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HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY.
it is very certain, that Galileo re
invented it, without any assistance, (Concluded from col. 277.)
only merely hearing that such an inCONTEMPORARY with Tycho and Kep- strument had been made. ler, lived Mr. Edward Wright and prising effects of this instrument, Lord Napier, of Merchiston, in Scot- though believed by some, were disland. To the first of these we are credited by most ; but the report was indebted for several very accurate ob- sufficient to set the inquisive mind of servations of the Sun's altitudes, made Galileo to work, to find out how such with a quadrant of six feet radius ; an instrument might be made, similar from which he greatly improved the to that which rumour said had been theory of the Sun's motion, and com- shewn in Holland. By considering puted more exact tables of his de- the properties of refracted rays, he clination than any person had done discovered, that if he took two optic before. To the latter, we are obliged glasses, both of them plain on one for the noble invention of logarithms, side, but on the other side one of them which, in the estimation of Dr. Halley, a spherical convex, and the other a " is justly esteemed one of the most spherical concave, and placed them useful discoveries in the art of num- at a proper distance from each other ; bers.”
by applying his eye to the concave Besides the invention of logarithms, glass, objects would be seen three which has contributed in so eminent times nearer, and nine times greuter, a degree to the advancement of As- than when seen naturally. tronomy, the beginning of this century altering the focal lengths of the two was remarkable for another discovery | glasses, he soon made a telescope of no less importance to it—the in- which magnified 60 times ; and as he vention of the telescope. It is doubt- spared neither labour nor expense, it ful when, and by whom, this noble in- was not long before he produced one, strument was first thought of: it is which magnified 1000 times, and certain, however, that the invention is made objects appear more than thirty modern, for we no where find that times nearer, He informs us, that he optic glasses, of any kind whatever, first amused himself by looking at were known to the ancients. Some terrestrial objects ; but he soon left contend, that Alexander de Spina, a earthly things, and carried his views to native of Pisa, first made the use of the heavens ; first to the moon, and glasses, so combined, known to the afterwards to both fixed stars and world: but it seems highly probable, planets, which he often contemplated that our countryman Roger Bacon, with delight. who died twenty years before Alex- He soon discovered that the disk of ander de Spina, was not ignorant of the moon is unequal, having hills and their use. For it appears very plainly valleys like our earth. He also discofrom the writings of Bacon, that he vered, that Venus assumes the same was well acquainted with the pro- phases as the moon; being sometimes perties both of convex and concave round, sometimes horned, and at other lenses, not only when considered se- times gibbous :--that Jupiter was atparately, but also when combined to- tended by four satellites or moons :gether in such a manner as they are that Saturn was surrounded with a now done in telescopes. He nowhere large ring :-and from the spots in the however gives directions for placing sun, first seen by him, he demonstrated those glasses, either in a tube or other that that immense body revolved about wise; and it appears from the man- an axis; and that the via lactea and ner in which he expresses himself, nebulous stars were only congeries of that he had never done it, but wrote numberless small stars. only from theory.
About the year 1633, Jeremiah HorThe first telescope that was made, rox, a young man of very extraordinary is supposed to have been the produc- talents, began to study the science of tion of Zachary Johannides, a native Astronomy, and by correcting the erof Middleburgh, in Zealand; this is rors in the tables of Landberg and however disputed, and the discovery Kepler from his own observations, he is claimed by John Zipperhoy, another discovered that the planet Venus would mechanic of the same place. But let pass over the disk of the sun on the these contested claims stand or fall, I 24th of Nov. 1639, 0. S. Accordingly, in a letter to his friend, Mr. William early age of twenty-one, to the island Crabtree, of Manchester, dated Hool, of St. Helena, to observe the southern October 26, 1639, he communicated Stars, a catalogue of which he pubhis discovery to him, and earnestly de- lished in 1679: and a few years afsired him to make whatever observa-terwards he gave to the public his tion he possibly could with his tele- Synopsis Astronomicæ Cometicæ,” scope, particularly to measure the dia- in which he ventured to predict the meter of the planet Venus. The ex- return of a comet in 1758 or 1759, pectations of Mr. Horrox were fully which came to pass accordingly. realized on this occasion; for he and On the death of Dr. Halley in 1742, his friend Mr. Crabtree were the first, he was succeeded by Dr. Bradley, since the creation of the world, who who has rendered himself highly cehad the satisfaction of seeing this ex- lebrated by two of the finest discoveries traordinary phenomenon.*
that have ever been made in AstroAbout this time flourished that great nomy; the aberration of light, and the man, John Helvelius,whose name is im- nutation of the Earth's axis. Among mortalized by his curious and learned other useful works, he formed new and works. In 1641, he built an observa- accurate tables of the motions of Jutory in his own house at Dantzic, and piter's satellites, as well as the most furnished it with excellent instruments correct table of refractions yet extant. of his own construction ; particularly Dr. Bradley was succeeded in 1762, octants and sextants of brass, of 3 and in his office of astronomer royal, by 4 feet radius, as well as telescopes, Mr. Bliss, who, being in a declining with which he constantly observed the state of health, died in 1765, and was spots and phases of the Moon, and succeeded by Nevil Maskelyne, D. D. from which observations he afterwards who has rendered considerable sercompiled his excellent and beautiful vices to this science, by the publicawork entitled Selenographia.
