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modifications of one and the same 2. If we mix together a quantity of force; whilst others are inclined to sulphuric acid and a solution of pure believe that there is an essential dif- potash, a compound is formed, very ference between them, and that they different in its properties from either are originally distinct from each other. of the substances which enters into its It is almost unnecessary to observe, composition: the sulphuric acid and that these opinions are merely hypo- pure potash are powerful corrosives, thetical, and that it is impossible (con- whilst the sulphate of potash, which is sidering the present imperfect state of the result of the affinity, is a mild, saour knowledge upon this intricate and line substance, not possessing, in the mysterious subject) to decide in favour least degree, the acrimony or the deleeither of the one or the other.

terious properties of its constituent The attraction of gravitation is dis- ingredients. All the physical and chetinguished from the other species, by mical qualities of the compound differ its operating upon large masses of more or less from the substances, bematter at sensible distances : this tween which the affinity is exerted : power acts in a direct ratio to the the form, colour, taste, smell, specific quantity of matter, and inversely as the gravity, fusibility, volatility, and dissquare of the distance. The magnetic position to combine, are sometimes so and electric attractions act also upon much altered, as to bear no resemmasses of matter, placed at sensible. blance to these properties in the origidistances, and in this respect they cor- nal bodies. respond with the attraction of gravi- In the first experiment, we have an tation.

example of chemical solution: this By the attraction of cohesion is term is made use of to denote that meant that force, or power, by means action which takes place between a of which, particles of the same kind of solid and a fluid, the result of which is matter are brought into more or less a liquid compound. It has been supintimate union, and are retained in posed, that in this case the liquid is that state with different degrees of the active principle, and that the solid force. Thus, for instance, the parti- is dissolved by it, as if the solid poscles of a piece of iron are united with sessed no power of attraction. There greater force than the particles of a is, however, a reciprocal affinity exertpiece of wood; and the particles of ed in producing the combination. The latter are far more closely united Berthollet has applied the term soluthan those which constitute a fluid. tion in a different sense, to denote that It is obvious, therefore, that the den- case of chemical action, in which there sity of any substance depends upon is the transition of a solid to the the degree of force which is exerted liquid state, in consequence of the acbetween its particles, and, in proportion of a liquid upon it, without any tion to its density, will be the force important change of properties. He required to overcome their cohesion. has even extended it so far as to apply

Chemical attraction, or affinity, de- it to all cases of chemical union, whether notes that power, by means of which between a solid and a liquid, two particles of different bodies become liquids, two airs, or an aëriform subintimately united, and form new com- stance, and one either in the solid or binations, differing more or less from liquid form, which is not intimate, and the substances of which they are form- where the attraction is not sufficiently ed. After this affinity has been ex- powerful to produce a material change erted between two or more substan- in the properties of the substances ces, no spontaneous change takes entering into combination. place, nor can they be separated by Although, however, the change of any mechanical force; they may, how- properties after chemical action is ever, be disunited by chemical agency. often remarkable and important, it A few experiments will illustrate this will be premised, from what has been species of attraction.

said, that it is not to be regarded as 1. If we pour water upon any solu- invariably so. In the combinations of ble salt, the particles of the salt will saline and vegetable substances with enter into combination with the water, water, and of animal and vegetable and be diffused through it, and it will products with alcohol, in all the alloys be found impossible to separate them that are formed by the union of differby any other than chemical means. ent metals, some or other of the pro

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perties of the original ingredients are from Wigan at the time t. Conceive recognised in the compounds.

then they would form an oblique plane The older chemists supposed that triangle with Wigan. The angle at the properties of the compound were Wigan being given 60° for an equilaintermediate between those of its con- teral triangle, whose nat. co-sine is į to stituent parts, or were derived from radius 1. their elements; and it was from this, Then by plane Trigonometry » that the acute philosopher, Newton, \(18 – 47|' +511'- 2 x 18 — 41. X conjectured the existence of an inflam- 5T * )= 12 by the question: this mable substance in water, founded equation involved, &c. becomes 61 ?? upon its great refractive

power. This

- 234 1 =

180 a quadratic, which opinion, however, is now rejected; for reduced, the two roots of T will be although some examples of combina- found 1,06478, and 2,7718 hours ; hence tions appear to favour the conjecture, the time they have travelled when they others are quite opposed to it.

