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listen me! But though His Majesty's The perturbed state of my feelings, Ministers know I am not guilty, they previous to the attack of this dangerhave availed themselves of the oppor- ous malady, had doubtless tended to tunity they had of destroying me, be- augment the fever's height; whilst the cause they think me a friend to truth ravings of delirium too fatally convincand justice, an enemy to oppression, and ed my respected_father, of the demoan advocate for liberty !

cratic principles I had unhappily imTo this inflammatory declaration, bibed. All that I had seen and heard much more was added, equally calcu- on the fatal morning of the Colonel's lated to rouse the passions, and excite execution, appeared to be perpetually sympathy; and to such a pitch of passing before my eyes, and repeatphrenzy had it wound up my feelings, edly did I condemn the lukewarmness that I would willingly have sacrificed of Rainsford's feelings, in not making my own existence, to have preserved a powerful effort to preserve his

friend's Despard's life! That Great Power, life. however, who in mercy stretched out What acute anguish must this amiahis hand to preserve me from the ble and affectionate parent have sufcommission of any of those wildly sug- fered, at receiving such a decided proof gested plans to which the affecting of the perverted principles of his fascene had given rise, decreed that the vourite child; and how severely did he moment I had quitted the spot, new in- condemn himself for allowing the prosterests should be awakened, and sensa- pect of worldly advantages, to hazard tions more congenial to my nature take the corruption of a pure and untainted possession of my mind.

mind! Alas, he then only knew a small Though totally unfitted for my usual part of that corruption which his unoccupation, I was aware of the neces- worthy son had imbibed; for, less than sity of appearing to be employed; and a twelvemonth's association with those approaching my desk, I perceived a who termed themselves Freethinkers, letter lying, in the superscription of had effaced those religious impressions which, my favourite sister's hand-writ- which had been implanted in early ing was recognized. An indefinable life. As soon as my father thought dread of some melancholy intelligence me sufficiently recovered, not to be seized my faculties. It was one of agitated by those admonitions which those overwhelming prognostics, for a sense of parental duty enjoined, he, which no reason can be assigned. I in the most glowing colours, expatihastily tore off the envelop, and found ated on the pernicious consequences that I had lost the best,--the most af- which must ensue from the perverted fectionate of mothers; that my father sentiments I had imbibed; and in lanfelt symptoms of the same malignant guage which had all the pathos of indisorder; and conjured me to endea- spiration, warned me of the misery I vour to obtain leave of absence, that was laying up for myself in the prenight. The friend who had obtained sent and future life! my appointment, fortunately at that Wretch that I was, to have remained moment entered the office, and, per- insensible to such a warning! I lisceiving me overwhelmed with sorrow, tened, it is true, to his arguments, and unhesitatingly granted the wished-for endeavoured to confute them by mine; leave. The irreparable loss I had sus- but in this attempt, indignation got the tained, united to the dread of a still better of affection, and, with eyes overgreater, too completely occupied my flowing in tears, he commanded me to feelings to admit a thought of Colonel quit his sight. Despard ; and when I reached home, Those pernicious counsellors who the alarming state in which I found my had taken so much pains to warp my father, kept my mind in a constant religious sentiments, had been equally state of apprehension. At the expira- successful in weakening those of the tion of a fortnight, however, he was moral kind; for frequently had I heard pronounced out of danger ; at the end parental authority reprobated as a clog of which time, it was evident I had that would bow down the freedom of caught the infection, and for several the human mind! All the proofs of weeks I was reduced to such a state of parental tenderness, which from inmental and bodily weakness, as not fancy I had received from the Author to be sensible of any thing that took of my existence, were buried in the place.

imaginary insult of that memorable

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night; for the having been commanded out entering into any conversation, and to quit his presence, I considered as an during the whole distance he had never insult, or a mode of displeasure only raised his eyes; at length, a sudden applicable to a child.