tion of the “ Nautical Almanac," the Near the year 1666, the Royal Ob- “ Requisite Tables,” &c. and, more servatory was begun to be built at particularly, by the great assiduity and Paris ; but it was not finished until zeal he has displayed in bringing the 1670, when the use of it was assigned Lunar method of determining the to M. Cassini ; and in 1671 it was fur- longitude at sea into general practice. nished with instruments at a great ex- In the mean time, many other emipense. The Royal Observatory at nent mathematicians, both of our own Greenwich was built in 1676, and Mr. and other countries, were assiduously Flamsteed was appointed to make use employed in endeavouring to promote of it. Every person knows to what the science of Astronomy. extent Astronomy has been carried, by The theory of the Moon was partithe observations that have been made cularly considered by Messrs. Clairaut, at this observatory.
D'Alembert, Euler, Simpson, WalmsAbout the beginning of the 18th cen- ley, and Mayer; the latter of whom tury, practical Astronomy seemed al-computed a set of Lunar tables, for most at a stand. Even the genius of which, on account of their superior Flamsteed served only to shew that it accuracy, he was rewarded with a prehad arrived at its utmost limits, unless mium of 3000l. by the Board of Longgreat improvements could be made in titude, who brought them into use in the construction of instruments; but the computation of the Nautical Epheat the same time, the theoretical part meris which was published by their was carried to the highest degree of order. perfection by the immortal Newton, in Among the French astronomers who
Principia,” and by the astronomy have also contributed to the advanceof David Gregory.
ment of this science, we are particuIn 1719, Mr. Flamsteed was suc-larly indebted to M. de la Caille, for ceeded by Dr.Halley, the friend of New- an excellent set of Solar tables, in ton, and a man of the first eminence which he makes allowances for the in all the departments of literature and attractions of Jupiter, Venus, and the science. He had been sent, at the Moon, as well as for the observations
which he made at the Cape of Good * For a very beautiful description of this Hope, in concert with the most celetransit of Venus over the disk of the Sun, brated astronomers in Europe, in orsee Ferguson's Astronomy, page 489, &c. der to determine the parallax of the
Sun, Moon, and the planet Mars. In come in contact with others, and some Italy also the science was cultivated would have so interfered as to have with great success by S. Bianchini, incommoded each other. But, instead Boscovich, Frisi, Manfredi, Zanotti, of this confusion, every globe throughand others; and in Germany, by Euler, out the whole creation is placed at Mayer, Lambert, &c.
