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It is a

distinct and personal, and distinguishStrictures on the Answer of L. R. to a ing and individual. Query by J. F. on the Abode of dis

But to the question itself: Do the embodied Spirits.

Scriptures assert that the soul shall be twice judged, or do they not? That there will be a final judgment is cer

tain ; Revelation declares it-Reason Sir,- The Query of J. F. (vol. I. col. supports the declaration-and Con1072,) appears to me to contain one

science seals its truth. That a final question, and not two; but L. R. (vol. judgment shall take place when the II. col. 146,) thinks otherwise. He universe shall be destroyed—when the considers, 1. That it is inquired; Are dead shall be raised--when Christ the souls of departed believers im- shall appear in his glory and the mediately glorified ? and, 2. Does the glory of his angels—is certain ; and. soul receive judgment immediately, that, till such final judgment, the or wait till the last day?--But surely souls of believers, being still united to this is a mistake. The question is Christ, their bodies do rest in their

If the souls of departed be-graves, is equally indubitable. But lievers are immediately glorified, then shall there be a judgment prior to this the souls of believers are immediately great and solemn day? when judged ; and the very reasoning of L.

This great globe itself, R. proves that it must be so, for he

And all that we inherit, shall dissolve, goes on to contend, in the language, And, like the baseless fabric of a vision, I believe, of Bishop Taylor, that every

Leave not a wreck behind. soul comes to its particular judgment If there will be, of course it is a matimmediately after death. The state- ter which is revealed to man. ment of L. R, therefore amounts to subject of too much importance, to supthis, that before the souls of believers | pose concerning it, that God would are immediately glorified, they are im- make no revelation. mediately judged, and the immediate But has God revealed, either directglorification depends on the result of | ly or indirectly, that such prior judgment such immediate judgment.

shall take place ? Certainly not. On The real question therefore at issue the contrary, Paul, when standing on is, not whether the souls of departed | Mars Hill, declared that “ God has believers are immediately glorified, appointed a day in which he will judge but whether the soul of every man will the world in righteousness ;” and Jesus be subjected to two judgments, or to himself declared, that when the day one? And whether, if to one, that judg- of judgment should arrive, the sun ment shall take place immediately should be darkened, and the moon upon the separation of the soul from should not give her light, and the stars the body? or whether that judgment of heaven should fall, and the powers will be at that day, so often referred to that are in heaven should be shaken, by Christ and his apostles, when all and then should the Son of man be things which are created shall be seen coming with great power and destroyed, when the dead shall be glory. And Paul, when writing to raised, and when he shall appear to the Thessalonians, expressly declared, judge righteously the earth ?

that that day should not come, except To the term “particular judgment,there come a falling away first, and quoted by L. R., I object, because, that man of sin be revealed, the son whether the soul be judged immediate- of perdition, whom the Lord should ly after death, or at the great day of consume with the spirit of his mouth, retribution, or on both, the judgment and destroy with the brightness of his must be particular, i. e. it must be in- coming. In all this, there is a specific dividual. Men will not be judged by day pointed out; and not one passage, gross. Every man must give an ac either directly or indirectly, speaks of count of his individual stewardship. an intermediate period of judgment. The secrets of all hearts will be then As to the four propositions of L. R. revealed; and to the faithful steward, I confess I know not how to reply to the great Lord of the vineyard will then, because there is nothing to say, Well done, thou good and faithful answer. As to the first, That Heaven servant. It was thus represented by is as ready and fit to receive the departed Christ, as a judgment which will be souls of believers as ever it shall be, No. 15.–VOL. II.

2 A

it appears to be little less than begging | but judge we cannot; and to the decithe question. It is not, Is“ heaven sion of Omnipotence we bend submisready,” but, Has almighty wisdom and sively. goodness declared that it shall be in- But, 3dly, L. R. asserts that scripture habited by the souls of departed be- is plainly for their immediate glorificalievers immediately after their dissolu- tion: and he has quoted three pastion? That there is a heaven, and sages, two of which, I will take the that Christ has entered there, are pro- liberty to remark, have no kind of positions which cannot be doubted: bearing on the question. But I will but it does not therefore follow, be- take them in their order. The 1st is cause Christ has already entered it, the only passage which can at all supthat the souls of all departed saints port the hypothesis of L. R. and it have so entered, “ If the gates of consists of the declaration of Jesus heaven,” according to the proposition Christ, To-day shalt thou be with me in of L. R. were meritoriously opened Paradise, (Luke xxiii. 43.) This fact by the death of Christ,” it follows, that neither of the three other evangelists they were barred before; and if so, records; but to that deficiency of teswhat became of the souls of departed timony, 1 do not attach any importsaints, under the old tcstament dis- ance. The

passage itself has also pensation? Was there another hea- been variously translated-some wriven for them? Does revelation teach ters have contended that is interposuch a doctrine ?

