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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Whether the following stanza means

At the conclusion of these extracts, any thing at all, or whether I have been it was my intention to have made some too stupid to understand it, I do not remarks on the facility with which this know. It refers to a Sunday School, assassin of morality obtains access to which is rather an unusual subject in our wives and our daughters; how the Lord Byron's poetry; and one might poison of his sentiments, more deadly have thought rather too ignoble quarry than the asp of Cleopatra, is, like that, for his genius. – Do not start, gentle carried in a basket of sweets to their reader! as it is not probable that he bosoms.—Want of time and space, ever looked into an English Sunday however, necessitates me to conclude, School ; but you must judge for your and leave your readers to conclude selves, whether he has seen such a from these remarks and extracts, wheschool in Greece or Spain, or if it be ther or not the book is immoral. not his Lordship’s own model.

“ If any person should presume to assert In the mean time, to pass her hours away,

“ This story is not moral ; first, I pray, “ Brave Inez now set up a Sunday-school,

“ That they will not cry out before they're hurt, “ For naughty children, who would rather play

“ Then, that they'll read it o'er again and say--(Like truant rogues) the devil or the fool. “ (But doubtless nobody will be so pert) İnfants of three-years old were taught that

- That this is not a moral tale, though gay; day,

“ Besides in Canto Twelfth I mean to show, "Dunces were whip'd or set upon a stool : “ The very place where wicked people go. “ The great success of Juan's education, Sparr'd her to teach another generation.” “ If after all, there should be some so blind, The reader will recollect some of her

“ And cry, that they the moral cannot find,

I tell him, if a clergyman, he lies !”. qualifications mentioned before : the

I am, Sir, following shews her profundity, and

Your's, respectfully, his Lordship’s impiety:

Sheffield, Yorkshire,

X. I. N. “She lik'd the English and the Hebrew tongues,

Jan. 31, 1820. And said there was analogy between 'em; “She prov'd it somehow out of sacred songs. “ But must leave the proofs with those who've

seen 'em ; " But this I heard her say, and can't be wrong, OF JAMES WATT, ESQ. F.R.S. &c. &c. “And all may think which way their judgments lean 'em,

(With a Portrait.) "+ "Tis strange the Hebrew noun which means The name of this justly celebrated

man, is so connected with the Steam "The English always use to D--n!'

Engines, which were improved by his Speaking of Pedrillo, who after the genius and talents, that it has obtained shipwreck was bled to death, by lot, a singular association with those eleto suffice the cravings of the famished ments over which he contrived to excrew, he observes with a mixture of tend a commanding influence. His pathos and sneering levity :

fame, and his discoveries, will be alike “ He died as born---a Catholic in faith, imperishable. On the vast tide of “ Like most, in the belief in which they're bred, science they will descend to posterity, “And first a little crucifix he kiss'd, “ And then held out his jugular and wrist.”

carrying with them a degree of lustro

which the breath of envy cannot tarAlluding in the same strain to the nish ; and unitedly remain as a monurich man, and the inability of Laza- ment of human greatness, among the rus to

latter generations of the world. - rain back

It is well known, that Mr. Watt was " A drop of dew, when ev'ry drop had seem’d, “ To taste of Heav'n---If this be true, indeed

not the original inventor of the Steam "Some Christians have a comfortable creed.” Engine; but so great and advantage

Again, speaking of a pirate, him ous were the improvements made by with whose lovely daughter we left this extraordinary man, that the elforts Don Juan :

of his genius form a new era in the “A fisher therefore was he---though of

history of this department of science. " Like Peter the Apostle ; and he fish'd

The power of steam had long been For wand'ring merchant vessels,” &c. &c.

known in the scientific world; but it Compassion” says he, grew to was reserved for modern discoveries to such a size,” that

apply this mighty agent to the most " It open'd half the turnpike gates of heav'n;

beneficial inventions that have en“St. Paul says 'tis the toll which must be riched mankind. giv'n.”

The first idea of a steam-engine, No. 15.-Vol. II.

