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i. e., practice is the essential feature, less or no time being given to text-books. “Scientific temperance instruction” (the name used by the progenitors of the fifth method) is chiefly by textbook, less or no time being given to demonstration.
The members of the committee have given to this work all the attention possible to spare from other duties. They submit herewith their studies of two features of the fifth method: one a study of the laws regulating the teaching of physiology and hygiene, the other a study of "indorsed ” physiologies and others.
It is hoped that further time will be allowed to report on all the methods indicated; and, when the facts have been presented, to consider in a final summing up such conclusions as these facts warrant.
HELEN C. PUTNAM,
FIRST SECTION: STUDIES OF LAWS AND OF TEXT
BOOKS. A Study of the Laws in the United States on Teaching Physi
ology and Hygiene in Public Schools. All laws relating to the teaching of physiology and hygiene in our public schools' have been secured for the purpose of “scientific temperance instruction," and are best appreciated when studied as an evolution.
The first, in Vermont, 1882, simply enumerated among the other subjects to be taught "elementary physiology and hygiene which shall give special prominence to the effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system," provided for the examination of teachers in this as in other subjects, and for a text-book on merely physiology and hygiene chosen as were other text-books. The object was and has always been to incorporate this in the child's education as thoroughly as, e. 9., arithmetic. That law did not accomplish this object. It might even be satisfied with a few talks to a few pupils in one school.
1 These laws as existing in 1903, compiled by the committee, are published as a preliminary report in the Bulletin, April, 1904.
2 An Act relating to the study of physiology and hygiene in the public schools. It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont :
Sec. 1. Section five hundred and fifty-eight, chapter thirty-three, of the revised laws is hereby amended so as to read as follows:
One or more schools shall be maintained in each town for the instruction of the young in good behavior, reading, writing, spelling, English grammar, geography, arithmetic, free-hand drawing, history and constitution of the United States, and elementary phys. iology and hygiene which shall give special prominence to the effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system; and specialinstruction shall be given in the geography and history, constitution and principles of government of Vermont. Text-book committees shall select and recommend a text book on elementary physiology and hygiene for use in their respective towns.
Sec. 2. No teacher shall be required to pass an examination in physiology and hygiene before November 1, 1883.
Approved November 13, 1882,
From this beginning has developed the present legislation throughout the country.
INFLUENCES IN THE EVOLUTION. Three influences are specially distinguished in the evolution of these laws: 1, The schools; 2, certain business interests; 3, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.
The schools.-Physiology and anatomy (hygiene was less considered) before 1882 were looked at askance by most teachers, and by most parents as well, as an uninteresting, unfit and embarrassing, possibly dangerous, subject, especially for children. It had been irregularly taught in comparatively few schools. There were no text-books adapted to children of different ages, and none containing instruction relating to the "effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics upon the human system.” The teaching of natural and physical sciences had not been undertaken by the very great majority of teachers.
Therefore most school officials were indifferent or passively opposed to these laws, and instructors unprepared for the subjects.
2. Certain business interests.—The large classes whose business interests and whose pleasures are antagonized by such instruction have actively obstructed this legislation through politicians and the ballot, through the press (pre-eminently) and through their many channels of influence in communities, on local boards, etc.
3. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union.-A nucleus of patriotic, capable, reverent women, associating with themselves professional men and women of good standing in the law, the ministry, medicine, science and education, have organized and directed public sentiment among the home-makers, the intelli
gent and law-abiding throughout the great territory of the United States, and in twenty years have accomplished the evolution of these laws to their present stage, and secured a fair degree of enforcement -a much more difficult task.
Besides the opposition of certain business interests, the chief that has been influential has been recently raised in three eastern states, mainly by certain educators, many of whom belong to scientific societies.
In New York, 1896, a movement led by some of the teachers secured slight modifications of no particular moment in the law of 1895, resulting in the existing law. Criticism of this law continues.
