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throne, holding a crystal sceptre, surmounted by supports the pulpit, and covers the sounding-board a large sapphire; the transparency of the crystal with its branches. At the foot of the tree is seate 1 is represented with an effect almost magical: the a figure of Time, represented as a venerable old left-hand picture is an exquisite representation of man, whose eyes are covered with a thick veil, the Virgin, and that on the right is an equally

which he is lifting up in order to contemplate the fine figure of St. John the Baptist. These four

features of Truth, who presents herself before pictures, whether considered with reference to the

him as a beautiful woman, holding an open book, date of their execution, or to their intrinsic merit,

in which are traced the words “Surge qui dormis

illuminabit must rank among the most valuable in Europe.

te Christus," "Arise thou that

sleepest, Christ shall give thee light.” At the In the fourteenth chapel is a fine picture by foot of each staircase are two angels. The four Rubens, representing the Reception of St. Amand

fronts of this exquisite piece of workmanship, in the Abbey of St. Bavon, after he had given all

which cost 37,000 florins (£2,960), are ornamented his property to the poor. The fifteenth contains

with bas-reliefs in white marble. the Resurrection of Lazarus, by Otto Vennius,

The most perfect work of art in this cathedral, the master of Rubens, and also Judas Maccabeus

or indeed in the whole of Belgium, is the mausoseeking a place of Burial for his Soldiers. In the

leum of Bishop Triest, by Jerome Duquesnoy ; eenth is the Martyrdom of St. Lieven, the

it consists of a statue of the bishop contemplating son of Ghent, by Seghers. The seventeenth the cross borne by our Saviour. On the opposite sa copy from Rubens' picture of the Martyr- side is a figure of the Virgin, and two small angels

in of St. Catherine, the original of which is in are stationed at the bottom of the mausoleum. the Church of St. Catherine, at Lille. In front of The visitor should not leave St. Bavon without the chapel is the mausoleum of Bishop G. Van descending into the crypt, a low subterranean Eersel, executed by Charles Van Pouche and F. arch under the choir. It is divided into five Janssens, after the designs of the former. The

chapels, adorned with paintings, and containing nineteenth chapel contains the Seven Works of

the tombs of John and Hubert Van Eyck, and his Mercy, by Coexie; in the twentieth is the font in

sister, also painter, who might be reckoned an which Charles V. was baptised; the twenty-first enthusiast in the art, as she rejected all offers of has the Assumption of the Virgin, by Crayer; in

marriage, in order to devote herself entirely to its the twenty-second is one of the finest productions study. of Crayer, representing St. Machaire praying for The Church of St. Nicholas is one of the most the cessation of the plague; before the altar is a ancient in Ghent. It was burned in 1120, but bas-relief in white marble, by M. Portois, repre- re-built on the same plan. This edifice suffered senting the body of St. Machaire carried in pro- much in the religious wars. The church of St. cession.

Pierre is a building of the seventeenth century. The altar-piece of the twenty-third chapel repre

It is approached through a beautiful square, and sents St. Stambart carrying burning coals on an

contains a few good paintings by Crayer, Jansunconsumed surplice to St. Sandoalt; this pic

sens, &c. ture is by Van Huffel; the twenty-fourth and

The Church of St. Michael, in the centre of the last chapel contains a Descent from the Cross, by city, is remarkable for the elegance and lightness Rambants, which is esteemed the finest production of its architecture, of a mixed style, partly floridof that artist. The organ has a fine tone, but is Gothic, partly Renaissance, which is seen to advanplaced in a situation which offends the eye, from tage from the open space in which it is situated. interfering with the harmony of the construction The square tower which surmounts the church, of the rest of the edifice. The pulpit, which is was begun in 1440, and was to have been carried the workmanship of Lawrence Delvaux, of Ghent,