were 12 miles asunder, is 1 h. 3 min. Besides a change of properties at- 53 sec. and again at 2 h. 46 min. 18 sec. tending chemical combination, there

Again; to find how long they have occurs a change of temperature, that been on their journey, when they is, either heat or cold are produced. were the nearest possible together; This is explained upon the principle, change t into y, then the above equathat different bodies possess different tion becomes V (18 4 yl' + 5 yl capacities for caloric: if, therefore, the

- 2 x 18 — 4 y x 57 x ) = a minicompound resulting from chemical action possesses a capacity greater or fluxion of this being made equal to 0,

mum, or 61 ya 234 y = a min.; the less than the bodies which enter into and the equation reduced gives y its composition, there will be either an

1,91803 = 1 h. 55 min. 5 sec. the time absorption or evolution of caloric.

when they were the nearest possible Artificial heat is produced by the combustion of different substances

together. from the three kingdoms of nature, by traveller's distance from Wigan on the

Again, 18-4y= 10,20788 miles, the fermentation, and by the mixture of Warrington road; and 5 y = 9,59015, different chemical agents, the true the traveller's distance from Wigan on source of which is chemical combi

the Liverpool road. nation. In other combinations, cold is pro- gonometry, (10,20788 + 9,59015” –

By the same case as before in Tridaced, (that is, heat is obstructed, for 2 x 10,20788 X 9,59015 x 1=9,44864 there is no such thing as positive cold,)

= 9 miles, 789 yards, the nearest posas, for instance, by dissolving salts of

sible distance between them. different kinds in water and other fluids, or by permitting them to act upon ice and snow.

Two additional answers, which we [To be continued.]

have received to the above question,

are not uniformly correct. Answer to a Query inserted in Vol. I, col. 905.

Wm. LAMB proposes the following

question to be answered without the MR. EDITOR,

assistance of algebra. SIR.-In looking over your instructive Miscellany, I was highly delighted Six Gamesters, A, B, C, D, E, and F, with the Mathematical Question pro

each having these several sums before posed in the 10th No. for December, him, A £68, B £73,C £83, D 86, E £84, 1819. I hope, therefore, I shall not and F £61; a constable coming in,

each man seized as much

as he be thought intrusive, by sending a solution to the same.

could. It now appears, if A laid down

William Lamb. | { of what he got, B 2-3ds of what he Wigton, Cumberland, Dec. 17, 1819.

got, C of what he got, D 4-5ths of what he got, E 5-6ths of what he got,

and F 6-7ths of what he got; and they LET I = the time in hours that each divide that sum equally among then, person travelled, when they were 12 each man would then bave his own miles asunder; then 18 — 4T, and 57 money again : how much did each man will represent their respective distances seize? No. 12.-VOL. II.

С

W

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Mussopher,

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modifications of one and the same 2. If we mix together a quantity of force; whilst others are inclined to sulphuric acid and a solution of pure i capoenda believe that there is an essential dif- potash, a compound is formed, very ference between them, and that they different in its properties from either are originally distinct from each other. of the substances which enters into its It is almost unnecessary to observe, composition: the sulphuric acid and !! Tere deri that these opinions are merely hypo- pure potash are powerful corrosives, ind it was í thetical, and that it is impossible (con- whilst the sulphate of potash, which is sidering the present imperfect state of the result of the affinity, is a mild, sa

Pistence of a our knowledge upon this intricate and line substance, not possessing, in the mysterious subject) to decide in favour least degree, the acrimony or the deleeither of the one or the other.

terious properties of its constituent The attraction of gravitation is dis- ingredients. All the physical and chetinguished from the other species, by mical qualities of the compound differ its operating upon large masses of more or less from the substances, bematter at sensible distances : this tween which the affinity is exerted: power acts in a direct ratio to the the form, colour, taste, smell

, specific al combine quantity of matter, and inversely as the gravity, fusibility, volatility, and dissquare of the distance. The magnetic position to combine, are sometimes so and electric attractions act also upon much altered, as to bear no resem

upon the masses of matter, placed at sensible blance to these properties in the origidistances, and in this respect they cor- nal bodies. respond with the attraction of gravi- In the first experiment, we have an tation.