lated, and have therefore rejected it; The 2d proposition, That “the de- but with the translation I will find no parted souls of believers are as ready fault, and its genuineness and authenfor heaven as ever they shall be,I con- ticity I will not doubt. Nevertheless, sider as equally foreign to the ques- I maintain that this passage of scription. It is not, whether we conceive ture, if properly considered, ought not that they are ready; but whether God to constitute the basis upon which the has revealed it as his will, that they doctrine of the immediate glorification shall then enter into their full fruition of the departed souls of believers of glory. It might be said, If the souls should rest. In the first place, on the of believers are ready for heaven im- words themselves I have some obsermediately upon their decease, their vations to make. To-day shalt thou bodies are not; for they shall not be be with me in Paradise. Now, who raised till the final judgment-day. It was the person speaking ? It was God, therefore follows, that their bliss can- not man. To man, the pardon of sins not be perfect till that day arrives, be- was not entrusted, and the justification cause the union of the soul and body of the soul committed. Jesus spoke through eternity, was invariably repeat- as the creator, and preserver, and ed, by Christ and his apostles, as the judge, as well as the saviour, of the great ultimatumin the moral government world; and thus speaking, his nature of God. Why, I would ask, is not the was eternal and infinite, and with him body ready for heaven as much imme- one day was as a thousand years, and diately after the absence of life, as a thousand years as one day. It was after it has become corrupt, and min- as though he had said, With me in heagled with the cold clay which surrounds ven thou shalt for ever dwell. But it? Between corruption and immor- when shall that eternity commence? tality, there is no necessary affinity! If it should commence according to The reason is obvious ; God has de- the general plan and dispensation of termined that it shall be so: and that God, then it could not begin till after is all we know of the matter. And as he had been judged ; and I have alto the soul being ready,--its consum- ready demonstrated, that there shall be mation of happiness, is not governed but one judgment-day. If, on the conby its fitness, but by the determination trary, it should so commence, anterior of Omnipotence. Arguing upon the to the judgment day, and therefore principles of L. R. it might be asked, without his being judged, then it was Why do not the soul and body of the an exception to the general plan of believer, immediately upon death, God, and, being a deviation, of course unitedly enter heaven?

The reason

on it no argument can be rested. And is clear; God has determined other even if a third proposition be correct, wise! Abstractedly in itself, there is viz. that this converted thief was desno reason as far as we can judge: tined to be judged immediately after


his death, and then received into hea-, it should immediately enjoy pure and ven; still that procedure might be an perfect happiness. exception to the rule, and not the rule As to the statement of L. R., that itself, and might comport with the there is nothing in reason against the whole of the singular and wonderfully immediate glorification of the departmiraculous translation. It might be ed souls of believers, I only say, my intended as an exception, just the reason has nothing to do with the same in character as the conversion question. It could not, of itself, conof St. Paul; and from both of which ceive of God, or heaven, or hell, or of events, as extreme cases, no argument the soul. For all that my poor reason is deducible.

comprehends of these subjects, it is As to the 2d passage of scripture indebted to revelation ;—to all that is requoted by L. R., I submit that it nei- vealed it assents, because it is satisfied ther supports nor contradicts his po- that that revelation is from God; and sition, because it has nothing what all that is not revealed, especially when ever to do with the subject. The opposed to what is revealed, it rejects words selected are from the beautiful as the phantom of a wild imagination. parable of Dives and Lazarus, Luke Before I conclude, I cannot, howxvi. 22. • The beggar died, and was ever, omit to remind L. R. of a few carried by angels into Abraham's bo- passages of scripture, which seem to

The passage is parabolical ; me to oppose the doctrine of the imno real character was designed to be mediate glorification of the departed represented, -but Christ had in view souls of believers.-In Matthew, 25th one manifest object by such parable; chap. 34th ver. Christ is represented as namely, to prove that his kingdom was at the last day judging the world, and not of this world, and that great good- there saying to the righteous, Come, ness and great faith might reside in the ye_blessed of my Father, &c. In heart of one entirely destitute of this 2 Thess. Ist ch. 7th ver. the apostle world's happiness or honours. And says, God will give you rest, when the just as well might it be contended, that Lord Jesus shall be revealed from the body of Lazarus was immediately heaven. In Coloss. 3d chap. 4th ver, conveyed to heaven, because he is re- he says, When Christ, who is our life, presented as speaking to Abraham, shall appear, then shall ye also appear and as reclining on his bosom; as that with him in glory. And in 1 Thess. 4th the soul of Lazarus was immediately chap. 17th ver. describing the final day conveyed to heaven, because the pas- of judgment, he says, We shall be sage is in the past, and not in the pre- caught up in the clouds to meet the sent or future tense. The whole is an Lord in the air; and so shall we be allegory, and must be so understood. ever with the Lord.—These passages