to a height of 400 feet, but the design has never is in the centre of the right nave, and is considered been completed. In the twelfth chapel of this one of the most beautiful in the world. It is com- edifice, is a magnificent picture of the Crucifixion, posed of white marble and oak. The treo of life / by Van Dykc, the only work of this master which is to be found in any of the public buildings of red brick outside the town now replace the old Ghent. Each of the chapels, which are twelve in house, or Grand Béguinage, à moated pile, which number, contain one or more pictures of various was situated in the Rue des Bruges, andwas founded merit. It will be sufficient to direct the attention by Jane, Countess of Constantinople, in 1234. of the amateur to the Annunciation, by Lens, and There is also a Petit Béguinage, with 400 girls of a the Assumption, by François, both in the newly poorer class. The first chapel was built in 1242. The finished chapel, to the right of the cross of the sisters live in separate houses, and each door has church; the Apotheosis of St. Catherine in the inscribed on it the name of some saint, chosen as third chapel, by Crayer, and the Finding of the

its protectress. Visitors to Ghent should visit this Cross, by the Empress Helena, whose figure, church at the hour of vespers, which are sung at represented in the picture, was furnished by the half-past seven each evening. The scene is most Empress Josephine, who sat for the model. There

impressive. The sisters are all dressed in black are also in this church numerous paintings by robes with white veils; the novices are distinBelgian artists, and a St. Francis, of Paula, by guished by a different dress, whilst those who Ribera. The organ recently erected in this church have but lately taken the veil are distinguished by is remarkable for its sweetness. The pulpit of

a chaplet, which they wear around their heads. massive mahogany is handsome. The other prin- The chapel, barely illuminated by a few lamps, cipal churches worth visiting are those of Saint and the solemn singing, together with the large Pierre, St. Nicholas, and St. Jacques; this latter assemblage of sisters, so picturesquely dressed, church is situated in a yąst square.

It was

imparts to the scene an aspect of solemn grandeur destroyed in 1720, and afterwards rebuilt.

and mystic beauty. The chapel itself is interestSt. Jacques has two good paintings of Vaning in the extreme, and on the stone work of one Cleef, and some monumental sculpture of merit of its pillars, was inscribed the following touching from the chisel of Van Poucke.

inscription by Lamartine:The Church of St. Martin has a magnificent painting of the Resurrection, by Crayer (his más

...... Un peu de baume à la souffrance, ter-piece).

Au corps quelque rèmede, aux âmes l'esperance, The Dominican Oratory deserves to be inspected Un sourire à chacun, à tous un mot de Dieu.”

Un secours au malade, aux parents un adieu on account of its bold and lofty wooden vault, designed by the Dominican Francis Romain, in The Hôtel de Ville is situated partly in the Rue 1700.

Haute Porte, and partly in La Marché-au-Beure. The Beguinage.—The community of Béguines The portion standing in the former street, built was founded by St. Bagge, Duchess of Brabant, in the Gothic style of architecture, presents a and sister of Philip of Landen. The community | magnificent appearance, and is adorned with is peculiar to the Netherlands. Clement V. issued exquisitely wrought ornaments.

It has two a bull against these sisters, but John XXII. façades, built at intervals between 1482 and 1620, revoked it, and accorded them many indulgences. after several plans, by as many architects. The It is one of the few nunneries not swept away by

turret or tribune at the corner was built in 1527the fury of the French revolution, or suppressed 1560 by Eustace Polleyt, and is in the richest by Joseph II. Their existence received a legal flamboyant Gothic style. The other façade, built ratification in 1826. The sisters are bound by no between 1600 and 1620, has columns of three vow, and may return to the world at any time. different orders of architecture, one surmounting Their chief duty is to attend to the sick and visit the other. In the Salle du Trone, so celebrated the hospitals, where they are constantly to be in the annals of Ghent, was signed the treaty met with. In the order are persons of the highest known as the “Pacification of Ghent,” drawn up, families and wealth. The sisters in Ghent amount in 1576, by the congress of confederates, who to about one hundred, whilst their entire number assembled to adopt measures calculated to drive in Belgium is six thousand. New buildings of the Spaniards out of Belgium, Two modern paintings are to be seen in the interior of the build- two portions; half is given to the prisoners weekly ing, which will not eliçit very much admiration. for pocket money, and the other given to them at