example of chemical solution : this By the attraction of cohesion is term is made use of to denote that meant that force, or power, by means action which takes place between a of which, particles of the same kind of solid and a fluid, the result of which is matter are brought into more or less a liquid compound. It has been supintimate union, and are retained in posed, that in this case the liquid is that state with different degrees of the active principle, and that the solid force. Thus, for instance, the parti- is dissolved by it, as if the solid poscles of a piece of iron are united with sessed no power of attraction. There greater force than the particles of a is, however, a reciprocal affinity exertpiece of wood; and the particles of ed in producing the combination. the latter are far more closely united Berthollet has applied the term soluthan those which constitute a fluid. tion in a different sense, to denote that It is obvious, therefore, that the den- case of chemical action, in which there sity of any substance depends upon is the transition of a solid to the the degree of force which is exerted liquid state, in consequence of the acbetween its particles, and, in proportion of a liquid upon it, without any tion to its density, will be the force important change of properties. He required to overcome their cohesion. has even extended it so far as to apply

Chemical attraction, or affinity, de- it to all cases of chemical union, whether notes that power, by means of which between a solid and a liquid, two particles of different bodies become liquids, two airs, or an aeriform subintimately united, and form new com- stance, and one either in the solid or binations, differing more or less from liquid form, which is not intimate, and the substances of which they are form- where the attraction is not sufficiently ed. After this affinity has been ex- powerful to produce a material change erted between two or more substan- in the properties of the substances ces, no spontaneous change takes entering into combination. place, nor can they be separated by Although, however, the change of any mechanical force; they may, how

fter chemical action is ever, be disunited by chemical am A few experiments will illue species of attraction.

1. If we pour water ble salt, the particle enter into combinat and be diffused t be found impos by any other ty

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perties of the original ingredients are from Wigan at the time t. Conceive recognised in the compounds. then they would form an oblique plane

The older chemists supposed that triangle with Wigan. The angle at the properties of the compound were Wigan being given 60° for an equilaintermediate between those of its con- teral triangle, whose nat. co-sine is { to stituent parts, or were derived from radius 1. their elements; and it was from this, Then by plane Trigonometry ✓ that the acute philosopher, Newton, (18 4T)' + 5T| - 2 x 18 - 41 x conjectured the existence of an inflam- 5T X V) = 12 by the question: this mable substance in water, founded equation involved, &c. becomes 61 și upon its great refractive power. This

- 234 T = - 180 a quadratic, which opinion, however, is now rejected; for reduced, the two roots of t will be although some examples of combina- found 1,06478, and 2,7718 hours ; hence tions appear to favour the conjecture, the time they have travelled when they others are quite opposed to it.

were 12 miles asunder, is 1 h. 3 min. Besides a change of properties at- 53 sec. and again at 2 h. 46 min. 18 sec. tending chemical combination, there

Again; to find how long they have occurs a change of temperature, that been on their journey, when they is, either heat or cold are produced. were the nearest possible together ; This is explained upon the principle, change t into y, then the above equathat different bodies possess different tion becomes (18 – 4 yi' + 5 yl” capacities for caloric: if, therefore, the – 2 x 18 – 4 y x 5 y x )= a minicompound resulting from chemical action possesses a capacity greater or fluxion of tắis being made equal to 0,

mum, or 61 ya — 234 y = a min.; the less than the bodies which enter into and the equation reduced gives y= its composition, there will be either an 1,91803 = 1 h. 55 min. 5 sec. the time absorption or evolution of caloric.

when they were the nearest possible Artificial heat is produced by the

together.
combustion of different substances
from the three kingdoms of nature, by

Again, 18-4y = 10,20788 miles, the fermentation, and by the mixture of traveller's

distance from Wigan on the different chemical agents, the true

Warrington road; and 5 y = 9,59015, source of which is chemical combi- the traveller's distance from Wigan on

the Liverpool road. In other combinations, cold is pro

By the same case as before in Triduced, (that is, heat is obstructed, for gonometry, (10,207882 + 9,59015” – there is no such thing as positive cold,) 2 x 10,20788 X 9,59015 * * =9,44864 as, for instance, by dissolving salts of 9 miles, 789 yards, the nearest pos

sible distance between them.
different kinds in water and other
fluids, or by permitting them to act
upon ice and snow.