shock from the coach coming in conConvinced that the salary I received tact with some hard body, jerked him would support me as a gentleman, and forward, and gave me a complete view that my father bad assumed an autho- of his face. It was a countenance on rity derogatory to my manhood, I im- which sorrow appeared deeply indentpetuously formed the resolution of ed; but at the same time it was handquitting the abode of my ancestors some, interesting, and manly: in short, before any part of the family were there was a something in it, which in risen, yet not without leaving a letter a peculiar manner interested me. upon the table, explaining the mortifi- That he laboured under some heavy cation I had endured from the imagi- aflliction, was evident; and I hope a nary insult! Oh! how sincere,-how better principle than curiosity, made me ardent, has been my repentance for pre- desirous of discovering whether it suming to pen that daring epistle! But, could be relieved. The coach soon alas ! repentance came too late ; for I stopped at the accustomed place to never felt it, until the heart which it breakfast; and I flattered myself I had so deeply wounded, was beyond should be able to draw him into conthe reach of my contrition! All the versation, during that generally social ingratitude it contained, I am inca- | meal. When the waiter opened the pable of recollecting : yet I remember door, I sprang out of the carriage, conits tendency was to prove, that the cluding my melancholy companion child owed no gratitude to the authors would follow; and entering the room of its existence; who had not ushered prepared for our reception, ordered the it into life for the purpose of conferring waiter to bring in breakfast for two an obligation upon it, but for their own persons. The gentleman in the sensual gratification.

coach, Sir, does not choose any,” reThis daring letter, is is true, was plied the fellow, “ and does not mean penned under the influence of those to get out.” The idea that poverty rebellious passions which had been might be his hinderance, suddenly ocroused by the conviction that my curred to me, and I was in the very father had treated me as a child, with- act of returning, to request him to out suffering one moment of cool re- partake of my fare, when his being an flection to calm the tumult which had inside passenger convinced me I had arisen in my mind. Aware that one formed an erroneous opinion. Howof the London coaches passed the ever, when the coffee and hot cakes gates of the avenue, on the following were placed smoking upon the table, I morning, between four and five, I could not reconcile it to myself to parthrew myself on the outside the bed take of them alone, and, darting out of for an hour or two, and then, punctual the room, I unceremoniously opened as a lover, crept silently to the gates. the door of the coach. Scarcely had I reached the spot, when “ You would pardon this intrusion," I perceived the expected vehicle ap- said I in a conciliatory accent, “if you proaching, which I instantly hailed, knew how insupportably painful it is eagerly demanding whether I could to me to take any meal alone; besides, have an inside place? The door was my dear Sir, you are either ill or unimmediately opened, --my only com- happy, and must allow me to act as panion a man, who had fixed himself your physician; in short, you will conin one corner of the stage, but whose fer a real favour upon me, if you will bat was brought so completely for- alight, and partake of an excellent ward, that it was impossible for me to breakfast." obtain a distinct view of his face. To " I cannot reject an offer which my observation that the morning was evinces so much humanity,” he reunusually dark and gloomy, he merely plied, with a dejected bow : “I can assented by an inclination of the body; drink, I allow; but I assure you on my at the same time, in an under tone, I honour I could not force a morsel of thought I heard him say, .“ Alas! it food into my mouth.” He, however, bears a striking affinity to the darkness complied with my request, and unhesi.

tatingly followed me into the room; We had travelled some miles with- and upon taking off his hat, presented


my fate!


to my view a countenance at once, be kept with heretics ;” and that the strikingly dejected and exquisitely Council of Constance, held in 1415, handsome. An expressive shake of confirmed the decrees of the Lateran the head was the only reply he made Council, and acted upon them, by comto my request, that he would endea- mitting John Huss and Jerome of vour to eat a small piece of roll; how- Prague to the flames; and that all ever, as he drank two large cups of Roman Catholic priests and bishops coffee, with a good deal of milk in it, swear to hold and maintain all things I was satisfied that he would not find decreed by the general Councils; are the want of nourishment.

historical facts, which, till now, I [To be concluded in our next.] thought no man, making any pretence

to historical information, would attempt to deny. Permit me, however, to inform the “ Member of the Esta

blished Church,” that it was not in[Continued from col. 638.]