2 B

« I am,

govern

men,

66

seems to have originated with the Mar- In the year 1698, Capt. Thos. Savery, quis of Worcester, in the reign of a commissioner of the sick and woundCharles II, This nobleman in the year ed, obtained a patent for a new inven1655, wrote a small pamphlet, which tion for raising water, and occasionwas published in 1663, entitled, “ Aing motion to all sorts of mill-work, by Century of the names and scantlings of the impellent force of fire. The pathe Marquis of Worcester's Inven- tent states, that the invention will be tions.” In No. 68, of this pamphlet, of greatuse for draining mines, serving which was addressed to the King and towns with water, and for working all Parliament, he gives the following ac- sorts of mills. In June 1699, he excount of this important discovery.--"An hibited a working model of his engine admirable and most forcible way to before the Royal Society; and in their drive up water by fire ; not by draw- transactions for that year, No. 253, ing or sucking it upwards; for that vol. xxi, there is the following register: must be, as the philosopher calleth “ Mr. Savery, June 14th, 1699, enterit, intra sphæram activitatis, which is tained the Royal Society with shewing but at such a distance. But this a small model of his engine for raising way hath no bounder, if the vessel be water by the help of fire, which he set strong enough; for I have taken a to work before them: the experiment piece of cannon, whereof the end was succeeded according to expectation, burst, and filled it three quarters full and to their satisfaction.” In 1702, of water, stopping and screwing up the Mr. Savery published an account of broken end, as also the touch-hole; his engine, and of the various uses to and, making a constant fire under it, which it might be applied, answering at within twenty-four hours it burst, and the same time, some objections that made a great crack: so that having a might be urged against his invention. way to make my vessels, so that they After several improvements had are strengthened by the force within been made in Captain Savery's enthem, and the one to fill after the other, gine, all tending towards the perfecI have seen the water run like a constant tion of the discovery, the next grand fountain-stream forty feet high ; one movement was made by Mr. Thomas vessel of water, rarefied by fire, driveth Newcomen, an ironmonger, of Dartup forty of cold water. And a man mouth, in Devonshire. This gentlethat tends the work is but to turn two man had been in the habit of visiting cocks, that one vessel of water being Cornwall, in which place Captain Saconsumed, another begins to force and very was also well known, from his re-fill with cold water, and so suc- attempts to introduce his engines to cessively, the fire being tended and drain the mines, which at that period kept constant, which the self-same were greatly reduced through the want person may likewise abundantly per- of some powerful and cheap machines, form in the interim between the ne- that should become a substitute for cessity of turning the said cocks.” muscular exertion. Savery, however,

It is very obvious, that the pre- proving rather unsuccessful in his exceding quotation has an immediate periments, Mr. Newcomen made an reference to the grand principle on effort to supply the deficiency; and it which modern steam-engines have is to his genius, and that of his assobeen variously constructed, though it ciate Crawley, that science is indebted must also be acknowledged, that the for the application of a piston with description is involved in much ob- machinery, by which the indirect action scurity. The Marquis concluded the of the steam a little stronger than the above pamphlet, with a promise, that he atmosphere, or rather the direct action intended

leaving a book to posterity of the atmosphere upon a piston, is accompanied with plates, through made to act with safety and effect which the invention might be carried against the most into execution ; but as this book never This engine, after receiving a variety appeared, it is not improbable, that the of improvements, was at length carried whole was treated as a chimera, exist- to the utmost height of perfection of ing only in the head or imagination of which it seems to have been susceptia visionary projector.

ble, by Mr. John Smeaton. Such was About forty years elapsed from this the progressive movement of invention period, before any thing was done to- in this grand piece of machinery, from wards the erection of steam-engines. the crude idea first thrown out by the

severe pressure.

It was

Marquis of Worcester, until the time | ledge. Among these, were Dr. Black, when the celebrated James Watt | Dr. Robison, and Dr. Roebuck, of arose, like another Newton, to illu- Kenniel, near Burrowstoness.

The minate the world of science.

year following that of his marriage, he Mr. James Watt was born at Gree- invented his celebrated steam-engine, nock, in 1736. His grandfather and although his patent was not taken out uncle were both distinguished as ma- until 1769; and he formed a particular thematicians and land-surveyors. The connection with the last mentioned latter was known as author of a sur- gentleman, chiefly to carry his discovery vey of the river Clyde. His father into effect. was a merchant, and a magistrate of The circumstances which led to this Greenock, and a zealous promoter of event, though apparently insignificant improvements in that town. The edu- in themselves, can hardly fail to prove cation which Mr. Watt received, was interesting to the reader. at the public seminaries of his native about the time of his 'marriage, that place. In his early years, his constitu- he undertook to repair a working motion was so remarkably delicate, that del of a steam-engine belonging to whatever his inclinations might have the University of Glasgow. While been, it prevented him from associating thus employed, he observed, that à with his school companions, in those great loss of steam was occasioned by hardy exercises which distinguish the the condensation of the cold surface youthful race. This circumstance, to- of the cylinder, which Mr. Smeaton, gether with a studious propensity, led with all his improvements, had not yet him into retirement, which finally learnt to prevent. Mr. Watt noticed, settled into a habit, that accompanied that a great quantity of heat is conhim through life.