Two additional answers, which we [To be continued.]

have received to the above question,

are not uniformly correct.
Answer to a Query inserted in Vol. I.
col. 905.

WM. LAMB proposes the following
MR. EDITOR,

question to be answered without the

assistance of algebra.
SiR, -In looking over your instructive
Miscellany, I was highly delighted Sıx

Gamesters, A, B, C, D, E, and P, with the Mathematical Question pro

each having these several sums before posed in the 10th No. for December, him, A £68, B £73, C £83, D 86, E £54, 1819. I hope, therefore, I shall not and F £61; a constable coming in,

each man seized as much as be be thought intre, by

could. solution

appears, if A laid down WT

of wl ot, B 2-3ds of what be

at he got, D 4-5ths of 5-6ths of what be got,

f what he got; and they ch di

im equally among thu,

ould then base his own бт

1: how much did each mas

re

ne

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TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE.

tions on

Critical Remarks on Participles, &c. (Notes & Observations under Rule 10.)

Why should the pronoun their in this sentence, Ye shall know them by

their fruits,' be denied the honour of SIR,

the same rank? I am not a little surprised that a man Being of opinion with Gamma Delta, of learning, as your correspondent that there are several other points in M. S. appears to be, should not be which Murray is either erroneous or aware of the imprudence of writing in defective, I should be glad to draw the haste on any science. But, I suppose, attention of some of your enlightened if he has allowed himself time to pe- correspondents to the following in parruse your less basty correspondent ticular. Gamma Delta, he will have disco- “ A substantive without any article vered the error into which his haste to limit it, is generally taken in its has led him, respecting my observa- widest sense: as,

"A candid temper “ The cause of my not receiv- is proper for man;' that is, for all maning it.” I shall not, therefore, waste kind.' The noun man seems to be your valuable time in pointing it out; the only word to which this observabut proceed to my next objection, tion will apply; for “ The article is which M. S. considers as unworthy of omitted before nouns that imply the his notice.

different virtues, vices, passions, quaWhen I said that “Prudence pre- lities, sciences, arts, metals, herbs, &c." vents our speaking or acting impro- and in all other cases this sense is experly," was a sentence authorized by pressed by the singular noun with an Mr. Murray himself, I only meant that article before it: as, “Ye generous Mr. M. had made use of this form of Britons, venerate the plough ;" The expression; not that it was authorized ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his by any rule or observation in his Gram- master's crib; but Israel doth not know, mar: on the contrary, I believe I shall my people doth not consider.” prove, by references to that gramma- I intended to make a few observarian, that it is not. M. S. allows that tions on some other parts of this cele“ the present participle, with the de- brated author, particularly Rule 7. finite article the before it, becomes a Syntax; but I am afraid I have alsubstantive;" and, if he had read a ready been too prolix; so, for the little further, Mr. Murray would present, I remain, Sir, have told him, that “ the same ob

Yours, servations which have been made re- | Painshaw, Nov. 17, 1819. A. B. specting the effect of the article and participle, appear to be applicable to Critical Observations on Participles, &c. the pronoun and participle when they are similarly associated.” This being the case, the words speaking and acting are substantives, because they have the Sir, pronoun our immediately before them. I have perused with interest, the criWhat then shall we make of the word ticisms of your correspondents A. B. improperly? It ought not to be an ad- Gamma Delta, and J. W. in cols. 419, verb; for “ An adverb is a part of | 420, 636, 732, and 733, of your valuable speech joined to a verb, an adjective, work, and beg leave to say, with them, and sometimes to another adverb, to that though I cheerfully subscribe to express some quality or circumstance the general merits of J. Murray's Engrespecting it;" whereas improperly is lish Grammar, I must dissent from it here “ added to a substantive, to ex- in certain particulars. press its quality,” answering to the de- Mr. Murray says, participles are finition of the adjective; therefore, ac- sometimes governed by the articles, cording to Murray, it ought to be for the present participle (ending in Prudence prevents our improper ing,) with the definite article before it, speaking or acting.”

becomes a noun; and must have of Without combating M. S.'s last ar- after it.” But I think the following gument, I shall merely observe, that rules prove, that the participle is not “ Substantives govern pronouns as governed by the article the, but by the well as nouns, in the genitive case: as, prepositions, which are often written Every tree is known by its fruit.'"

before participles ending in ing: as,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE,

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