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expect to hear your opinion on the difference that appears in the workmanship of each. You must know then, says Philander, that, till about the end of the third century, when there was a general decay in all the arts of designing, I do not remember to have seen the head of a Roman emperor drawn with a full face. They always appear in profil, to use a French term of art, which gives us the view of a head, that, in my opinion, has something in it very majestic, and at the same time suits best with the dimensions of a medal. Besides that, it shows the nose and eye-brows, with the several prominences and fallings in of the features, much more distinctly than any other kind of figure. In the lower empire you have abundance of broad Gothic faces, like so many full moons on the side of a coin. Among the moderns, too, we have of both sorts, though the finest are made after the antique. In the next place, you find the figures of many ancient coins rising up in a much more beautiful relief than those on the modern. This, too, is a beauty that fell with the grandeur of the Roman emperors, so that you see the face sinking by degrees in the several declensions of the empire, till, about Constantine's time, it lies almost even with the surface of the medal. After this it appears so very plain and uniform, that one would think the coiner looked on the flatness of a figure as one of the greatest beauties in sculpture. I fancy, says Eugenius, the sculptors of that age had the same relish as a Greek priest that was buying some religious pictures at Venice. Among others he was shown a noble piece of Titian. The priest having well surveyed it, was very much scandalized at the extravagance of the relief, as he termed it. You know, says he, our religion forbids all idolatry: we admit of no images but such as are drawn on a smooth surface: the figure you have here shown me stands so much out to the eye, that I would no sooner suffer it in my church than a statue. I could recommend your Greek priest, says Philander, to abundance of celebrated painters on this side of the Alps that would not fail to please him. We must own, however, that the figures on several of our modern medals are raised and rounded to a very great perfection. But if you compare them in this particular with the most finished among the ancients, your men of art declare universally for the latter.
Cynthio and Eugenius, though they were well pleased
with Philander's discourse, were glad, however, to find it at an end: for the sun began to gather strength upon them, and had pierced the shelter of their walks in several places. Philander had no sooner done talking, but he grew sensible of the heat himself, and immediately proposed to his friends the retiring to his lodgings, and getting a thicker shade over their heads. They both of them very readily closed with the proposal, and by that means give me an opportunity of finishing my dialogue.
THE FIRST SERIES.
1. VIRTVTI AVGVSTI. S. C. Reverse of Domitian.
2. HONOS ET VIRTVS. Reverse of Galba.
3. CONCORDIA AVG. S. C.
4. PAX ORBIS TERRARVM.
5. ABVNDANTIA AVG. S. C.
6. 7. FIDES EXERCITVS. Reverse of Heliogabalus.
8. SPES AVGVSTA. Reverse of Claudius.
9. SECVRITAS PVBLICA. S. C. Reverse of Antoninus Pius.
Reverse of Faustina Junior.
Reverse of Faustina Senior.
10. PVDICITIA. S. C.
15. FELIX TEMPORUM REPARATIO.
16. ÆTERNITAS AVGVSTI. S. C. Reverse of Adrian. 17. ÆTERNITAS. S. C. Reverse of Antonine.
18. VICTORIA AVGVSTI. S. C. Reverse of Nero.
19. SARMATIA DEVICTA. A Victory. Reverse of Constantine. 20. LIBERTAS PVBLICA. S. C. Reverse of Galba.
Reverse of Sabina.
Reverse of Otho.
Reverse of Gordianus Pius.
Reverse of Constantine.
THE SECOND SERIES.
1. FELICITATI AVG. COS. III. P. P. S. C.
2. PONTIF. MAX. TR. POT. PP. COS. II.
3. P. N. R. S. C. Reverse of Claudius.
4. S. C. Reverse of Augustus.
5. S. P. Q. R. P. P. OB. CIVES SERVATOS. Reverse of Caligula.
6. Reverse of Tiberius.
7. FIDES PVBLICA.
8. PRÆTOR RECEPT.
Reverse of Claudius.
