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vine wisdom and goodness in PER- not separating in our ideas the extent MITTING and controlling the contingent of possible fatal contingencies, and events of the moral world.

that aggregate number, who, out of I am, Sir,

the mass of free agents, are found asWith great esteem,

sociated with, or rather absorbing, a

B. portion of such possibilities. As to London, March 4, 1820.

the question of the freedom of the The concluding paragraph of will, after the Divine Being has given this letter has been omitted, because, intuitive conviction; the conviction of while it evidently makes the existence experience, that the human will is free; of moral evil necessary to the produc- it is, to say the least of it, ingratitude tion of good, it has no immediate con- in His creatures to deny it such a nection with the Divine prescience.- power—the admission of which solves Editor.

so many difficulties, and furnishes so ample a commentary upon that sub

lime truth “ God is love." On the Prescience of God.

Respecting the primary catastrophe MR. EDITOR,

of the fall of man, the circumstances SIR,-Should the following remarks under which that eventtook place, in reupon the Foreknowledge of God, meet| ference to the general moral governyour approbation, their insertion in ment of God, it is wise to consider as your Miscellany will oblige, B. altogether without the limits of specula

tion. The doctrine, however, of Divine London, April 1,

permission in regard to the events of There must certainly be some mode the moral world, contingent or otherof the Divine intelligence, by which the wise, a doctrine so implicitly and exextent and variety of all actions are plicitly inculcated in sacred writ, does known, even those that are the result away, if not entirely, at least most raof contingent causes. We call it tionally, with the doctrine of Necessity; FOREKNOWLEDGE, and sometimes as the Divine Being being perfectly free in sociate such terrible ideas with the His actions. If the procedures of inexpression, as are in fact expressive finite wisdom be referible to an inof little more than our ignorance. The flexibly modified and universal rule, subject is evident too much connected then the circumstance of Divine perwith the mystery of the Divine nature; mission, does not destroy the idea of the and from this fact, we have not the necessary existence of evil in the aggreleast authority to draw any of the ap- gate; such necessary evil will be found parently natural conclusions from the to operate only to a less extent in this Divine foreknowledge, viewed without case, where we suppose the fatal relimitation. It must be the highest pre- sult of numerous contingent events to sumption of a rigid predestinarian to be defeated, than upon the presumpassert, that simple foreknowledge is tion of Divine ignorance respecting all inconsistent with the absolute freedom such events. This ultimate RULE, of moral actions.

however, of infinite wisdom being so It cannot be denied that the existence vastly comprehensive,--having a geof evil is necessary" in the present state neral regard to the Divine government of things. If the Divine Being, how- -surveying remote connections, even eyer, knows all the modifications of the indirect connections of contingent good and evil that may result from results, in the vast and reciprocally adPOSSIBLE contingencies, this know- justed machinery of Divine providence, ledge of the individuals who should be are considerations which weaken as associated with some of these POSSIBI- much as possible the presumptive docLITIES, could no more make such a

trine of universal Necessity; while, BY junction individually necessary, than

A PARITY OF REASONING, the notion of any number of possibilities should be Divine ignorance of contingent events, necessary; which would be absurd. goes very far to strengthen such neOur error in this respect, arises from cessity. When you consider the action

and reaction upon the influence of each We are at a loss to know in what inan

other, of numerous contingent events, ner the author conceives the existence of evil to be necessary. Without an explanation, it transpiring remotely within the extend seems to militate against his other reasonings.- ed limits of the general connection Editor.

things and events; in conseque


which the result of numerous disas- 1 of these no Necessarian will deny; trous contingencies may be defeated ; and few, I presume, will dare to conthe connection which many such have, trovert the second.

“ That the purin a scheme of infinite arrangement, poses of God are to be considered as wisdom, and order, with similar others, eternal, is evident," says Mr. Buck, either immediate or remote; I say, the “ for if God be eternal, consequently procedure of Divine providence where his purposes must be of equal duration contingent results may act and re- with himself: to suppose otherwise, act upon each other, either in closely would be to suppose that there was a connected, remotely connected, or ge- | time when he was undetermined and neral consequences, associated with mutable; whereas no new determinathe circumstances of some being per- tions or after-thoughts can arise in his mitted and others repressed-will, I mind, Job xxiii. 13, 44." The sentithink, destroy, more than any other ments conveyed in this quotation, I hypothetical considerations, the no-conceive to be in perfect consonance tions of Necessity.

with the doctrine contained in Z.'s remarks.