Palace of Justice. A striking building by the expiration of the term of their imprisonment, Rolands, is situated in the Rue du Théâtre. The to assist in their re-establishment in the world. ground floor is used as the Exchange, and the Religious service and instruction are provided and upper chamber as Courts of Justice.

attended to in an admirable manner; and if prisoners Palace de l'Universit:.-Founded by William are found ignorant of the first elements of knowI., King of Holland, in 1826. It is a beautiful ledge, as reading, writing, and arithmetic, they and modern editice, having a splendid Corinthian receive instruction in the various branches. Inportico, modelled from the Pantheon, at Rome, subordination or refractory conduct is punished by and is built on the site of the Jesuits' College. solitary confinement. The shop for refreshments The principal hall, and the amphitheatre, in which sold to the prisoners is kept under strict regulations the academé meetings are held, can accommodate by the officers of the establishment, and the profits from 1,600 to 1,700 people, and is richly ornamented are employed as rewards for the most industrious and embellished.

and well-behaved prisoners. The new part of the The Museum of Natural History is not less re- building, which has been recently completed, has markable for its extent than for the richness of cost upwards of £40,000, and the whole edifice will,

collection. The university contains a library, when finished, contain two thousand six hundred open to the public each day from nine to twelve prisoners. There is still, however, much to be and from two to five o'clock, unless on Sundays done. and feast-days. This library contains 60,000

Le Kauter, or Place d'Armes, is a large square volumes, and very many precious manuscripts. planted with trees. It is a beautiful promenade, The Jardin Botanique, instituted in 1797, belongs

and has a military band usually playing there on to the university, and is spoken of as one of the

summer evenings. finest in Belgium. It contains a collection of

The Marché au Vendredi (Friday's market), a vast 8,000 plants, of 1,000 different species.

square, so called from the day on which the fair Maison des Bateliers, on the Quai aux Herbes,

is held. It is remarkable as having been the spot is an old and picturesque edifice, built in 1513.

where the trades' unions of the middle ages planted The Halle aux Draps will also repay notice. their standards and rallied to arms. On it the

Maison de Detention, a house of correction, situated ceremonial of inaugurating the Counts of Flanders on the north side of the city, on the Coupurea was celebrated with a gorgeous and luxurious canal, which is bordered by a double row of large grandeur, unequalled at the present day. This trees. It was constructed in 1773, in the reign of spot is also identified with one of the most painful Maria Theresa, and forms a perfect octagon, in the and tragic reminiscences connected with the history centre of which is a spacious court, communicating of Ghent. It is celebrated as being the scene of with the different quadrangles of the establish- an internecine slaughter, in which fifteen hundred ment. Each quadrangle or ward has a yard, and citizens were slain by fellow-citizens. The weavers in the centre of that belonging to the female ward and fullers constituted the two factions, and the is a large basin of water, in which the female former were led on and headed by Jacques Van prisoners wash the linen of the whole establish- Artavelde, called the brewer of Ghent, in the corment. Each prisoner sleeps alone in a small but poration of which body he enrolled himself, though well-aired room, and is employed during the day descended from one of the first families in Flanders. in working at whatever trade or business he or The day, to mark the sanguinary and disgraceful she is most competent to do; and of the produce of work, was called Evil Monday, in the annals of this labour, five-tenths are retained by government the town. On that spot, and on that day forty when the prisoners are merely detained correc- years after, Philip, the son of that Jacques, was tionally; six-tenths when they have been sentenced saluted Protector of Ghent, and received the oath to hard labour. The remainder is divided into of fidelity from his townsmen on the occasion of his being called upon to lead them against Louis those of Brussels, St. Lievin, St. Peter, and Bruges, de Mâle. In the Marché au Vendredi also were all of which present curious relics of the ancient lighted the fires of the Inquisition, under the

gates erected in the 14th century. The greater Duke of Alva. The great cannon, situated in a

portion of these gates have been re-constructed, street called the "Mannekens Aert," close to the

after a style of beautiful architecture. Marché, is called Du dulle Griete, alias Mad Mar