tended to bring the obnoxious tenet Your correspondent tells us, that alluded to, into operation in mercanthe charge made against the Church of tile transactions. Had he been aware Rome, of holding the obnoxious doc- of this, he might have spared himself trine, that“ no faith is to be kept with the trouble of giving us a whole paraheretics,” is disproved by the facts of graph concerning the Spanish merthe case ; and, in support of this as-chants. The decree runs thus: “No sertion, he refers us to the faithfulness faith or promise is to be kept with hewith which the Spanish merchants have retics, to the prejudice of the Catholic fulfilled their mercantile engagements faith,” cap. 3. Hence it appears eviwith this country. Surely this is not dent, that the Church of Rome, in this reasoning. Would any man, who diabolical tenet, only aimed at the makes any pretences to sound logic, lives of those men whose doctrines ever think of proving the non-existence and labours might be injurious to her of obnoxious tenets in a man's creed, interests. The “ Churchman” therefrom his conduct on particular occa- fore might be very safe and comfortsions, and under particular circum- able at St. Austell, while writing in stances ? Self-interest, which binds favour of Catholic Emancipation, and human society together in all cases while he took no active part in prowhere nobler principles cease to ope- moting the interests of the Protestant rate, would prevent the Spanish mer- religion; nay more, he might enter chants from breaking their engage into mercantile engagements with the ments with a great commercial nation; Spanish merchants for many years, for if they adopted a contrary line of without knowing that the tenet in quesconduct, it would interdict all inter- tion had any existence : but if he were course, and totally annihilate their fo- placed in the circumstances of John reign commerce; not to inention the Huss, when at the Council of Condanger of provoking hostilities with a stance; or of Luther, when at Worms; people so powerful, both by sea and or of Cranmer, when the British scepland, as the British. Many of the tre was under the influence of Papal most notorious highwaymen have been authority; he would soon be undeknown, at certain seasons, to mingle ceived. with society; to put on the manners of It is also asserted, that the Roman social life; to enter into engagements, Catholic religion is not hostile to civil and to discharge these engagements liberty ; and in support of this asserwith a fidelity truly astonishing, even tion, we are referred to “the histories while carrying on their nightly depre- of Austria, France, Saxony, Genoa, dations.

And if the better principles Venice, Lucca, and Switzerland,” as of our common nature, as well as self- furnishing examples of“ all the differinterest, and the usual forms of civi-ent degrees of government, from ablized society, should influence Roman solute monarchy to the extreme of reCatholics, on all ordinary occasions, publican liberty.” It was certainly to act contrary to certain obnoxious unnecessary to inform us, that there tenets, is that any proof that such te- are despotic governments in Roman nets have no place in their creeds ? Catholic countries ; for we are fully

That the great Lateran Council, held aware that Popery is a soil in which in 1215, declared that “no faith is to despotism will thrive well. But he

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must be either very ignorant, or he the barbarous nations who overthrew
must have a very mean opinion of the the Roman empire in the west, or to
understanding of the enlightened and causes over which the Church of Rome
independent part of the British nation, had no control. The French parlia-
who would attempt to persuade them, ment was only a continuation of the
that even civil liberty will thrive as Champs de Mars of the ancient Franks,
well in Popish as in Protestant ground. which were annual assemblies of the
The few insignificant republics at pre- people, in whom the legislative power
sent existing in Roman Catholic coun- was lodged. Pepin Le Bref, the fa-
tries, to which we are referred, are ther of Charlemagne, first summoned
only so many examples of the natural the chief estates of the nobles and
energy of the human character, break- clergy to meet annually, and delibe-
ing loose from the chains of slavery, rate on public affairs. Charlemagne
and throwing off the yoke of tyranny afterwards caused these assemblies to
and oppression. But did any of them, meet twice in the year, and added a
in their struggles for liberty and inde- third estate, namely, that of the people,
pendence, ever receive any assistance by admitting twelve deputies or repre-
from popish principles or popish in-sentatives from each province, and
fluence? On the contrary, wherever thus completed the outlines of the
those principles had their full effect, French constitution.
the human mind was enslaved; and Almost all the monarchical states of
wherever that influence could be ex- both Italy and Germany, sprung up on
ercised, it was always exercised in the ruins of the great Western em-
favour of despotism, injustice, and op- pire which was founded by the Franks.
pression. In proof of this, we need During the fading power of the Car-
only refer to the history of our own lovingian race of the Frank kings, the
country. Who was it that tried to governors of the provinces made them-
procure a license for the clergy to com- selves independent ; but as provincial
mit murder with impunity? Who en conventions had been established pre-
deavoured to raise the spiritual autho- viously to that period, for the purpose
rity above that of the crown ; and, in of inspecting the administration of
pursuance of that ambitious project, justice throughout the empire, a foun-
encouraged the ungrateful Becket to dation was laid for some degree of
insult his benefactor and king, one of liberty in the constitutions of all the
the best of sovereigns, while endeavour- new states. Many of these, however,
ing to purify the streams of justice, to in process of time, became entirely
redress the grievances of his people, despotic ; but whatever liberty any of
and reform the abuses of a licentious them once possessed, or still retain,
priesthood? Who endeavoured to de- that liberty must be traced to the pro,
stroy the great Charter, the founda- vincial conventions. The imperial
tion of our liberties, as soon as it was cities, and most of the republics, first
in being? And who sent foreign troops rose to opulence by commerce, and
into the kingdom, to make war upon then obtained their freedom by various
the barons who procured and stood means: some, by lending money to
up in defence of the Charter? Was it the Emperor of Germany, for which

the Pope? Yes, it was the Pope ; they received charters, conferring priand wherever the Pope had influence, vileges upon them, and acknowledging it was always exerted in the same their independence ; others, by assomanner, and for the attainment of the ciating together for their mutual de same ohject. The Church of Rome fence against the tyranny of both the has often strangled liberty in the birth, Popes and the Emperors; and the or made it bleed to death afterwards; disputes which so frequently arose bebut I challenge any man to produce a tween the Popes and the Emperors