1. That all the purposes of the Deity

are eternal. 1st. If it was an eternal Further Remarks on the Prescience of purpose to provide for man a Saviour,

God,-in connection with Z. of Aber- it must have been an eternal purpose deen, and Bromley. By á Corre- to create man; for that which has no

existence can have no properties, spondent.

modes, or relations, necessary or caZ.'s remarks upon Bromley, on the sual. 2dly, If it was an eternal purPrescience of the Deity, col. 273, are pose to restore man, it must have been brief and subtle, and, I have no reason an eternal purpose to make man upto doubt, written with a pious inten- right; for such a purpose was essention : but his reasoning and deduc- tial to man's existence in his primitive tions are, I conceive, far from being state, before he could fall or degeneeither accurate or profound. He seems rate. to have taken only a partial view of 2. Allowing that the Deity never the subject. Hence, he argues from acts without design or purpose; it Eph. i. 4.-iii. 11. that it was the fixed follows, that it was his eternal purand eternal purpose of God, to unite pose, that man should retain his primiJews and Gentiles in one church; and tive state, in as much as he gave him infers, that the fall of Adam, which a command so to do: “ Of the tree of gave occasion for Christ's mission into knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt the world, must have been foreseen as not eat of it; for in the day that thou certain : for, if it had not, he remarks, eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.” then the fixed purpose of sending Gen. ii. 17. And that his original Christ into the world might have been state of innocence and purity was the thwarted, if man had not fallen, &c.; best in which he could be in this world, which is absurd.

we have the judgment of the all-wise Now it appears to me clear and Creator; for he pronounced him to be evident, both from scripture and rea- not only good, but very good. I am son, that it was the will and purpose not aware that this was ever prediof the Deity, that Adam should retain cated of man after the fall; but awfully his primitive state of holiness and rec- on the contrary :-“ God saw that the titude : consequently, reasoning upon wickedness of man was great in the the above principle, to wit, that what- earth, and that every imagination of ever is an eternal purpose of the Deity the thoughts of his heart was only evil must be foreseen as certain, I may continually. And it repented the Lord rationally and legitimately conclude, that he had made man on the earth, that the continuance of Adam in bis and it grieved him at his heart. And primitive state was also foreseen as the Lord said, I will destroy man certain ; which is absurd.

whom I have created, from the face of The above may be exemplified in the earth.” Gen. vi. 5, 6, 7.

From all the following manner :-by allowing, of which, I think, it may be at least in1. That all the purposes of the Deity directly inferred, that in this particular are eternal : 2. That he never acts the design or purpose of the Deity without design or purpose. The first was thwarted. Again, if giving a com


mand be an act; and if the Deity does their practice perhaps is the same; not act without design or purpose; but our views and designs are difand if all his designs and purposes ferent. I rise to study the Divine laws, are eternal; then it follows, that it and peruse the lessons of virtue and was an eternal design or purpose, that truth; but they rise to the pursuit of man should continue in his primitive vice and folly. I labour, and they state : and if, upon Z.’s principle, that toil; but my labour receives the rewhatever is an eternal purpose must ward of peace and joy, while they be foreseen as certain; then it follows, are dismissed with disappointment and that Adam's continuance in his primi- shame. I run, and they also strive : tive state of innocence and purity was but I run for the prizes of eternity, a foreseen as certain also; which is ob- palm of everlasting peace, and a crown viously absurd : therefore Z.'s doctrine of triumph that fadeth not away; but is subversive of itself.

they are running the race of destrucZ. concludes, that it is absurd to say tion, the rewards of which are misery that a purpose of the Deity can be and death. thwarted. But the above reasoning satisfactorily proves, that in reference A cheap and simple, yet effectual Mode, to the moral actions of man, a purpose in that respect may be thwarted; be

of Ventilating Houses, &c. &c. cause God, in his infinite wisdom and goodness, has thought fit to constitute

MR. EDITOR, man a free agent. Therefore, Z.'s con- Sir,—The necessity of obtaining a clusion is false and groundless. If the free circulation of air, through all fall of Adam be not considered as apartments inhabited by the human merely possible, but as absolutely cer- species,—and particularly when consitain, because of its connection with derable numbers, and those labouring the eternal purposes and decrees of under disease, are assembled in one then it follows, that he gave a

building, as in hospitals, gaols, &c. command in time, which he from eter- by a simple, but effectual mode of nity bad determined could never be

ventilation,-must be a very desirable kept; which contradicts reason, be- and beneficial object. Having turned cause unreasonable, and is unworthy my thoughts to that subject, the folour notions of God.