As to the 3d passage of Scripture, I could multiply, but it is unnecessary. Philip. i. 23. “Having a desire to de- To Juvenis I recommend diffidence part, and to be with Christ, which is far and study. When he has lived longer, better;" I humbly contend, that it is he will cease to wonder; and till then yet more inconclusive than either of his wonderings would be much better the former passages. The aspiration concealed from, than obtruded, on the of the apostle, at most, can only amount public eye. To J. F. I offer my acto this, that he desired to die, and to knowledgments for proposing the be with God. But let it be remember- Query which I have discussed. To ed, that those who maintain, that L. R. I submit the observations I have there is an intermediate state of exist- taken the libery to make on his answers ence between the termination of life to that Query. And to you, Mr. Editor, and everlasting glory, (and which state and your readers, I apologize for this of existence shall terminate with the long intrusion on your pages and time, judgment-day,) positively assert that and their patience. the soul shall be with God; and doubt- London, March, 19, 1820. less to the Christian this shall be far better than living in a world of misery, and toil, and exertion, and conflict.

1. On Sponsors. Nor do the apostle's words at all L. of Liverpool asks, Whence arose justify the construction which is form- the present custom of having goded on them, viz. that he expected, fathers and godmothers at infant when his spirit should quit his body, baptism?


2: Emigration to the Cape. the fresh-water fish could live? or in A Subscriber wishes to know, what case they were not salt, how the difprovision is made by Government ferent marine species could be prefor those who may wish to emigrate

served ? to the Cape of Good Hope? and whe- 9. On Probation and Retribution. ther it would be more advantageous

A Correspondent of Blackburn asks, for farmers with small property, say “ Can an individual be the subject of 2001. 5001. or 10001. to emigrate to Probation and Retribution at the same the Cape or to the United States of time ?" America ?

10. On Preserving Birds. 3. On Animal Spirits.

S. D. of Helston, Cornwall, advertSc**** having heard the propriety ing to the method of preserving Birds, of the phrase " Animal Spiritsdis- inserted vol. I. col. 371 and 790, which cussed, and discarded as being im- recommends the use of liquids, &c. proper, wishes to know if this decision

observes, that “ as the birds which the were correct? and whether or not the curious wish to preserve are generally phrase may be used without any im- shot, by which means their skins are propriety? If condemned, what shall perforated, the methods recommended be substituted in its room?

will not preserve the plumage unin4. On the Morris, Morice, or Moresk jured. He wishes to know how this Dance.

difficulty may be obviated, and if the A Correspondent wishes to know why same result can be obtained through this is in use only at Christmas ? Whe- the use of dry ingredients ?” ther it had its origin in this country ? 11. On the Lineage of Christ. What was its primary occasion ? When and where it took its rise ? and Christ is of the Lineage of David;

J. H. would gladly be informed, how

he on what account it was imported into being of the seed of Mary, and not of Britain ?

the seed of Joseph ? 5. On the Soul of Lazarus.

12. On the letter H. Another Correspondent at Hereford H. H. desires to know whether there asks, where it is probable the spirit of is any specific rule when the letter H Lazarus was, during the four days his should be aspirated ? body was deprived of life? (compare

13. Books on Geology. John xi. 39, with Luke xxiii. 43.) 6. On Colour.

A Correspondent who calls himself Su

persedeas, would be glad to learn from A Querist of Melbourn asks, Is

any gentleman acquainted with Geothere any difference between Light and logy, what Books would be necessary White, since the latter is defined to be and most advantageous for a young the reflection of the primitive rays from man who wishes to obtain a knowledge a surface that affords no attraction for of that important science, together the colorific rays ? and what is the with the price of each work, and the reason for the great difference between manner in which such books may be a white painted door, and the atmo- obtained. sphere in a darkish night? 7. On complex Machinery.

Review.The Young Christian's CyL. Ledbrook asks—What is the best method to be pursued in explaining

clopædia ; or, a Compendium of Christhe nature and utility of a complex

tian Knowledge : consisting of a series piece of machinery, to a person who

of Lessons in Morality, Virtue, and is wholly ignorant of it? Would it be

Religion, carefully selected from the

best Authors. - Intended for the use of more advisable to explain the several

Young Persons, of both sexes, at parts first, and then exhibit the whole collectively? or give first a general

School; and for Families. By J. view, and then descend to the parts ?