Casino.--Situated near the canal, cut in 1750, to gery, is the most enormous ever cast, measuring unite the Lys and Bruges canal together. The 10 feet in length and 10$ feet in circumference. Botanical Society and the Musical Society of St. It is made of hammered iron, and was used in Cécily had this edifice constructed, in which might 1382 at the siege of Oudenarde, by the citizens of be held the reunions of the latter, and the floral Ghent. An interesting monument of antiquity

exhibitions of the former. stands in the Place St. Pharailde, near the Marché Citadel.—Was erected by Charles V., and was aux Poissons. It consists of an old turreted gate- the first thing of the kind raised in Belgium. It way, called the Oudeburg, or the count's stone or

was called “Château des Espagnols," and is castle, built in 868, by Baldwin Bras de fer. It is situated on the east side of the town, not far from incorporated with a cotton factory now, and de

the Porte d'Anvers. In it were imprisoned the serves a visit, as one of the oldest buildings in

Counts Egmont and Hoorn, and it was besieged in Belgium. In the year 1338, Edward III. and his 1570 by the townspeople, under the Prince of family resided here. During his residence his Orange, when they rose to throw off the Spanish queen gave birth to her son, John of Gaunt (Ghent). yoke. The Spaniards vigorously defended it, but An intimate and friendly alliance existed for years 3,000 Gantoises, wearing white shirts to distinguish between the English and people of Ghent. It may

them, assaulted it, and were repulsed, in consenot be uninteresting to mention the fate of Jacques quence of the ladders being too short. The Spaniards Van Artavelde, the brewer, whom Edward III. of capitulated next morning, after the attack, and, England used to style familiarly “his dear gossip."

terms being granted, the Senora Mondragon, who He was a faithful friend and ally to this king, and

had bravely defended the fortress during her huslost his life, it may be said, in his service.

He

band's absence, with about 150 men, some women, invited Edward III. over to Sluis, in 1344, with a

and a few children, the sole remnant of the garriview of taking council for the promotion of the

son, marched out, to the surprise of the victors. promise made to the king by Jacques, to the effect Hospitals.-Ghent possesses 21 hospitals, civil that he would make him “Lord and heritor of and military. The principal of these is the Byloque, Flanders," a thing altogether opposed to the wishes

founded in 1225, and capable of containing 600 of the Gantoises. Public indignation was excited

sick. In the church attached to it, Jacques Van against him, and was further increased by a rumour

Artavelde was buried. The military hospital is

situated near the church of St. Martin, among to the effect that he had, during his administration

beautiful gardens. of the government of Flanders, stealthily sent large sums of money out of the exchequer to England,

Theatre.--A magnificent theatre has been lately

erected at the corner of the Place d'Armes. The which so exasperated the people as to cause them to enter into a revolt against him, assault his

salon, concert hall, and ball-rooms are beautiful in

their construction and decoration. It was erected house, which was attacked by a mob of 400 persons, and broken into, when a citizen, named

at a cost of 2,500,000 francs. Thomas 0. Dennys, slew him without mercy.

Palais de Justice Situated in the Rue du Theatre, Thus perished the man by the hands of those citi

is a very fine building, and will repay notice. zens whom he once influenced, led, and governed.