, single instance, in which that church were peculiarly favourable to repubever cherished liberty.

lican associations. The formation of It betrays great ignorance to appeal the Venetian

republic was laid by those to any of the governments now exist who fled from the Huns, when they ing on the continent; since the elements of whatever was favourable to Attila, about the middle of the fifth

were ravaging Italy, under their leader liberty in the constitution of these go- century. The “Churchman”iscertainly vernments, previous to the time of the very unfortunate in his reference to Reformation, may be traced cither to this republic ; a republic in which the

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Inquisition was established, and the to an untimely grave, for no other government of which was always a reason but because they thought protyrannical aristocracy. The republic per to judge for themselves in religious of Genoa was founded in the eleventh matters. century, when the contest between Here let us pause a little ; for this the Popes and the Emperors was ap- circumstance is worthy of our most proaching its height. That of Lucca serious attention. At one time, we purchased its independence from the behold an oppressed people, rising up Emperor Rodolph, in the thirteenth in arms against their oppressors, freecentury, for 10,000 crowns. The Swiss, ing themselves from the shackles of galled by the tyranny of Albert I. despotism, and manfully fighting for threw off the Austrian yoke in the be- civil liberty ; and at another, we beginning of the fourteenth century: but hold the very same people, rising up the foundation of their liberties was in arms against their unoffending brelaid in blood; for they had to meet thren, embracing the cause of despotheir enemies in sixty pitched battles, tism, and brutishly fighting against rebefore they gained their independence. ligious liberty. In one case, we see

Whoever is well acquainted with the the native energy of the human chahistory of the barbarous nations; the racter, breaking loose from the galling fall of the Roman Empire; the rise yoke of tyranny, and a people nobly of the great Western Empire, under asserting their freedom; and in the the Franks; and the condition of Italy other, we see the human character enand Germany during the middle ages; slaved by a base system of religion, will, I trust, acknowledge the correct- and a people infuriated with princiness of these statements: and if these ples of intolerance and persecution, as statements be correct, it is evident, if they were devils, come upon earth that all the traits of civil liberty which with a fresh commission and fresh are to be found in the constitution of chains from the infernal fiend who any of the governments that have first enslaved the human race: and all been, or are now existing, in Roman this, not at the mandate of a temporal Catholic countries, must be traced to power, not under the influence of a causes over which the Church of Rome despotic government; but at the manhad no power.

date of a spiritual power, and under But even supposing, for argument's the influence of a free constitution, sake, that our civil liberties were not and not only free, but extending all in danger; is religious liberty of no the privileges of civil freedom to the value? Are we to be called upon to utmost limits of democracy: a sure give that up, and to give it up for no- proof, that even a free constitution, if thing? In my opinion, religious li- Roman Catholics be admitted to share berty is far more valuable than civil in its administration, can afford no seliberty, especially to Protestants; and, curity against religious intolerance therefore, as Protestants, we must be and persecution. pardoned for entertaining some fears But there is one thing asserted conconcerning a thing so essentially ne- cerning this people, in the “Churchcessary to the interests of the Protes- man's” reply to Omega, which requires tant religion. That the Constitution confirmation.

“ the majocan afford us no security for the conti- rity of the Swiss cantons are Catholic.” nuation of religious liberty, if Roman This I am inclined to question. If he Catholics be once admitted to the means simply the majority of the canexercise of political power, is evident tons, he is correct; but if he means from the circumstance, that there is the majority of Swiss population, I no such thing as religious liberty in have some doubts upon the subject. any of those republics on the conti- Zurich and Bern, the two chief cannent, that are under the influence of tons, are entirely Protestant. The the Church of Rome. We have former takes precedence of all the already seen that the Inquisition was others, and always fills the President's established in Venice; and even the chair at the general diets ; and the Popish republics of Switzerland, on latter is, by far, the largest and the whose merits the Churchman dwells most powerful of all the Helvetic with such pleasing delight, took up Union. And I think, one half, if not arms against their brethren, after the a majority, of the Swiss dependencies, Reformation, and sent many of them are Protestant. If I am mistaken, i

He says,

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