Baxter, of Barkisland School, near

Halifax. The Second Edition, care8. On the Preservation of Fishes

fully revised, enlarged, and much imduring the Deluge.

proved. 12mo. pp. 605. Price 78. T. M. T. of Salford, Manchester, wishes to be informed, if the waters at The title-page of this work conveys the time of the deluge were salt, how

no very incorrect idea of its contents;


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and, unless the reader expects to find tion to precepts, which should not be something which the compiler does not confined exclusively to the pupils of profess to give, we shall be somewhat Barkisland School. surprised to hear complaints of disap

“ 1. Take pains to acquire a perfect knowpointment.

ledge of the sounds of all the letters in general, As a Cyclopædia, the chief merit of and give every syllable, and every single word, this work, must arise, rather from the its just and full sound. care with which the compiler has made derstand, do not guess at it, and attempt to

** 2. If you meet with a word you do not unhis selections, than from the fund of call it at first sight, but divide it in your mind original matter which he has intro- into its proper number of syllables, lest you get duced ; and the value of the compilation, a habit of reading falsely. will be in proportion to that diligence

“ 3. Avoid hem's, O's, and ha's, between your and industry which have been displayed, in unison with a discriminating tinctly.---Attend to your subject, and deliver it

“ 4. Pronounce every word clearly and disjudgment, and an enlightened under- just in the same manner as you would do if you standing. It is a tribute of justice due were talking about it. This is the great, general, to Mr. Baxter to say, that in the cold and most important rule of all : which, if carelecting and the arranging of the multi- fully observed, will correct almost all the faults farious materials which compose this

in reading

“5. Let the tone and sound of your voice in book, he has given proofs that he is reading, be the same as in talking; and do not possessed of both. Among the works affect to change that natural and easy sound to which he has had recourse, we find with which you then speak, for a strange, new, the names of some of our most cele- awkward tone.

“ 6. Take particular notice of your stops and brated authors; and the instances are very rare, in which Mr. B. has made pauses, but make no stops where the sense adan application to any work that is not “ 7. Place the accent upon its proper syllapossessed of real merit. Scarcely any ble, and the emphasis upon the proper word in a author is quoted who has not already sentence.---By emphasis is meant the stress ar

force of voice that is laid on some particular passed the ordeal of criticism ; on

word or words in a sentence, whereby the meanwhich account animadversions are not ing and beauty of the whole may best appear; required, and specimens are rendered this, with respect to sentences, is the same as unnecessary.

accent with regard to syllables. Besides a short, and an unassuming

“ The emphasis is generally placed upon the dedication; a preface, including four accented syllable of a word; but if there be a

particular opposition between two words in a notes, occupy about sixteen pages. sentence, whereby one differs from the other This is followed by an appropriate ad- but in part, the accent is sometimes removed dress to young persons.

The table of from its common place, as in the following incontents is next introduced ; and this stance: The sun shines upon the just and is lengthened out with several judici- upon the unjust. Here the stress of the voice

is laid upon the first syllable in unjust, because ous observations to the youthful reader, it is opposed to just in the same sentence; but how to peruse this book to the best ad- without such an opposition, the accent would lie vantage. Directions for reading and on its usual place, that is, on the last syllable ; speaking with propriety, conclude the as, We must not imitate the unjust practices of preliminary matter. The prose part of this work, occupies four hundred pages; the emphatical word in a sentence is, to con

“ The great and general rule how to know selections in verse then engross about sider the chief design of the whole ; but partieighty; and the whole concludes with cular directions cannot be easily given : exa miscellaneous appendix, which runs cept that when words are evidently opposed to through about one hundred and twenty, and so is oftentimes the word which asks á

one another in a sentence, they are emphatical ; one pages.

The volume is divided question, as who, what, when, &c. but not alinto books, which are subdivided into ways, for the emphasis must be varied accordchapters, arranged in an orderly man- ing to the principal meaning of the speaker; as ner, corresponding with the various suppose I require, Did my father walk abroad subjects in theology and morals of yesterday? If I lay the emphasis on the word which the selections treat.

father, it is plain I want to know whether it was

he, or somebody else; if I place the emphasis In giving directions for reading and on walk, the person I speak to is sensible I speaking with propriety, the author would be informed whether he went on foot or thus introduces himself to our notice; on horseback, &c. But if I lay the stress of and we quote from his pages with the my voice on the word yesterday, it denotes that greater pleasure, from a conviction, he went on foot : though I want to know the that, while we exhibit the writer in an particular time, whether it was yesterday, or advantageous light, we give circula- some day before.”


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