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Pseudo-etymology, a general term for most of the processes by which older names of places disappear, has existed since languages began to mix, and still flourishes in perennial vigour. Some farther mention of its strange conceits will be found in subsequent chapters, at present we are limited to the supplanting of Celtic names. The first and most general process, is that of mistaking the word; Catterlen might have been written Catter Lane,* as it is pronounced, and if any person of the name of Catter could be found in Norway or Iceland, in real life or in fable, its Celtic existence even now would come to an end. To this class belongs the silly mistake of supposing the British balefires to have been the “fires of Baal,” which has solely arisen from the name having become so familiar through the Bible. Secondly, there is a vanity in language that wishes to explain every thing and make it intelligible. The Itawa of the Cherokees was converted by the Europeans into High Tower; and our own Blencathra was changed into Blenk Arthur, it being “best explained" in this form. And lastly, as a consequence of the closeness of the Indo-European languages to each other, any person who has learned any one of them is in danger of finding etymologies for the scattered words of all the others. This kind of monomania was once confined to the classic languages, but has now found its way into Anglo-Saxon, and Danish, whilst in Norse it threatens to become quite an epidemic. It was by the unfortunate class of persons alluded to that Picti was declared to mean the “painted people ;” and why did they think so ?-they understood Latin, but not Celtic. Derby, the town on the river, was explained by Worsaae as the “town of animals (deer)"—such an enchanted place as we read of in Eastern tales. The Cumbrian words that have been so treated, would include almost all the Celtic in the two counties,

But even when the words are acknowledged to be Celtic, they have a danger to encounter. Persons etymologists, as they call themselves—barbarously ignorant of the fate of the Celtic languages, of Celtic history, grammar, changes and aspirations, of

* Cf. Lane End, Staffordshire. What plainer name could be desired !-but that half the villages of England are similarly situated.


everything that can aid in discriminating, confidently find explanations of Celtic difficulties. And every author of a guide-bookblind guides !-thinks himself at liberty to frighten tourists with the origin of Celtic names.

The oldest words corresponding to the modern “town,” evidently indicate the state of the plains, when the first immigrants were entering Europe. They are all derivatives or transfers from the names of hills. This choice of a site had perhaps a double object; the rising ground was healthier than the valley, but it also afforded protection. The Sans. nagara, a city, is from naga, a hill. The Lat. pagus, a village, is the Gr. pagos, a hill. The Nor. thorp, a village, is from the C. tor, a hill. The Ger. burg, a castle, is from berg, a hill; whence the English “borough.” The Rus. gorad (grad), a city, is from gara, a hill, as Nóvgarad, the new city, Biolgrad, the white city, and the Ger. Stuttgart. The C. dun, a fort, a fortified house, is dun, a hill, the Angle ton, whence the English “ town." The two last words, after making their way into the German languages, retained only a part of their meanings in some of the dialects. Gorad became the D. gaard (pr. gord), a country house, the Cumbrian garth, an enclosed field, the Eng. "yard,” the N. gardhr, a hedge. Dun became the A.S. tun, an estate of any extent, the Dutch tuin, a garden, the Ger. zaun, a hedge. Perhaps there is no language that has not one such word from the same origin.

As for the hybrid words explained in the glossaries of this work, there can be nothing more certain than that languages coming in contact do mix and borrow from each other. Especially, all words used as terminations (by, ton, etc.), are freely added to the existing names of the country. If I err in finding two different languages in the same word, I need only say, it is in company with W. von Humboldt, the polar star of modern philology.

ABALLABA (presumptively C. I., but its Basque derivation would be too indefinite) is probably the origin of Apple-by. Antoninus's Itinerary.

ALBION (C. alb, a hill) the hill country. Frequent in old Italian names of places, Alba Longa, the long hill, etc. Cf. Albanus, the

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old name of the Caucasus country, and the Spanish Albocella (C. C. uchel), the high hill. This derivation throws light on the myth of Albion and Bergion (Ger. berg, a hill), sons of Neptune, who were killed by Hercules. Ptolemy's Alouion, eq. Alvion, explains the name of the Helvii, and Helvetii of Switzerland. In Alp, eq. Alpt, we have probably the Lat. lapidis (lapis, a stone), and the name of Lapithæ, who may have come down from the Balkan.

AMBOGLANNA (H. C. amuich gleanna), the place at the outlet of the glen. Now Amble-side. Ant. It.

AXELODUNUM, H. C. uisgeamhuil dun, the marsh fort, on the wall. Several of this name in Britain and Gaul. Ant. It.

BAILEY, H. C. baile, the town. Scottish, and frequent in late Irish names of places. Ballydoyle, Doyle's town.

BARCO, H. C. bar, the hill, catha, of the fight, near Penrith.

BLATUM BULGIUM (C. C. bledd, ravage, spoil, ble, a plain), the Belgian conquest. Ant. It.

BLENCAIRN, H. C. blein, a tongue of land enclosed by the sea, or by rivers, cairn, of the burial-place.