In Massachusetts, 1899, educators prevented the addition of several features found in these laws elsewhere designed to secure their stricter enforcement.
In Connecticut, 1901, educators secured the removal of several such features from the stringent law of 1893, the present one resulting
CHRONOLOGY OF ORIGINAL LAWS. The original laws were enacted in the following chronological order. Many of them were amended afterwards. 1882 Vermont. 1883 Michigan, New Hampshire. 1884 New York, Rhode Island. 1885 Alabama, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin. 1886 Congress (Territories, District of Columbia, National Schools), ConSTEPS IN EVOLUTION OF LAWS. The main features of these laws made their first appearances the necessity for each was believed to be demonstrated. trend of the evolution has been toward accuracy of expression, and addition of details to cover weak points through which the intention of previous laws had been evaded.
necticut, Iowa, Maryland. 1887 California, Colorado, Delaware, Minnesota, West Virginia. 1888 Louisiana, Ohio. 1889 Florida, Illinois, Montana.' 1890 North' and South Dakota,' Idaho,' Washington,' Wyoming.' 1891 North Carolina. 1892 Mississippi. 1893 Kentucky, Texas. 1894 New Jersey, South Carolina. 1895 Indiana, Tennessee. 1897 Utah, 1899 Arkansas. 1900 Virginia. 1901 Georgia.
1 Had a law previously as a territory under the law of Congress, 1886.
The list is full of significances as well as of history.
effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system;"
Text-books (selected by regular text-book committee). Vermont. 1883 “With special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants
and narcotics upon the human system.” Michigan and New Hamp-
Michigan. 1884 "All schools supported wholly or in part by public money or under
state control.” New York. 1885 Temperance instruction "in each division of the subjects of physiology
and hygiene.” Pennsylvania, Massachusetts.
Pennsylvania. 1886 "Nature of alcoholic drinks and narcotics and their effects upon the
human system.” Congress, Vermont.
Space in text-books specified for scientific temperance instruction. Vermont.
To be taught in teachers' institutes, normal classes, state charitable
institutions. Iowa. 1888 Orally from "text-books in the hands of teachers” to those not
able to read. Louisiana. 1890 Length and number of lessons specified. North Dakota. 1894 Graded text-books specified;
Examinations of pupils specified. New Jersey.
1896 "The nature and effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics;"
Minimum number and length of lessons;
Examinations for promotion required. New York. 1897 Orally only in first three years of primary grade. New York. The last three laws in this evolution, Illinois 1899, Virginia 1900, Georgia 1901, use the phrase "alcohol,” or "alcoholic drinks," "and other narcotics."
It would be interesting to recite some of the circumstances demonstrating the need of these additions to, or alterations in, the original simple law. Many can be surmised by all who have had any experience with political methods.
Without discussing the wisdom of this legislation, one may recall that the results of indifference and inadequacy in the schools, of political, commercial and social hostility, of luke-warm and antagonistic scientists and physicians, were to be overcome by this legislation, as well as text-books evolved, and teachers prepared. Such a chronology testifies to a large constituency, faithful persistence, intelligent observation, and executive resourcefulness.
EXTENT OF LEGISLATION ACCOMPLISHED. The extent to which this legislation has been accomplished must be ascertained to help answer the question: Do existing laws favor or hinder the development of the teaching of hygiene?
The present laws cover all the continental possessions of the United States, including Alaska and excepting the Isthmian Canal zone; and also Hawaii and Porto Rico.
The reader is referred to Appendix A' for further details of the following statements that briefly analyze the laws of forty-five states and the National law of Congress.
(1) Where is the teaching of physiology and hygiene, including "scientific temperance," mandatory?
Twenty-three state laws specify all public schools.
Twenty-two state laws specify all schools supported wholly or in part by public money or under state control. Query: How often is this interpreted to mean schools having special charters from the state?
Michigan specifies schools having special charters. Massachusetts specifies private day schools, except those solely for instruction in special branches.
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