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Ham, a village. Sebergham is explained by Sedbergh (H. C. sidhe, a hill, A. S. beorg, a hill). The Eng. diminutive hamlet, a village, shows plainly that the ham had then become a town.

Hill, both Angle and Saxon, is frequent in this district, but seems to be late. It is generally found as a repetition : Brownberg Hill, Castle Law Hill (A. S. beorg, a hill, hlaw, a hill), etc.

More, a moor. Westmorland was probably the original name of the Morland district. Melmerby (D. mellem, cf. mellemmuur, mellemvei, the middle wall, the middle way), the “town on the middle of the moor,” furnishes us with the same orthography as is found in Westmeria.

There are other terminations, brough, a castle, brig, a bridge, land, ley, a meadow, and mere, a lake; but most of them are Angle as well as Saxon.

Late English terminations, such as water, stone, etc., as they belong to the dominant language, can be of no use to the ethnographer.

DANISH TERMINATIONS.

By (D. by, a town), a village originating in a farmhouse and outbuildings. Gamblesby (D. gammel), old town, contrasts with Newby; Upperby with Netherby, lower town. Scaleby (D. skiul, a shelter or refuge) may be compared to the Angle Skelton. Tebay (N. thy, a slave or bondman) seems to belong to this termination. Kirkby is invariably of Christian origin, as Kirkby Stephen, Kirkby Kendal, etc. Kirkby Thore cannot have any connexion with the god Thor; it is so called from the Roman road, N. thor, H. C. tochar, a highway.

Cleugh (N. kliufa, to split, D. klöft, a cleft), a ravine or glen.The provincial clough, the fork of a tree, and the Eng. claw.

Croft (N. grafa, to dig, D. gröft, a ditch), a field surrounded with a sunk fence, a close.

Dale (D. dal), a valley). Garsdale means grass-dale, Sleddale (D. slet, plain), the open, level dale, and Naddle (D. nöd, cattle), the grazing dale. Cf. Nateby and Natland. Smardale (D. smör), butter-dale.

DANISH TERMINATIONS.

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Fell (D. field), a mountain, a hill.—The Angle field, the side or slope of the hill, as in Sheffield.-Fairfield (D. faar), the sheep fell, Souter Fell, the southern fell. Cf. Sutherland, Scotland, the southern land.

Ford (D. fiord), an arm of the sea.

Garth (N. gardhr, a hedge) an enclosed field. Crewgarth (H. C. corrach, a marsh), the field enclosed on the marsh, Cunning Garth (N. kuningr, a rabbit), the rabbits' field. The D. gaard, a country house.

Gate (D. gade), a street, the main thoroughfare of the town. Stramongate (D. stram), Kendal, the straight street, Boroughgate, Penrith, castle-street, Bongate (D. bonde), the peasants' street. Cf. Bannerdale, Bannisdale (D. bönder, peasants). Clappersgate (N. kleppr), rough street.

Hope (N. hop), a place of refuge, a hollow between two hills. Warcop seems to be from wark hope, the fortified hope, and Rodderup from, perhaps, the D. röd, red, the red hope.

Ing (D. eng, a meadow), river-side ground. Nearly eq. the N. syke. Hincaster, the camp in the meadow.

Keld (D. kilde, a fountain), a spring.–N. kill, a brook.

Scales (D. skiul, a shelter), a temporary place of abode. Hudscales eq. Hutton (G. hut, guard). The shield of the borders, and the Shields of Northumberland and Durham.

Side (H. C. sidhe), a hill. Hartside is undoubtedly a hill. The general use appears to be eq. the Angle field, the hill-side.

Skaw, scaws, skew, sceugh, shaw (D. skov), a wood.

Stead (D. sted), a place. — The G. stadt, a town.—Boustead (D. baas, a stall), the place for cattle, eq. Cabus, Lancashire (D. ko-baas, the cowstall.)

Stock, stoke (D. stok, a stick), a house fortified with a stockade. Cf. Stockholme, the island of the fort, the D. stokhuus, a jail, etc.