lowing mode suggested itself, as comI conclude, therefore, in a word,

bining in itself the three qualities that man's continuance or non-continu

above mentioned.--In every apartance in his primitive state could be ment, let a round orifice be made, foreseen as possible only: and that the through the centre of the ceiling, * of eternal purpose of Christ's mission, &c. the diameter of two to four or six was nothing more than the provision of inches, in proportion to the size of the infinite wisdom and goodness found-room and number of inhabitants: then ed on that possibility. The concluding the orifice, be inserted into it above

let a tube of tin or sheet iron, fitted to paragraph of Z.'s paper merits not a single sentence of refutation.

the ceiling ; let this tnbe ascend two

or three inches into the space between A.

the ceiling and the floor above it; then Barnsley, 10th April, 1820.

turn it with a curve, or sharp angle, P. S. The writer has not as yet read towards the nearest chimney, still runMr. Bromley's work, and consequently ning it between the ceiling and upper is not aware of any coincidence in the floor, and between the joists, till the reasoning and arguments.

other end of the tube reaches the chimney, with which communicating,

it is terminated, and the ventilator is

RABBIN NE- complete. The orifice which appears HEBREW, BY B. F. HOPKINS.

* This can be most conveniently done, of

course, at the building of houses, &c.; when I ADORE thee, O God, that thou hast the trouble and expense would be very trifling. fixed ny station of life in the school But in any house, not already effectually venof wisdom, and not among the sons of tilated, the adoption of these simple tubes, prefolly, whose conversation is vain, and sents advantages, in respect to health and life, their assembling fruitless.

against which the expense of their insertion

should not, in my opinion, be placed in any I rise with the dawn of day, and I kind of conipetition. No. 20,-VOL. II.

3 H






in the ceiling may be closed with a lid form the semblance of the rite with perforated with a number of boles, and sand: and then he observes, that, painted over, or otherwisc ornamented, I “ There is a famous instance in ecclewhich will render it rather an embel- siastical history, of sand being used hishment than an eye-sore to the most for the same reason, instead of water, elegant apartments.

in the administration of the Christian The efficacy of this simple mode of Sacrament of Baptism, many years ventilation is obvious, from the consi- before Mohammed's time;" as authoderation that the nitrogen gas and ca- rity, he quotes in the margin, Cedren. loric, which abound in the eflluvia con- p. 250. This, I suppose, is George Ce. tinually exhaled from the lungs and drenus, a Grecian monk, who lived surface of the human body, and which and wrote in the 19th century, “Anare of a putrescent nature, and conse- nals, or an abridged History, from the quently pregnant with disease, being beginning of the world, to the reign of specifically lighter than the pure at- Isaac Comnenus, Emperor of Conmospheric air, naturally floats above stantinople.” As I do not possess it, in our apartments; and a way being this work, I shall be glad if any of thus made for its escape, the current your correspondents will furnish, for from the doors will cause a constant your Magazine, the above-mentioned circulation of sweet and fresh air, circumstance; or point out any modern while the noxious effluvia is con- book where it may be found. H. stantly forced upwards, and carried off by means of the tubes, through the

Query by T. Dixon, of Broughton. flues of the chimney, into the open at- How high must a person ascend permosphere. Your giving publicity to pendicularly in a Balloon, from the this suggestion, will probably confer a summit of the peak of Teneriffe, in benefit on the eommunity, and oblige, latitude 28° 15' 36" N. and longitude Sir, your humble servant,

16° 45' 33" W. that he may just see the S. TUCKER,

top of Mount Ætna, situate in latitude Belfast, August 2, 1820.

38° N. and longitude 15° E.; and required his distance from thence to that place on the Earth's surface, which a right line would meet, drawn from the

place of observation to the centre of On Conscience.

the Mount's base, admitting the Earth J. B. of London, would be glad to to be spherical, and its diameter 7958 obtain a satisfactory reply to this ques- miles, the perpendicular altitude of tion-What is Conscience ?

the peak being taken = 15,396 feet; On Hebrews vi. 4-6.

and that of Mount Ætna

= 12,000

feet? J. H. of Birmingham, would be glad to have a satisfactory exposition Two Queries on Oxygen, by Carolus. of Hebrews vi. 4-6.

