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A Constant Reader seems to think we really dead. But A Friend seems to ought to understand the word Hell as understand the subject of Christ's signifying the place of eternal torment ; descent into hell as Bishop Pearson and that the Soul of Christ descended and Bishop Horsley did. The former thither. If Christ descended into Hell, of these prelates said the substance of thus understood, it surely could not be the article consists in this—“ that the on his own account; but for some pur- soul of Christ, really separated from pose connected with his work of redemp- his“ body, by death did truly pass into tion. As to the latter, however, it is the place below, where the souls of depresumed he referred to it when he de- parted men were." But where, or what, clared, with his dying breath, “it is is that place below, (in which the souls finished.” And, if finished when he of departed were or are supposed to expired on the cross, it cannot be sup- be,) defined in Scripture; other than posed that he, afterwards descended that Heaven, the habitation of God; and into hell to complete it: and that his Hell, the abode of Devils and lost Sinsupposed descent into hell was subse- ners?—these are the only receptacles for quent to his death on Calvary is uni- the souls of departed men. With all versally allowed. But if he could not, due deference to a mitre, it is presumed as is believed, descend thither on his that Bishop Pearson's notion of the own account; and if it were wholly descent of Christ's soul into Hell—“ that needless he should do so to perfect his he might undergo the condition of a work of salvation, as that, 'tis pre- “ dead man as well as of a living,” is a sumed, had been already accomplish- mere vagary of his own fancy. And I ed, it seems rational to conclude that humbly conceive, the opinion of Bishop he did not descend into Hell, according Horsley on this point, does not appear to the ordinary acceptation of the term : to have any better foundation ! aland that Helí is commonly understood though he seems to have attached great to signify the place of endless misery, importance to it. After having proprepared for the Devil and his Angels, fessed he had exploded the notions of and impenitent Sinners, it is believed temporary extinction and dormancy of 999 out of a thousand, at least, would the soul, between death and the resurrectestify, if the question were proposed tion, he has said,“ Christ's disembodied to all who profess the name of a Chris- soul descended into hell; thither shall tian.
the soul of every believer in Christ deA Friend says, in reference to the scend. Christ's soul was not left in form of words which some imagine to hell; neither shall the souls of his serhave been dictated by the apostles of vants be left, but for a season. Christ, and by many fondly deemed pointed time will come when the Re" The Apostles' Creed,” it, (meaning deemer shall set open the prison doors, the word hell, or that Christ descended and say to his redeemed, Go forth!!!” into it,) was probably inserted for the But where, in the Bible, is it recorded confirmation of the death of Christ. But that the soul of Christ ever descended this seems quite unnecessary after into hell? and that the souls of his serhaving asserted, as in the form, that he vants shall be left for a season; or, at
“ dead.” No better proof can be any time? The appointed time to which wanted, that Christ was actually dead, this latter prelate refers, when the rewhen his body was taken down from deemed of Christ shall be set free, is supthe cross, than is furnished in the gos- posed to be the day of resurrection; but, pel, where it is said that “ one of the if the souls of the redeemed of the Lord, soldiers, with a spear, pierced his side, be not emancipated till then, did the and forthwith came thereout blood and Bishop believe they shall, during the water.” The efflux of water from the interval mentioned, be shut up in wound made in Christ's side by the limbo, or purgatory? It seems difficult spear, is deemed a plain and irrefra- to apprehend what other view, if any, gable proof that the weapon had pene- he had of the matter: and, if such were trated the pericardium ; and that the his notion of it, surely it deserves to be water which flowed, when the spear ranked with that of Roman Catholics, was withdrawn, was the aqua peri- on the state of departed souls; and cardii; which, by those skilled in ana- not to form an article in the creed of a tomy, is said to be collected after death: Protestant Bishop ; or, perhaps, of any and therefore, its effusion establishes real Christian. A Friend has added the fact that Christ was, antecedently, that “ Christ's disembodied spirit took
its abode in that place of separation concerning the Descent of Christ into assigned 10 the souls of departed Heil; and beg leave to submit, that I spirits. (Mark this, the souls of de- doubt if it can be proved by scripture parted spirits !) generally called hades evidence, that the soul of Christ ever or hell, awaiting the resurrection, and descended into hell; and consequently, fully assured he should not long re- his soul could not be left in hell. I main there : Thou wilt not leave my humbly conceive it to be questionable soul in hell." But where is the war- if in the Hebrew of Psalm xvi. 10, and rant for all this? It remains to be in the Greek of Acts ii. 27, (the latter proved, it is presumed, that the soul of being only a quotation, and metaphrase, Christ ever was in hell; and, if never of the former,) there be any reference to in hell, it follows that it could not be the soul of Christ! left there. Christ said to the penitent The Hebrew word Nephesh, and the malefactor, who was crucified with P suché, are deemed synonymous, and him, “ to-day shalt be with me in para- to signify animal life; also, the human dise.” Hence, it is presumed, the soul person, comprising both soul and body; of Christ could not take its abode in the human soul, or spirit, distinguished hades, or hell, and there await the re- from the body; and the human body surrection, as A Friend seems to sup- alone, even when dead. pose.