9. FECVNDITAS. S. C.
Reverse of Julia Augusta.
10. NERO CLAV. CÆSAR. IMP. ET OCTAVIA. AVGVST. F. Re
Reverse of Titus.
Reverse of Hadrian.
verse of Claudius.
11. ORIENS AVG. Reverse of Aurelian.
12. Reverse of Commodus.
13. GLORIA EXERCITVS. E. S. I. S. 14. PRINCIPI IVVENTUTİS. S. C.
Reverse of Constantine.
15. M. CATO. L. VETTIACVS. II. VIR. LEG. IV. LEG. VI. LEG X. C. C. A. Reverse of Tiberius.
16. TR. P. VII. IMP. III. COS. V. P. P. S. C. Reverse of Trajan.
Reverse of Lucius Verus.
17. TR. POT. V. IMP. III. COS. II. S. C. Reverse of Vespasian.
18. PAX AVG. S. C.
19. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. S. C. DE
20. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. S. C. DE SARMATIS.
21. Reverse of Trajan.
Reverse of M. Aurelius.
22. TR. POT. XIIII. P. P. COS. II.
24. COS. IIII. S. C. Reverse of Antoninus Pius.
THE THIRD SERIES.
2. AFRICA. S. C.
1. FELIX ADVENT. AVG. G. NN. PEN. Reverse of Dioclesian. Reverse of Septimius Severus. Reverse of Adrian.
3. AFRICA. S. C.
4. EGIPTOS. S. C.
Reverse of Adrian.
5. MAVRETANIA. S. C. Reverse of Adrian.
6. HISPANIA. S. C.
Reverse of Adrian.
7. ADVENTVI AVG. GALLIÆ. S. C. Reverse of Adrian.
8. ITALIA. S. C.
Reverse of Marcus Antoninus.
9. ROMA. S. C.
Reverse of Nero.
10. RESTITVTORI ACHAIE. Reverse of Adrian.
Reverse of Antoninus Pius.
12. RESTITVTORI SICILIE. S. C. Reverse of Adrian. 13. IVDEA CAPTA. S. C.
Reverse of Vespasian.
14. VICTORIA AVGVSTI. S. C.
15. PARTHIA. S. C. COS. II. Reverse of Antoninus Pius.
17. ΘΥΑΤΕΙΡΗΝΩΝΚ. CMYPN. ΣΤΡ. Τ. ΦΑΒ. ΑΛ. ΑΠΟΛΛΙΝΑΡΙΟΥ. Reverse of Marcus Aurelius.
18. ARAB. ADQ. S. P. Q. R. OPTIMO PRINCIPI. S. C. Reverse of Trajan.
SEVERAL PARTS OF ITALY, &c.
IN THE YEARS 1701, 1702, 1703.
Verum ergo id est, si quis in cœlum ascendisset, naturamque mundi et pulchritudinem siderum perspexisset, insuavem illam admirationem ei fore, quæ jucundissima fuisset, si aliquem cui narraret habuisset. CICER. DE AMIC.
RIGHT HONOURABLE JOHN LORD SOMERS,
BARON OF EVESHAM.
THERE is a pleasure in owning obligations which it is an honour to have received, but should I publish any favours done me by your Lordship, I am afraid it would look more like vanity than gratitude.
I had a very early ambition to recommend myself to your Lordship's patronage, which yet increased in me as I travelled through the countries of which I here give your Lordship some account for whatever great impressions an Englishman must have of your Lordship, they who have been conversant abroad will find them still improved. It cannot but be obvious to them, that though they see your Lordship's admirers everywhere, they meet with very few of your wellwishers at Paris or at Rome. And I could not but observe, when I passed through most of the Protestant governments in Europe, that their hopes or fears for the common cause rose or fell with your Lordship's interest and authority in England.
I here present your Lordship with the remarks that I made in a part of these my travels; wherein, notwithstanding the variety of the subject, I am very sensible that I offer