The commerce and manufactures of Ghent are His statue was set up in the Square, 1863, on the

very extensive and various; the most important site of one of Charles V., which stood here till 1796.

of the latter consist in cotton printing, cotton

spinning, lace making (Brussels and Valenciennes), Portes de la Ville, or City Gates.—There are seven cloth working, gin distilling, sugar refining, soap principal gates, the most remarkable of which are / making, brewing, goldsmiths' work, paper making

and numerous other branches of industry, par- the Escaut, on whose surface can be seen the ticularly the making of masks, of which large boats as they sail up and down the river. quantities are exported all over the world. There Wetteren (Station). A charming village, or is also a superb iron foundry and engine manu- rather town, the capital of a canton, situated to factory, called the Phønix, founded 1821 by M. the right of the railway, on the right bank of the Huytens Kerremans, in Ghent. Every day, in the Escaut. It contains a population of about 9,000 morning, at noon, and in the evening, a bell rings, souls. At this point the direct line to Brussels to announce to the workmen, who amount in diverges to the right, forming a communication with number to 1,500 and upwards, the hour of going to Alost (Station)-Hotels: Pays Bas; Des Trois work. While this bell is ringing, none of the Rois. On the river Dendre, the chief town of the bridges are allowed to be turned, lest they should district of East Flanders, said to owe its origin to intercept the passage of the industrious artizans.

a fortress built by the Goths in 411. The environs of Ghent are pleasant and fertile, It was formerly the capital of what was called abounding particularly in corn, flax, madder, and Imperial Flanders, and was reduced to ashes by a tobacco. Outside the gate of Courtrai are numer

conflagration in 1360, and in 1667 the celebrated ous country houses, and the road is bordered with Marshal Turenne took and dismantled it. The pleasure gardens. Near the Antwerp gates are town hall is a fine Gothic editice, built in 1210, and still to be traced the ruins of the citadel constructed

is in excellent preservation. The collegiate Church by Charles V., on the site of the abbey of St. of St. Martin was built by the same architect as the Bavin; and in the neighbourhood of the gate of cathedral of Amiens, and contains a fine picture St. Lievin is found a transparent stone, resembling | by Rubens, representing the “Plague of Alost." the flint of Fleuris.

The population is about 20,000, chiefly engaged in The fairs held at Ghent commence on the 16th linen, soap, and thread-lace manufactures. March, and continue for eighteen days; 10th July,

Leaving Wetteren, the road crosses a viaduct, seventeen days; 9th August, one day; and 3rd

and passing along, has to the left the little villages October, two days.

of Cherscamp and Schelle-Belle, and arrives at

Wichelen, after passing the Molenbuk, a stream A communication between the sea and Ghent

flowing into the Escaut. exists by means of a canal, which enters the

Wichelen (Station). A small commune to tho Schelde at Terneuse. This ensures all the ad

right of the railway, with a population of 4,000 vantages of a seaport to the city. Vessels drawing

inhabitants. This station is the point-d'arrét for eighteen feet of water can enter the basin. About

each train. fourteen miles north, at Sas van Ghent, are sluices, proceeds through a rather uninteresting piece of

On quitting this place, the railway by means of which the entire country can be laid under water.

country, and arrives at

Termonde (Station), or Dendermonde. GHENT TO ANTWERP, see Route 9. Six other

Inns: Aigle; Dela Demi-Lune. Population, 8,640. lines run to Selzaete, Hecloo, Bruges, and Ostend;

An ancient town, said to be earlier than the Thourout, Oudenarde, Malines, &c.; and to Brussels,

time of Charlemagne. It is situated at the mouth vià Alost, half-an-hour shorter than viâ Malines.

of the river Dendre, at its confluence with the Ghent to Mechlin.-Leaving Ghent, the rail- Scheldt. The inhabitants have a taste for the fine way after crossing the Scheldt is carried along the arts, and the traveller may readily obtain access south side of it. The scenery is interesting, and to several private collections, among which we such as usually characterises the environs of a

may name those of M. Schellekin and Madame great and populous city, until we arrive at

Terlinden. David Teniers married in this town, Melle (station), on the Escaut. Containing and resided for several years. The population a population of 1,900. The route from Brussels to is chiefly engaged in the hemp and flax trade. Ghent, and from Ghent to Mons by Grammont It is 16 miles by railway west of Malines and 19 here join. From this station to Wetteren the line from Ghent. The church of Notre Dame will describes an immense curve, following the bond of ropay a visit. It is a low, old building, sur

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