The Hebrew word Sheól, and the Clericus Senex has given a definition Greek Hades, are, also, deemed synof the word Hell; but although hell onymous ; and (inter alia) to signify the might, possibly, be understood by the grave ; also hell, as the place of eternal translator who first introduced that torment; and the invisibility, as regards word into, what is denominated, “The our perception of both soul and body afApostles' Creed” in English ; (for this ter death ; i. e. as to the body, when no creed is understood to be, at least, of longer in view. foreign origin;) and also by those who On the two Hebrew words quoted, framed the third of the 39 articles ; depends the sense of the text, (Ps. in the sense that Clericus Senex does ; xvi. 10.) on which is founded the tenet yet, it is presumed, this is not the sig- in question: namely, the descent of nification attached to the term by those Christ into hell, and that his soul should who are unacquainted with the etymology not be left there. of it; nor by any, except a very few But, quere, must not the word Neamong the learned.
It is believed that, phesh, in Ps. xvi. 10, refer to the dead at this time, the term Hell is consider- body of Christ alone? because he said, ed to signify the place of interminable when he expired on the cross, “ Father, misery? but, if such be not, really, the into thy hands, I commend” (parathésosense of it in the articles and liturgy of mai) I consider or entrust“ my spirit.” the established church, should not its If, then, Christ delivered his spirit, proper signification be fully explained, (i. e. his soul,) into the hands of his in the national ritual ; and by all the Father, (i. e. God,) must not his soul clergy, (especially those who adhere to have been in Heaven, from the time of the episcopal hierarchy, as by law his death until the resurrection of his established among us,) to their audi- body? Can it be rationally supposed tories? However, neither the one nor that his soul was, as some fancy, in an the other is done ; except by a few in- undefined state; a receptacle, (which dividuals of the clerical order, on some does not seem sanctioned by the Scriprare occasions ! Clericus Senex has said tures), properly, neither Heaven nor he believed our Lord departed into the Hell; prepared for the souls of men beinvisible world, or state of the dead; tween death and the resurrection? That which seems to imply that his notion, Christ's body, was in Sheól, or Hades, in this respect, is near akin to the opi- i. e. the sepulchre, from the time it was nion of Bishop Horsley, already quoted: entombed until raised from thence, is but, however this may be, I cordially certain. Wherefore, it is concluded join with Clericus Senex, in saying that Sheol and Hades are to be under“ that Christ descended into hell, stood as the grave; and Nephesh and (taking the word in its modern sense,) Psuché, to signify the dead body of I by no means believe.”
Christ, in the texts quoted, and nothing Now, Mr. Editor, I cannot, wholly else. And, it is presumed, that Psalm coincide with either of those your cor- xvi. 10, may be read thus, (without any respondents, in what they have stated ) violation of the sense of the original
text: and, indeed, truly; although dif- Itself, all branchless, sapless, and decayed, ferently from the usual acceptation of Yields to its full completed destiny. it;) viz.
“ Thou wilt not leave my body Thy sun was not eclips'd in sudden night, in the grave: thou wilt not permit thy But ran its course, and slowly verging set ; Holy One” (Chasidea, “ thy abundantly Preparing shadows had involvd its light, kind, or bountiful one) to undergo cor
And stol'n the poignant anguish of regret. ruption :” and that it ought not to be un- To spare worse pangs than ever madness derstood as having any reference to the prov'd, soul of Christ; because the text imme- That friendly darkness of the mind was given, diately refers, and is applied in scripture, That thou might’st never mourn the fondly to the resurrection of the Saviour's body. Nor knowibem lost on earth, till met in heav'n. Much more, it is presumed, may
be adduced, from the scripture, to dis- Yet ling'ring sadness in our hearts is found; prove the notion that the soul of Christ Tis still a pensive thought, that all is past; descended into hell. But, I fear, I have
“ Farewell,” is ever of a mournful sound already trespassed too much on your We thought not on thy life, nor mourn’d thy
Part when we may, 'tis parting still, at last. patience; and, therefore, at present, forbear to dwell longer on this subject. But death hath now recall'd thy life once more,
death ; If what is here written, may be And the last pang, that drew thy parting, deemed worthy of a place in your co- breath, lumns, the insertion of it, at your con- Seem'd to our hearts thine image to restore. venicnce, will much oblige,
We muse on all thou wert, and tears will start; Sir,
When shall we see so good, so great again? Your very respectful servant, But wherefore ponder not on what thou art,
High o'er this brief abode of woe and pain ? Plymouth, 16th Oct. 1819.