tained in a very minute portion of His partiality for the scientific arts, water, in the form of elastic steam. discovering itself at an early period, he For when a quantity of water is heated went at the age of eighteen to London, several degrees above the boiling and placed himself under the tuition point, in a close digester, if a hole be ofan eminent mathematical instrument- opened, the steam rushes out with great maker ; but the air of the city, and un- violence, and in three or four seconds, avoidable confinement, proving injuri- the heat of the remaining water is reous to his health, he was compelled to duced to the boiling heat. If the steam return to Greenock, after he had been be condensed, the whole of it will afabsent about one year. This seems to ford only a few drops of water, yet this have been the only instruction that he small quantity, in the state of steam, ever received ; in all other respects he carried off with it all the excess of heat was self-taught. It appears, how from the digester. Mr. Watt reasoned, ever, that either through the strict at- that if so great a quantity of heat is tention which he paid to the instru- contained in a certain quantity of ments that passed under his inspec- steam, the economical use of the steam tion, and to the principles upon which was a matter of the first importance ; they were constructed, or through the more so than the construction of the energies of his natural talents, he made furnace, which had been the chief obsuch proficiency, that in 1757, when he ject of former efforts to improve the was only in his 21st year, he was engine. appointed mathematical instrument- Having, by a number of experimaker to the University of Glasgow, ments, furnished himself with data, he having apartments assigned him in the was enabled to ascertain, that the loss college, in which he continued to re- of steam in alternately heating and side until 1764, when, upon his mar- cooling the cylinder according to the riage with Miss Miller, to whom he common practice, was not less than was somewhat related, he removed to three or four times as much as would the town.

fill the cylinder and work the engine. Possessing a truly philosophical His first attempt to remedy this evil mind, and being conversant with the was, by employing a wooden cylinder various branches of science, he soon which would transmit the heat more formed an association with men who slowly. This method had been prewere among the most celebrated that viously tried by Mr. Brindley ; but neiScotland could at that time produce ther with him, nor Mr. Watt, was the in these departments of useful know- experiment attended with much suc

cess.

cause a vacuum.

He then cased his wooden cy- Stephens, of Manchester. The public linders in a wooden case with light meeting began about two in the afterwood ashes; by which, and using no noon, and continued until nearly halfmore injection than was absolutely past five. At its commencement, James necessary, he reduced the waste of Wood, Esq. of Manchester, was called steam nearly one half. But by using to the chair. The report, which was so small a quantity of cold water, the comprehensive without being tedious, inside of the cylinder was hardly gave a general view of the advantages brought below the boiling temperature, which had resulted, and that might and consequently there remained in it be expected to result from the cona steam of very considerable elasticity, tinuance of missionary exertions. Sewhich robbed the engine of a propor- veral strangers, as well as the preachers tionable part of atmospheric pressure.

of the Warrington circuit, spoke on It was in the year 1765, that he first the occasion, to an attentive audience, formed the idea of performing the con- whose feelings of satisfaction were exdensation in a separate vessel from pressed by the liberality of their conthe cylinder. He conceived, that if a tributions. Three collections were vessel, which he afterwards called the made in the course of the day, the condenser, was made to communicate whole of which amounted to about 401. with the cylinder by a pipe, and filled Manchester. On Monday April 3, with steam at the same time, an injec- a Missionary Meeting was held at tion being thrown into the latter vessel Oldham-street chapel, in this large and would condense the steam therein, and populous town, which was numerously

This being done, and respectably attended; J. Marsden, the steam in the cylinder would in- Esq. in the chair. Several strangers stantly rush into the condenser to re- were present, and their animating store the equilibrium; but this steam speeches afforded much gratification being condensed immediately by the to the vast

concourse that crowded the continuance of the injection, the va- chapel. The sums collected during cuum would still remain, and draw off the different services connected with the remaining steam from the cylinder, this meeting, amounted to about 250l. thus producing a vacuum without re- Chester. On Monday, April 10th, a ducing the temperature of the cylinder Missionary Meeting was held in the below the boiling point. Having thus city of Chester, Alderman Bowers in obtained the vacuum sufficient to cause the chair. This meeting also was nuthe descent of the piston, the subse- merously and respectably attended, quent re-ascent could be procured by and the occasion excited much interest. outting off the communication between The collections connected with this the cylinder and the condenser, and meeting, amounted to about 1001. admitting into the former a fresh sup- Liverpool. On Tuesday the 11th of ply of steam from the boiler; but it April, a Missionary Meeting was held was not necessary to admit any fresh in Brunswick Chapel, which, though steam froin the boiler into the con- large, was crowded to excess, by an denser, as the vacuum already produ- orderly and highly respectable conced still remained, and it would be pre- gregation. The chair was taken at pared to receive and condense the 11 o'clock by the Rev. Adam Clarke, steam from the cylinder, as soon as LL.D. and the meeting continued the piston arrived at the top of it, until nearly half-past four.