Thing (N. thing, an assembly, a court of justice), the district belonging to a court of justice. Irthing (H. C. iar), the western district, has given its name to a river.

Thorpe (N. thorp), a village.-G. dorf, a village.
Thwaite (N. thveitr, a piece of land, a meadow, or field), a piece

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of ground separated or enclosed to some extent, generally by rivers, as in Roundthwaite, Westmorland, where the rivers nearly form a circle.-A. S. thweotan, to cut off.—Wyberthwaite, C. C. gwy, water, D. byr. Braithwaite is from the D. bred, broad, and Brathwaite from the D. brat, steep.

Wath (N. vadha), a ford. Longwathby (pr. langaby), the village at the long ford. Yanwath is a contraction of Yamonwath, the ford of the Eamont (Yamon), that is, the water mound (the former name of King Arthur's Round Table), now transferred to the river.

With (A. wick), a village. Cf. worth and work. Skirwith (D. skiär, a rock) eq. Clifton. Names of places with this ending are not numerous, but there is a strong tendency in the district to substitute with for wick and worth.

NORWEGIAN TERMINATIONS.

Ber, bires (N. byr, a farmhouse), a farmhouse or village. Kaber (D. ko, a cow) is eq. Nateby (D. nöd, cattle). The first parts of Birthwaite, Birbeck, Barwick, Barton, are of this origin. Burton and Bruton are probably from brough.

Frith (N. fördhr, an arm of the sea), an estuary. The Angle use of the word seems to be that of a glen, with generally a river passing through it: Holmefirth, Chapel in the Frith.

Gill (N. gil, a mountain chasm), a glen.

Haugh, how (N. haugr), a hill or burial-mound. Bruckenhow, the hill at the bridge.

Holme (N. holmi), a little island, as the holmes in Windermere. Eq. the D. ö. The Danish and Angle use of the word in Cumbria is that of ground more or less surrounded by a river. Farrisholme (D. faar), the sheep's holme, and Hestholme (D. hest), the horses holme, may be compared to Oxenholme (D. ören).

Ness (N. nes), a cape.

Syke (N. siki, a marsh), wet meadow-land. All the present sykes were once marshes.

Street (N. streti), a lane. Finkle-street, Kendal and Carlisle (D. vinkel), the crooked street. The Angle use of the word is that of

NORWEGIAN TERMINATIONS.

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a highway, as in the Roman road, High Street. We have also Plumpton back-street and front-street, which are nothing but the old and new roads to Carlisle.

Tarn (N. tiörn), a small lake. Tarn Wadling, the lake on the Roman road, Wadling. For Talkin Tarn, cf. Talk o'th' Hill, Staffordshire.

Of the other terminations, beck (D. bäk), a brook, biggin, (D. bygning), a building, cot (N. kot), a hut, rig (D. ryg), a ridge, scar (N. sker), a rock, and slack (N. slakr), marshy ground, etc., some at least are doubtful.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE MODERN PEOPLE.

HAVING pointed out the groundwork on which an approximation to the elements of the modern people may be made, it is still difficult to convey an impression of what must be considered the true proportions. The investigator who has gone over the ground, examined the original settlements and their probable extent, forming an idea of the manner in which subsequent colonists pressed in between, and finally obliterated the traces that they found before them, will necessarily make allowances, though he may find it impossible to impress his views on the reader. To an ordinary observer, the Danish name of a town stands as the representative of some hundreds of a Danish population; but this view, as has been shown in the preceding pages, must be utterly erroneous.

The Mixed people of Cumbria, there is hardly a doubt, outnumbered the Celtic, as the Danes and Norwegians exceeded in number the Angles and Saxons. And hence arose the preponderance of the Danish dialect. It is probable the Danes originally took exclusive possession of certain districts, for the simple reason that they found them unoccupied. In the same way the Angles visibly spread themselves by means of the Roman roads. But this would by no means justify us in saying that we have here, at the present day, an Angle population, any more than we have in another place a Danish one. Settling side by side, and mixing from the first, it can scarcely be otherwise than that the elements of the population are as thoroughly blended in Cumbria, as in other parts of England.

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