Oh! what a glorious change from dark to light,
When thy freed spirit spread its wings for The following LINES we conceive flight!
will be acceptable to our readers, on To thee 'twas death to live, 'tis life to die. account of their intrinsic merit, and for thee? it is to all, whose anchor'd faith their peculiar application.
Enters beyond death's transient veil of gloom ;
But, oh! how perfect was thy living death, Bells toll for peasants, and we heed them not : Who wert thyself thine own unjoyous tomb ! But, when proclaiming that the nobler die;
Those darken'd eyes no more obstruct the day; Ronsed by the grandeur of their lofty lot,
That mind no more spurns reason's blest conDlusing we listen, moralizing sigh. Such knells have now a sad, familiar sound; Far from its ruin'd tenement of clay, Oh, that, which spoke worst woe to Albion's All eye, all reason, soars the happy soul. isle,
Dull are those ears no more, but, raptur'd, More unaccustom'd flung its murmurs round, Chillid the warm heart, and stole the gayest
Notes, far from earth's best harmony remov'd;
But, oh! of all the heav'nly music there, We cannot grieve alike o'er youth and Is not the sweetest, every voice belov’d? Thee, loveliest scion of the royal tree,
Say as the hour of blissful death drew nigh, We mourn'd in anguish Time could scarce as
Did not around thy couch bright angels stand,
Reveal'd in vision to thy mental eye, We wept-and, oh! not only wept for thee!
And sweetly whisper,“ Join our kindred band ? Survivors claim'd the bitterest of our tears;
"Leave thy poor crown of earth, whose ev'ry And we had sorrows, that were all our own; We, who bad cherish'd hopes for future years, Was but the splendid cov'ring of a thorn ; Too long indulg'd, too soon, alas ! o'erthrown.
For thee, ev'n now a brighter diadem, But thee, the age-worn Monarch of these Cluster'd with beams, by seraph hands is borne. realms,
" That crown not less domestic virtues twine, Thyself survivor of each dearest tie,
Than patriot faith, unsullied, unsubdued, We mourn not with the sorrow that o'erwhelms, which never purchas’d at ambition's slırine But with the silent tear of memory.
A nation's glory, with a nation's good. It is not now the blossom in its prime,
“Come! where, beyond the portals of the Torn in fresh vigour from its parent root,
grave, Scatt'ring on vernal gales before its time
The lov’d, the lost, to thy embraces press : The golden promise of expected fruit ;
Come, where a Saviour, who has died to save, It is the oak, once monarch of the glade, Lives, loves, and reigns, eternally to bless." Which lives again in many a circling tree ; January, 1820.-Lit. Gaz. No. 13,- Vol. II.
The following are the inventions of an PURIFYING SYPHONS,” we have American gentleman named Clymer, says our correspondent, with a lately arrived from Philadelphia. These ment. Having heard of its powe productions of his genius have been visited Mr. Clymer for that purpo. seen with surprise and admiration by his manufactory, Finsbury-street, ] many competent judges, whose testi- bury-square; and we confess we monials in their favour merit the high- taken by surprise at seeing its ef est regard. The first of these, which as a Ship’s Pump. It raises and we shall briefly describe, may be con- charges from 250 to 300 gallo sidered as a machine of the higher water per minute, together with all order of mechanics; and the second, stances which do not exceed the which we have accompanied with a meter of 18 or 24 lb. shots; and, cut, as an invention of the highest class the water, it raises and disgorg in Hydraulics.
and 24 lb. shots in rapid succes: The“COLUMBIAN Printing Press,” This circumstance sufficiently pro is a machine, which, in its appearance, the impossibility of choking or reta is classically chaste; and, in its pro- ing it in its operations, in any sit perties, as far surpasses any other tions in which vessels may be plac Printing Press, as the late Earl Stan- All other pumps, particularly those hope's improvements exceeded all board East or West Indiamen, a others which preceded him. We have liable to be choked and rendered u: . perused a variety of corroborating tes- less by the very goods which they are timonials in favour of this Press, which chiefly calculated to import-coffee, clearly prove its superiority. The sim- sugars, spices, molasses, &c. ; but this plicity of its construction; the ease of Pump bids defiance to them all ; labour which it occasions to the work-raise and discharge sand, stones, shots, men; the amazing power, and the sim- gravel, ballast, coffee, sugars, molasses, ple mode of regulating it to work the spices, any thing which the diameter heaviest form or the lightest card, by of the tube below will suffer to enter the legitimate mode of producing the it
, without a shadow or possibility of finest typographic specimens between impeding its operations, or putting it two flat surfaces, or what is techni- out of order; and being almost of one cally termed the table and plattin, all solid mass, and remarkably simple in conspire to announce it the perfection its construction, any person of common of the Printing Press.
understanding can always keep it in The “ COLUMBIAN SHIP's Pump, working trim. In a few seconds it is EXTINGUISHING ENGINE, AND SHIP's convertible into an Extinguishing Err