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daily.” Mr. B. remarks, “your is not a mother city; and that Erechtheus, genitive, but the objective."--Reply. whom blue-eyed Pallas reared, was This is a complete mistake. How can the first king of that celebrated seat a grammar be the owner of a gram- of letters. Macpherson has indulged mar!!! The plain sense is, Boys, lawfully in the liberty of transposition, study your grammar.” Lowth says in viz. “ The warrior who possessed, &c.” the note, page 38, The possessive
Potiphar, an officer of case of the pronominal adjectives (are) Pharaoh ;” “ Mallet, another friend our, your, &c.” Mr. Fleming, page 22, of Pope.” Dr. Johnson. and Mr. Hazlitt, page 41, allow your to ceive,” says Mr. B. “ there is no gebe a possessive pronoun.
nitive at all in any of them.”—Reply. Page 210. “ The quantity of sylla- Having already refuted Mr. B. on this bles,” &c. To talk to a man who cer- point, page 36, by Peterhoff, and Hofftainly has known the gamut of music mann, and by the testimony of seven for more than forty years, of a prosaic grammarians, the point of interest to syllable, as containing thirty-two demi- the reader, here is, that we should semiquavers, has some appearance of never use a double genitive but when indecency. The sense affected by Mr. there is a double idea of descent, proB. is impossible; whereas the plain cession, or property, to be expressed. meaning is obvious, that to one ex- This point is illustrated in the gramclamation, we may allow the time of a mar at large. Here all our grambreve; to another, the time of semi- marians seem to be in a labyrinth. breve; but in the velocity of words, The ideas in the examples respecting we may allow other syllables only the Potiphar and Mallet, are both single. time or quantity of a demi-semiquaver. Therefore Johnson could not say “ A The idea is not novel. Pliny names friend of Pope's.” But the ideas are a philosopher who boasted that his double in the next example. oration could be set to music.
trees were planted in a corner of my Page 225. Mr. B. has erroneously father's field.” Here are first property copied was for were. The relative is -“ father's field;" secondly, proceswho, both in the Spectator, volume first; sion, “ a corner of the field.” and in the key to the exercises. Here This simple solution will correct a he fights his own shadow.
long standing error in the beginning Page 243. The terminative pro- of Lowth's grammar. " A soldier of nouns moi, toi, lui, are all correct, and the king's ;" that is, “ A soldier of the shew the advantage which the French king's soldiers.”—This oversight has have over us in closing some phrases led the author of etymology and synby them. Macpherson has oftentimes tax into the same mistake. erroneously used thee for thou. But “ A kinsman of the traitor's waited why does Mr. B. name them, when he on him yesterday;" that is, he adds, conveys no instruction to the reader ? “ A kinsman of the traitor's kinsmen.”
Page 243. “ The warriors who proud A single example, speaking with deAthens possessed, the stately city of ference to learned opinion, will reErechtheus, whom blue-eyed Pallas move the cloud. “ A son of Tommy reared.”—Macpherson's Iliad. Here Negligent's broke my window:” that Mr. B. remarks, “ If it be meant that is, according to both the above examthe warriors possessed proud Athens, ples, “ A son of Tommy Negligent's this is correct; but if the idea be that sons.” Now, there is no occasion to Athens possessed the warriors, it is tell me twice that he was a soldier of palpably false; for the relative ought the king; or that the boy was a son of to be whom.”--Reply. Why does Mr. Tommy Negligent. Hence the Saxon B. here use, it, and this, and it for the genitive 's, is redundant in all the same antecedent? Can an example three examples, the ideas being simple. be found so confused in any author ? I close by apologizing to the readers Can such a reviewer be qualified to of the Imperial Magazine, for obtrudsay that Mr. S.'s style is “inelegant, ing this defence; and beg leave to unclassical, and ungrammatical.” But add, that they would soon hear from why does he begin this critique with me again by a grammar entirely reif ? Had he read either Homer, or composed, did not the aspect of the Macpherson's version, he would have times, and the loss sustained by the found that the Grecian warriors boast-last edition, make me cautious. ed of Athens as their metropolis or Jan. 3, 1820. JOSEPH SUTCLIFFE.
