miles from London, and 63 hours from Sheerness. from the continent, but every acre lost has since The Royal Netherlands Steam Boats now run been recovered by Dutch energy and industry. daily betweon the two ports in connection with
Terneusen (Station) is seen to the left, on a the Chatham and Dover Railway. Vessels from
rail opened to Malines, 1871. The sluice gates the Thames by night are never out of sight of the
closing the entrance to the new canal, extending lights. It is likely to become the great port for
to Ghent, are close by it. This canal is 15 feet the continent, being on the most direct line to
deep, and gives and serves as a drain to carry off Germany. A great part of the town was destroyed the waters of the district through which it passes. in 1809, when it was bombarded and taken by the
There are sluices at Sas Van Gend, which can lay English, under Lord Chatham. This act was the the entire country under water. Piers and only result of the "Walcheren expedition" (as it breakwaters of piles or masonry protect the artiis called) of 1809, which consisted of 37 ships of ficial embankments of the Scheldt from the curthe line, 23 frigates, and 82 gun-shot boats, with a rents and floating masses of ice. Both banks of the force of 50,000 men. The defences of Flushing Scheldt, below this place, belong to Holland, but completely command the entrance to the mouth of
the river Aows through the Belgian territory. the river, near three miles wide. This place is
After we pass the terminatory point of the island remarkable as the birth-place of Admiral de Ruyter,
of Zuid Beveland, which is separated from the to whom a statue has been erected. The town hall
mainland by a strait, a passage called Kreek Baky, and two churches, together with 100 houses, were
Antwerp, with its tall and lofty spires, is seen as destroyed by the bombs and congreve rockets of
we approach Forts Lillo (rt) and Liefkenshock (1). the English. We can see at West-Kappel, to the
These two forts completely command a view best perfection, the construction of the Dykes. | of the passage of the river. Up to 1839 they There is a gap in the Dunes at this point, which appertained to the Dutch, in whose hands they is defended by a dyke 4,700 yards long and 31 feet remained after the Belgic Revolution. In that high: upon the stability of this, the safety of the year they were dismantled and given up to the island mainly depends. Rail to
Belgians, in exchange for Venloo, and in comMiddelburg, in Walcheren island, the capital | pliance with the treaty of the Quadruple Alliance. of Zeeland, containing about 16,000 inhabitants. The Polders are seen on the left bank above It is a very clean town, and has a magnificent Fort Liefkenshock. These remained under water Town Hall, with 25 statues of the Counts of during the contest with the Dutch. Before arriFlanders and their Countesses. This town is famed ving at Antwerp, we pass several other forts. as the spot where the telescope was invented, in The Duke of Parma, in 1505, threw across the 1601, by Hans Lippershey, a spectacle maker. The Scheldt his celebrated Bridge, 2,400 feet long, rail from Flushing is continued to Goes, Bergen- between the Callto on the left, and Oordam on op-Zoom, Roosendaal, Breda, &c., towards Ger- the right, by means of which he closed the navigamány. At Roosendaal there are branch lines to tion of the river, and so cut off all supplies from Rotterdam and Antwerp. On the right bank of the besieged city, which chiefly caused it to the river we see Zuid (South) Beveland.
surrender. Biervliet, a small town, a short distance off, on A foreign engineer, residing at Antwerp, inthe left bank, is only famous as the birth-place vented fire-ships, which were sent against the of William Beukels, who invented, in 1386, the bridge and blew up one of the stockades, killing
800 Spanish soldiers. Another attempt made by Objects of attraction to be seen in Antwerp :the besieged to destroy the bridge also failed. 1. The Cathedral and Quentin Matsys' Well; 2.