such an exact distance, as not only to Such was the state of Astronomy, avoid all violent concourses, but also, when Dr. Herschel, by augmenting the so as not to eclipse or shade one anpowers of the telescope beyond the other wherever it might be prejudicial, most sanguine expectations of man- or indeed not useful and convenient. kind, opened a scene altogether un- Let us endeavour to trace his wislooked for. By this indefatigable ob- dom, power, and goodness in the server, we are made acquainted with works of his Almighty hand ;-and let a new primary planet belonging to our us always remember, that in him we system, called the Georgium Sidus, at- live, move, and have our being ;-that tended by six satellites, which he dis- our present and eternal happiness decovered on the 13th of March, 1781, pends upon his will, and that it is our and which being at twice the distance duty and best interest to fear, love, of Saturn from the Sun, has doubled and serve him in this world, that the bounds formerly assigned to the whensoever he may be pleased to call Solar system. We are also indebted us from this transitory state, we may be to him for a variety of observations on received into everlasting habitations, several other interesting astronomical where, with enlarged powers of mind, subjects: such as, the discovery of two we shall contemplate his perfections additional satellites to Saturn, of and works throughout eternity. which the number is now seven; a new method of measuring the Lunar mountains ; the rotation of the planets Ar a small village near Edge Hills, in on their axes; on the parallax of the Warwickshire, a few weeks ago, a fixed stars ; catalogues of double, labourer under a worthy quaker of triple stars, &c.; of nebulæ; and of that place, having a suspicion that the proper motion of the Sun and Solar his wife during his absence spent her system.
time too much in gossiping, was reWe shall here close the History of solved to be convinced if his appreAstronomy,—the most delightful, the hensions were just. Accordingly, he most extensive, and the most sublime one afternoon asked his master's leave science which the great Author of to go home; which being granted, he nature has held forth for the employ- went, and found his wife, with certain ment of the faculties of man. “ The others, very busy at tea and chit-chat; heavens declare the glory of God, and whereupon he broke all the tea-tackle, the firmament sheweth his handy and locked up the tea-kettle. On his work.” He has chosen his residence in return, his master said, “ Thomas, the heaven of heavens, and therefore what hast thou been home for ?" He we call him the Most High. From answered, Why, master, I have thence he directs the courses of the taken Agag prisoner, and slain all the planets, determines the circumstances Amalekites." of their motions, and fixes the times of their revolutions. As a general at the A German Ambassador being at the head of an army, he gives the signal court of France, delivered his message to the heavenly bodies, and imme- in Teutonic. A certain grandee, takdiately they shoot forth through im- ing notice of its harsh strong emphasis, mense space, and follow the tracts swore it was his opinion, that this was which he has marked out for them. the language in which God cursed
Had the universe been the work of Adam, Eve, and the Serpent. The chance, or of any being but an in- German, quickly turning to him, said, finitely wise Architect, there would “ 'Tis possible, Monsieur, it may be so; have been a great many mistakes and but I hope you will allow, that French inconveniences in the situation of was the occasion of this curse, when such a prodigious number of immense the devil chose to tempt Eve in that globes, as the universe contains :- language (on account of its effeminacy,) some would have been too near, and | wheedling her, à la mode de Paris, to others too far off ;-some would have eat the forbidden fruit." No. 15.-VOL. II.
SOCIETY FOR CIRCULATING THE RO
MAN CATHOLIC VERSION OF THE
The enemies of the word of God, no doubt, rejoice in suppressing the Holy Scriptures, by suppressing the Protestant version, at the same time
they will not produce a Catholic verJames Edward Gordon, Esq. a lieute- sion: but this is not conscience; it is nant of the Royal Navy, impressed Atheism, and the spirit of Antichrist with a desire to extend the distribu- disguised. tion of the Holy Scriptures in Ireland, The Latin Vulgate, from which the has embarked a considerable property Rheims Testament was translated, dein a stereotype edition of the Rheims serves respect, for its usefulness Testament, He has travelled to Dub- throughout many ages of the church, lin, and obtained the approbation of from 384, A. D. to the Reformation: the Roman Catholic Bishops; and, and it was of great value, giving a uniunder the patronage of Nobility and form authorized version, instead of Gentry, both Roman Catholic and the numerous Latin versions in priProtestant, this Society is calculated vate use before the time of Jerome ; to silence those cavils, which, among although in some cases St. Jerome the ignorant, impeded the progress of adopted defects from these previous Divine truth.
versions, and in others he altered The perverse exaggerations ofWard's them for the worse! The copies of Errata of the Protestant Bible, on MSS. before the invention of printing, which he argues an heterodox conspi- also corrupted the Vulgate by many racy, have been often confuted; and accidental errors, as appears by collastly by Grier: but the ignorant, who lating the old Vulgate MS.; and hear of the one, are frequently preju- therefore the translations by Protestdiced without the means of seeing ants from the MSS. of the original the other; and in many instances so languages, place the Vulgate in an inpowerful is the impression, that it can ferior rank of excellence in the opinever afterwards be effaced.
nion of every person competent to The learned, who compare the weigh the evidences. It is a remarkRheims and the authorized Protestant able proof of an over-ruling Proviversion, observe, that the difference dence, that all the various readings in does not apply to, and seems never to different editions, copies, and lanhave been intended to affect, the dif- guages, do not omit or contradict a ference of doctrine between the church single essential doctrine or precept of of Rome, and church of England : salvation. two pages may contain all their various readings, and it will be readily allowed by the impartial, that none of
Rule of Three simplified. these is essential to morals.