HISTORICAL FACTS RESPECTING
in obedience to this rule, the abovementioned monastery of Mount Cassin
so renounced the world, as to be pos[Continued from col. 52.]
sessed but of “ four bishoprics, two But not to amuse the reader with a dukedoms, twenty counties, thirty-six long detail of the divers religious or- ciies, two hundred castles, three hunders which swarm in other countries, dred territories, four hundred and I shall confine myself only to give forty villages, three hundred and six some short account of the original farms, twenty-three sea-ports, thirtyrise and progress of those that were three islands, two hundred mills, and established in this country. And these one thousand six hundred and sixtywere the Benedictines, the Cluniacs, two churches.” This was their holy the Carthusians, the Cistercians, the poverty ; and thus you may see how regular Canons of St. Austin, the religiously these ten rules have been Præmonstratenses, the Gilbertines, observed, and how spiritually the folthe Mathurins, or Trinitarians, the lowers of St. Bennet retreated from Franciscans, the Dominicans, the Car- the world in Italy; who were soon îmimelites, and the Hermites of St. tated, in these kind of holy self-deAustin.
nials, by their pious brethren here in The Benedictines.—The first of these England, as you may learn from the that prevailed here was the order of vast number of rich abbeys which the the Benedictines, whose rule was in- Benedictines were possessed of. These troduced into this nation by * Augus- were the humble priests from whom tin the monk, in the year of our Lord, our gallant king Henry II. received 596. The founder of this order was the discipline of eighty lashes, for St. Bennet, who in his own lifetime having, like an undutiful son of the erected twelve monasteries. The rales church, dared to contend in power that this great saint left behind him with their patron Thomas à Becket, (although the papists affirm that they whose stirrup he had been obliged were dictated to him by the Holy twice to hold, whilst that meek prelate Ghost) are stuffed with the most trifling mounted. and supertitious ceremonies; and his As these monks began to be noto. whole seventy-three chapters contain rious to the world for their obscenities but four wholesome precepts, two of and luxury; in the year of our Lord which only, that relate to eating and 912, Oden Abbot of Cluny, took upon drinking, his followers observe, ne- him to correct their abuses, and gave glecting the other two, which are the rise to the Cluniacs; who were the fundamentals of their order, enjoining same year translated by Alphreda, humility and poverty; for in his se- Queen of England; for, who more venth chapter, St. Bennet assigns proper to promote superstition, than a twelve degrees of humility for his zealous ignorant woman! However, monks to practise ; which, how well to shew how thoroughly these men rethey comply with, you may find by the formed upon St. Bennet's followers, humble titles of the abbots of Mount especially in point of humility, they Cassin, the head monastery of his order, were not settled one whole century, of which himself was first abbot. before the Abbot of Cluny || contested
Thet titles of the abbots of Mount the title of Abbot of Abbots, with those Cassin,—“ Patriarch of the Sacred of Mount Cassin. Religion, Abbot of the Sacred Mo- The next order was that of the Carnastery of Mount Cassin, Duke and thusians, first established in the year Prince of all Abbots and Religious, 1086, in the desert of Chartreuse in Vice Chancellor of the kingdom of Grenoble, by one Bruno, who was both the Sicilies, of Jerusalem, and thereunto moved by hearing a dead Hungaria, Count and Governor of man cry out three times, “That he was Campania, and Terra de Lavoro, and condemned by the just judgment of of the Maritime Province, Vice Em- God;" which was a very plain precept peror, and Prince of Peace." In his for building monasteries! This man fifty-ninth chapter, the same saint en professed to follow the rule of St. joins poverty to all his disciples; and, Bennet, adding thereunto many great
Petr. Ab. Clun. lib. 6. ep. 7. | Chron. Cassin. lib. 4. cap.
austerities by way of reformation ; | Holy Virgin was unwilling, perhaps, amongst others be ordained, * that they that her friends should be like him in ought to be satisfied with a very little dress, though they resembled him in space of ground about their cells, after every thing else. These locusts swarmwhich let the whole world be offered ed first in England, according to John unto them, they ought not to desire a Bab, about the year 1132, and contifoot more. This, I suppose, they have nued here in the innocent exercise of construed to signify a foot more than their sanctity; a remarkable instance the whole world. For their cells, even of which was their poisoning of good in St. Bernard's time, became stately king John,|| at Swineshead, in Linpalaces, and their little spaces of colnshire, an abbey of the holy Cisterground, stretched themselves into cian order. great tracts of land. They first settled There was another sort of religious themselves in England in the year order in the church of Rome, who 1180, and in a very short time had were called Canons. These were to gained as much wealth by their vows live in common, and to have but one of poverty, as any other order.