Opposite the Fort of St. Laurent, immediately Church of St. Jacques ; 3. Rubens' House ; 4. below Antwerp, a young Dutch officer, Van Speyk, Church of St. Paul-Paintings and Calvary ; 5. blew himself up, with his crew and ship, rather Church of the Augustines-Pictures by Rubens, than surrender to the Belgians, 1880. A monument Vandyke, and Jordaens; 6. The Museum-Col. for this suicidal act has been erected by the Dutch lection of Paintings; 7. Statue of Rubens, Place to his memory.
Verte; 8. The Citadel; 9. Zoological Gardens, ANTWERP (Station)-in French, Anvers ; 60
near the railway station; 10. Statues of Teniers, miles from the sea, 27+ from Brussels, 32 from
near the station of Budnognatus; the Belgian Ghent, 150$ from Cologne, and 258 from Paris.
chief against Cæsar, in Boulevard Leopold; and Population (1871), 141,910. Hotels:
King Leopold, near it. Teniers, Neefs, and Hotel St. Antoine has again reverted to its Snyders, are other artists of the Antwerp school, former proprietor, Mr. Schmidt Spaenhoven, and
whose works may be looked for. will no doubt resume its high position.
Tradition ascribes its origin to a giant, who inHotel de l' Europe, on the place Verte, close to
habited a fortress on the banks of the Scheldt, and the Cathedral; exceedingly good in every respect, exacted a heavy tribute from all who wished to and charges reasonable. Hotel de la Paix, Rue des Menuisiers, opened
cross the stream, under pain of losing their right the 1st of May, 1869.
hand. This continued until Brabon (who gavo Hotel du Grand Laboureur, Place de Meir, first- his name to Brabant) succeeded in destroying the class Hotel; clean and reasonable. Recommended.
monster, whose right hand he cut off, and threw Stroobant's Hotel de Hollande, a second-class hotel; moderate charges.
it into the river, thence the residence of the giant Hotel du Bien Etre, second-class hotel, near the obtained the name of Handwerpen, from hand, Place de Meir.
werpen, to throw. The memory of this fabulous Ship Broker, Mr. B. Kennedy, agent of the legend is preserved in the city arms, which conGeneral Steam Navigation Company.
tain two amputated bands, a triangular castle. It Post Office is in the Place Verte. A British Consul is, however, historically certain that this town is resident. English Church, Rue des Tanneurs.
was in existence as early as the fourth century. In Flemish and French Theatres.
630 a church dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul On the Quay Van Dyck, on the opposite bank of
was built by St. Amand, who first preached the the river, is the station of the direct railway to Ghent. Gospel here. The town was afterwards ravaged Omnibuses call at the hotels. The stand for Vigi- | by the Normans, and from 886 to 980 was in the lantes is by the Post Office and Place de Meir.
possession of the Moors, who were annihilated in The commercial capital of Belgium is situated
the latter year by the inhabitants of Flanders. In on the banks of the Scheldt. It is celebrated for
the 12th century the commercial privileges granted its magnificent Docks, constructed under the
to Antwerp by the Dukes of Brabant, had attracted direction of Napoleon, which are capable of re
so many strangers, that the town was insufficient ceiving 2,000 ships. At a former period of its to contain them, and in 1304 John II. enlarged history, Antwerp contained a population of 200,000 it considerably. Its harbour was open to ships souls, and it still appears a bustling thriving city,
of all nations, and Antwerp became in the sixwith only three-fourths of that number, who find
teenth century, the first commercial city in the employment in the occupations afforded by its world. The Scheldt was navigable for the largest maritime commerce, and its manufactories of black vessels, being 20 feet deep, at low water, and 40 silk, its sugar refineries, its manufacture, bleach- feet at high water. At this period the population ing, and embroidery of lace. Commerce is
of the city exceeded 200,000, among whom were increasing, in consequence, it is said, of leaving 300 painters and 124 goldsmiths; 500 vessels Havre. The South Citadel has been moved to entered the harbour daily, and 2,500 was the give better accommodation; and the port and average number of those at anchor before the city. quays have been enlarged.
The taxes received in the city annually amounted