It would be extremely useful if the new Society were to give an Appendix, merely stating the words of the Sir,- On adverting to the excellent, two versions, where they differ; and continual, and extensive use of the this may also be annexed to the Pro- Golden Rule, and to the great number testant version, for the use of Roman of young people who are required Catholics. The Society state, that Ro- to learn it so as to be ready in its man Catholics have conscientious ob- practical application, you will perjections to the Protestant version : butceive that any advantage or facithis should be understood, not to ex-lity afforded to the student must be tend to any essential objection among important and acceptable. The methe intelligent and learned Roman thods of stating the questions, as given Catholic priests; but only that they to the public in the works of Dr. wish to preserve uniformity, just as a Hutton and Mr. Bonnycastle, Protestant clergyman would not ven- justly preferred to any others: Mr. ture to use in his church any of the Bonnycastle's arrangement of the various excellent Protestant versions, terms, is more scientific than the other, but the authorized version alone, al- and therefore is here adopted. The though he will admit that it may in improvement of the rule, which I wish some non-essential particulars require to communicate through the medium a revision.
of your valuable Magazine, consists
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
TIONS IN THE RULE OF THREE.
in rendering the method of making the and Division; this will supersede some due arrangement of the terms more of the reductions required by the third easy and plain to the tyro; it is ex- article of the rule. hibited in the second article of the The two following examples will be rule.
Thos. Exley. sufficient for illustration. Bristol, Jan. 6, 1820.
Ex. 1. If 8 yds. 3 qrs. of Muslin cost £2. 16s. what is the value of 41 yds.
1 qr, at the same rate ? A FACILE METHOD OF STATING QUES
1. By the general Rule. A slight attention will shew, that of the three terms given, two are easily
8 3 : 41 1 : : 2 16 distinguished as implying a supposi
56 mand is readily discovered, and is
56 called the demanding term. Rule 1. Consider which of the
990 terms of supposition is of the same
825 kind with the term required, or cor
2,0 respondent to it, and put it down for 35)9240( 264 the third, that is, the last term in the
140 £13 4 2. Then take the demanding term, and if, by increasing it, the answer would be increased, put it down for the second term, and the other first:
2. With the Contractions. but if by increasing it, the answer
£. would be diminished, put it first, and
8 3 : 41 the other in the middle, for the second
1: : 2 16 4
3x1133 3. This being done, reduce the first
8 8 and second terms, when necessary, to
11 the same denomination, and the third to the lowest denomination mentioned in it.
7)92 8 4. Then multiply the second and
£13 4 third terms together, and divide the product by the first term, and the quotient will be the answer in the same In this example £2 16s. being the denomination as that to which the term of supposition correspondent to third term was reduced, and may the number required, is put down for then be reduced to any denomination the third time; 41 yds, 1 qr. is the required.
demanding term, and if it were made This rule, as ought always to be the greater, the answer would be greater, case, includes both direct and inverse and therefore it is put for the middle proportion: when, by increasing the term, and the other stands first, acdemanding term, the answer is in- cording to the second article of the creased, it is a case of direct propor- Rule; the other parts of the operation; the contrary indicates inverse tion are performed as usual. proportion, and consequently the terms emplify the two rules for contraction, of the ratio are inverted.
the example is worked again; the first The most useful contractions are the and second terms are divided by 5, two following :
and the results 7 and 33 are used ac1. If the first term, and either of cording to the directions in the first the others, be divided or multiplied rule for contractions; also the third by the same number, and the results term is multiplied, and the product used in the operation, the answer will divided, as in Compound Multiplicanot be altered; and by this means the tion and Division, by the second mework may often be shortened.
thod of contracting. 2. When convenient, multiply and Ex. 2. How many yards of Matting, divide as in Compound Multiplication 2 feet 6 inches broad, will cover a