BLENÇOGO, H. C. blein cogach, the place for war, the stronghold. Blencowe, an apocopated form.

BRIGANTES (Lat. pl. of briga, a tribe ; Sans. varga, a multitude), the clans, the confederates.

BRITAIN (H. C. breath, judgment), the country governed by judges, a name given by the Gauls. Cæsar says: “The system of Druidism is thought to have been formed in Britain, and from thence carried over into Gaul; and now those who wish to be more accurately versed in it, for the most part go thither (to Britain), in order to become acquainted with it.” The name in full was Inis breithemh, the island of the judges, the oldest Cambricised form of which is Inis pryddain, as appears in the Welsh triads. Breathnach in the Irish language means Welshman, and breithemh, a judge, is pronounced brehon. The Vergobret of the Aeduans is explained correctly fear go breath, the man for judgment.

BROUGH, H. C. brugh, a fortification, on the wall, and another in Westmorland (pr. bruff). We have another pronunciation of

this word, broo (in Brougham), from the same origin. The Ger. burg only accounts for borough (in Borrowbridge, etc.) The Brovonacæ and Brovacum of Ant. It.

CALEDONIA (C. Gaill y dun, the Gauls of the hills), a Lat. derivative for the name of the country. Cf. Donegal, the fort of the Gaul or stranger.

CARLISLE, original name Luguvallum (H. C. log, the pool, balla, at the wall), was first applied to the confluence of the rivers. The aspiration of the two inner consonants reduced the name to Luil, and the Belgæ meantime prefixed cathir,- from which, by the same ekthlipsis, arose the present orthography. Accent on the second syllable. Cf. Lugdunum, the ancient name of Lyons and Leyden, the pool fort.

CATTERLEN, H. C. ceathair, the quadrangle, leana, of the marsh (river-side ground), the Roman fort at Plumpton, now the name of a township. Cf. Lane End, Staffordshire, the marsh end; within a short distance is the village of Fen-ton.

CELT (H. C. ceil, to cover), clothed. Transferred to the "kilt" of the Highlands, and to the Cumbrian homespun garment, well known as the "kelt coat."

COOMBS, C. C. cwmp, a circle, a remarkable piece of unproductive, stony ground in Martindale.

CORNEY (C. C. corn, a horn), with the ending ey, has become the name of a river,originally the peninsula. Cf. Corn-wall.

CROGLIN, H. C. carraig, the rock, linne, of the water.

CROWDUNDLE (H. C. corrach, a marsh, dun, the fort), Crowdun-dale, the Crowdun being probably the fort at Milburn. Cf.. the Curragh in Ireland, and in the Isle of Man; and Crewe in Cheshire, that is, the marsh.

CULGAITH (pr. coolgaath), H. C. cul, the back, guirt, of the garden, the end of the open country, eq. the French cul-de-sac. The é is most probably the sign of the genitive, retained even when the r was lost.

CULTRAM (pr. caltram), H. C. cealltrach, a church,-the abbey lands. Cf. Caltram in the south of Ireland.

CUMBERLAND (H. C. cumar, a confluence, or valley; cumarach,

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ding in hills and vallies), the hill country. The Cummeragh Eains are the highest and wildest in Ireland. MREW, C. C. cymru, the people, or settlement, of the hills, a e on the “ fell-sides.” The Welsh are so named for the same 1; and Cimbri and Cimmerioi appear to have a similar origin. RWENT, C. C. dwr, water, gwent, beautiful. NDRAW, H. C. dun, the hill, darach, of the oak. Cf. Dunw in the south of Ireland. INMAILE, H. C. dun maoile, the hill of the heap, or sepulchral ad. JNMALLET (pr. Dunmawland), H. C. dun maolain, the hill of peacon. URDAR, C. C. dwr dar, the water at the oak, the original name ne Caldew. DEN, anciently Ituna, a Celtiberian name; its modern form has

conjectured into everything by etymologists. SK, H. C. uisge, water. Cf. the Exe and the Axe. LENCOIN, H. C. glean, the valley, caine, of tribute. LENDERRATERRA, H. C. glean darach, the glen of the oak. Cf. derrow. Terra appears to be a Roman addition, pure Celtic ies never being formed of this kind. Some “guide-book” ter has explained this name into the “ valley of the angel of cution.” Cf. the ancient Avalterræ. GLENRIDDING, C. C. glyn, the valley, rhyd, of the ford. HARTLOW, H. C. aird, the country, locha, of the lake, the thern Morecambe. Cf. Carlow. IIBERNIA (H. C. ibher, the west), the west country. Cf. Iveh, in the southwest of Ireland, and Iberia. The name was imologised by the Romans into the “wintry land,” and then clared to be too cold to be inhabited (Strabo). KENT, H. C. cent, the promontory, transferred to the river. KILBIDDING (H. C. cill, the church), the church at the ford. : Kilmarnock, Killarney, etc.; and the Russian celó, a church llage. KNOCK, H. C. cnoc, a hill, in Knock Pike, etc. LANERCOST (C. C. llan, a church), the church land, with pro

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