1.-Some essential oils, (the oil of On Landscape and Miniature peppermint for instance,) when kept Painting.

for the space of year and half or J. H. E, asks ---What Treatises on

two years, will be found to have underLandscape and Miniature Painting are

gone a complete change. Though the best--how they may be procured; perfectly genuine, yet it will be soluble also the price of each-together with in alcohol, forming with it a mixture the most successful method a youth account those who are not aware of

of a turbid appearance; upon which ought to pursue, who intends to devote his time and talents to the study of that

the change it undergoes, would prodelightful art?

nounce it adulterated. The question

therefore that arises is, what is the On Sand used in Baptism. cause of such a change, and what In the preliminary discourse affix- could be done to hinder it? ed to Sale's Translation of the Koran, 2.-As vegetation is a principal p. 140, 8vo. edition, he mentions the source for Oxygen in the summer; circumstance of the Mohammedans what substitute does nature employ for being so strict in their lustrations, that the renovation of the atmosphere in the where no water is to be had, they per- winter, to make up for this deficiency,



when the leaves of the plants are gone, as an unknown substratum or essence and vegetation is in a manner sus- exists. This conclusion seems to be. pended?

the result principally of the same course York, April 20, 1820.

of reasoning that induced Dr. Watts to On the Knowledge of departed Spirits. adopt the like opinion, viz. a fear that

the holding an opposite sentiment Scrutator asks, Can any evidence be would compel him to allow, that no deduced from divine revelation, either distinction between the substance of directly or indirectly, to prove that de- matter and spirit can be discovered, parted Spirits have any knowledge of and even that Deity itself may be the the actions and transactions of man- same in essence as the material uni. kind, or vice versa?

This serious apprehension has, Query on the Sabbath, by Ipolperroc.

I think, operated too powerfully both

on Dr. W. and Enquirer. I thas been asserted,'I believe by the I shall submit to his perusal the folRev. Mr. Kennedy, that the Sabbath lowing thoughts, which have occurred appointed at the Creation, was not the to me, and which, I confess, appear to same with that afterwards appointed me to make out a strong case on beto the Israelites; but that it was the half of the principle which he would former, which was revived for the use fain annihilate. of Christians. Perhaps some among Whatever exists, must exist either your readers can give information as a substance independent on every concerning the evidence on which such other created being, or not. Then, a conclusion is founded.

solidity, extension, and figure, (which

are usually called essential properties * On the Impenetrability of Matter,

of matter,) must be either independent Some time since I met with the fol- substances, or qualities of some other lowing assertion: “. A candle dis- substance in which they inhere. If charged from a gun will penetrate the former, then we may have an unthrough an inch board;" and this was extended solidity, a bounded extenproduced in support of Boscovich's, sion without shape, or a being posand, after him, Priestley's theory of sessing a certain figure without extenMatter, as constituted of physical sion; which are to me utterly inconpoints, endued with powers of attrac-ceivable and contradictory. If the tion and repulsion, but destitute of im- latter be the truth, the question is at penetrability. I should be glad to be once decided, for the point of dispute informed by any of your Correspon- is conceded. dents, whether such an experiment as Enquirer does not seem to have perthe above has ever been made, and fectly clear notions about this thing under what particular circumstances ?

called Matter, even on his own proYour's, &c. Jot. fessedly lucid scheme ; in one place

he speaks of solidity as forming its essence, and in another of its having

more than one essential property; and On the Şubstratum of Matter.

hc complains, that when he has sub-4 MR. EDITOR,

tracted these properties from the esSIR -Looking over the first volume of sential nature of any being, that he could your instructive Miscellany, (col. 980,) find nothing left: To this I may reply, by I fell upon some “Observations on the asking, When extension is taken away Subtratum of Matter” by “ Enquirer.” from solidity, is there any of that so* As I conceive the writer to labour un- lidity left? Certainly not. But will it der some mistakes in this matter, be said, that therefore extension is though the following remarks are cer- solidity, or vice versa ? tainly not the production of an “able figure from either solidity or extenhand,” yet if he thinks them worth his sion, and what is there remaining ? notice, and they be admissible into Answer, nothing. And are these three your pages, they are much at his ser- qualities then to be identified as one ? vice,

This would be a strange conclusion"; The sum of " Enquirer's" observa- but not more strange than to infer that tions is, that “ solidity is the essence because solidity and the essence in of Matter, and consciousness the es- which it inheres are inseparable, 1h sence of spirit,” and that no such thing therefore no distinction is to be

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