Several ready to make another stroke. strangers were present, among whom (To be concluded in our neat.) were James Montgomery, Esq. and two

Dissenting Ministers, who spoke ad. mirably on the occasion.

preachers of the Methodist connection Warrington. Good Friday, also distinguished themselves, among March 31, a Missionary Meeting was whom were the Rev. Mr. Harvard, late held in this town, and much interest Missionary from Ceylon,

and the Rev. was excited. The congregations that Robt. Wood. Few public meetings assembled, were numerous and re- have excited greater interest than this. spectable.' In the morning, an excel- The people present, though belonging lent discourse was delivered by the to various denominations, appeared to Rev. R. Newton, of Liverpool, and in be actuated by one harmonious imthe evening another by the Rev. J. 'palse. In the evening the chapel was

Several

WESLEYAN MISSION MEETINGS.

On

LIVERPOOL.

again crowded at seven o'clock, when people (about 1500 in number) listened the Rev. Mr. Storey preached about an with much apparent satisfaction, and hour. But notwithstanding their great seemed to be deeply interested in the confinement during the day, scarcely issues of the meeting.

Several genany person seemed to be either weary, tlemen of the Establishment, and from or impatient to be gone. The collec- among the Dissenters and the Metho. tions on this day, and on the pre- dists, addressed the auditors. In their ceding Sunday, amounted to 2401. various observations, no party feeling

was suffered to appear. Like the sa

cred Book which they had united to AUXILIARY BIBLE SOCIETY, recommend, the views of the speakers

seemed to embrace mankind ; and in On Wednesday the 19th of April, 1820, favour of its universal circulation, all another anniversary of this noble in- appeared to have imbibed one comstitution was held in the Music-Hall, mon spirit. The parent society was Bold-street; Admiral Murray in the represented by the Rev. Mr. Burns, the chair. The business of the day of Birmingham, and the Rev. Mr. commenced about twelve o'clock, at Langley of Shrewsbury. which time a vast concourse of people The speeches delivered on the occaassembled. These continued to in- sion were animated and appropriate; crease so rapidly, that before one sometimes descending to the local o'clock this spacious apartment was wants of the various districts of this completely filled. The Report, which large and populous town, and then exwas read, had been drawn up in a panding into views which comprehendmasterly manner. The style was ele- ed in one wide embrace, the moral congant; and the survey which it took of dition of the heathen world. We live the great object of the institution, was in an age remarkable for the spirit of not only comprehensive, but the vari- benevolence which it displays; and in ous allusions which were made to past Sunday Schools, in Missionary Sooccurrences, and existing incidents, cieties, and in Bible Associations, we fully justified on the ground of analogy perceive the mighty engines at work, the prospects which were enjoyed in which promise to evangelize mankind. pleasing anticipation.

The collections at the doors amounted Although the Report was long, the to about 301.

ANSWER TO W. LAMB'S QUESTION. It will be easily seen that A, B, C,

Saltash, Feb. 23, 1820. D, E, and F, seized respectively in the Sir, I have sent you the following proportion of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, to solution of Mr. Lamb's Question, in their original property; minus the serted in col. 26, of vol. II.

same multiple of the sum given to each. I am, Sir, your's, &c. S. T. Whence the following simple method 68 X 2 = 136.

of solving the question: 73 X 3 = 219.

136 59 X 2= 18 = the sum seized by A.
83 x 4 = 332.

219
59 X 3 =

ditto
86 X 5 = 430.
332 59 X 4 = 96

ditto

by C.
84 x 6 = 504.
430 59 x 5 135

ditto

by D.
61 x 7 = 427.
504 59 x 6 = 150

ditto
427 59 x n 14 = ditto
455 27 2048
455

455 Proof.

42 =

by B.

by E.
by F.

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To the preceding Question, we have and mathematical academy, Chichesanswers from the following correspon- ter ; Arithmeticus, of Macclesfield ; dents :-G. Brummit, of Tunstall, Štaf- J. Twist, of North Meols; J. F. fordshire ; G. D. of Porchester, a of Edinburgh; John Gordon, of self-taught arithmetician ; Robert Cor- White Abbey; and George Skelteen, of Douglas, Isle of Man; J. B. ton, pupil in Mr. Putsey's school, of Dublin; Edward Flowers, classical | Pickering, Yorkshire.

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