table, one purse, and one dormitory. The Cistercians, so called from Ci- But as many of them began to abate teaux, where they first assembled, and of the strictness of their first rules, a soon after admitted St. Bernard for new sect sprang up, that pretended their head, (from whence they are to reform upon the rest, and these styled Bernardines,) were another re- were called Regular, whereas the other formation upon the Benedictines.t by way of reproach, were styled Secu
St. Bernard himself founded one lar. They all pretended to have rehundred and sixty monasteries; who ceived three rules from Saint Augusat first would bave no possessions, tine, two of which § Erasmus and I but lived by alms, and the labour of Hospinian, prove to be forgeries, and their own hands; which being too affirm that the third was not written apostolic a life for monks, they soon for his clergy, but for the use of some grew as weary of poverty and indus- pious women, who lived in common try as their neighbours; and in a little under the conduct of his sister. When time rivalled those, on whom they pre- Canons began, is notcertain; but the tended to reform, in wealth, luxury, first Regulars we read of, are those wantonness, and such like monkish whom Pope Alexander the Second virtues. At their first institution, they sent from Lucca to St. John Lateran. ** wore black habits, till the Virgin Mary, The Regular Canons were so irregular, out of her great love to these fat friars, and guilty of such abominable crimes, came down from heaven on purpose that even Pope Boniface the Eighth to reform their dress, as being the was forced to drive them away, and, most essential part of their order. She for the peace of the church, to place appeared herself to their second abbot, Secular Canons in their room.
Beribringing a white cowl in her hand, ners, in the year 636, first introduced which she put upon his head, and at these Augustinians into England, who the same instant, the cowls of all the strictly followed the example of their monks then singing in the choir, were brethren of St. John Lateran. miraculously turned to the same co- The tt Præmonstratenses, who follour. Thus did the Blessed Virgin lowed the same rule with the former, change the habits of the Cistercians were founded by St. Norbert, about the from black to white, as they had be- year 1120, at a place which the Blessed fore altered their lives, from a sad me- Virgin pointed out to him, and wbich lancholy retirement, to a merry jovial therefore was Pre-monstre, or foresociety ; black being no more fit for a shewn. These monks, to get a greater jolly priest, than white is for a mourn- esteem in the world, after the death ful penitent. Besides, the old monk of their founder, published that he had Satan being represented as black, the received his rule, curiously bound in * Rule 14. Vid. Hospin. De Omg. Mon. $ Erasmi Jud. de Sanch. Aug. Mon.et Regulis
. lib. 5. cap. 7.
Hosp. de Orig. Mon. lib. 6. ad Calcom. + Dugdale Monasticon. Vol. I. p. 695, 3 reg. 699, 700.
** Molinet. Reg. Can. St. Jen. Paris, in his Ben. Gononus Chron. B. Virginis, p. 154. History of Regul.
|| Vide Fox's Acts and Monuments, and tt Dugdale Monasticon. Vol. II. page 579, Tarrel's History of England.
580, 589, 585.
gold, from the hands of St. Austin him-, amongst which is that remarkable one self, who appeared to him one night, of riding upon an ass, the only thing and said thus ; “ Here is the rule I in which I can find these godly fathers have written, and if thy brethren ob- imitate Christ. They were instituted serve it, they, like my children, need in the year 1207, and settled in this to fear nothing at all in the day of island in the year 1257.|| The projudgment.” Indeed these pious fa- fessed original design of their estathers, for their great security in the blishment, was for the enlargement of last day, have firmly adhered to one of captives; and whatsoever substance his precepts, that commands them to fell into their hands, was to be dividlove one another. What confirms this ed into three equal parts,
one of suspicion, is, their declaration in the which was to be remitted to Christian year 1273; in which, after having ac- slaves for their redemption, whilst the knowledged that women are worse other two were to remain in the posthan the most venomous aspicks and session of these charitable bankers, dragons, they resolved never to have as a satisfaction for their great pains any more to do with them.
in making such a return, which an unThe next order is that of * St. Gil- merciful Jew would have done more bert, a little crooked schoolmaster, faithfully, and for a tenth part of the born in Lincolnshire, who, by reason reward. But two parts in three being of his deformity, despairing to bring too scanty a recompense for the great the women to answer his lewd inclina- toil of a lazy friar, these Mathurines, tions in a secular manner, was resolved (having no other god but money,) to to make religion subservient to his approve themselves truc Trinitarians purposes; and to this end he founded to that deity, often cheated the poor thirteen monasteries, containing both captive of his third part, rather than sexes together, to the number of seven they would divide the substance. hundred men, and fifteen hundred
(To be continued.) This order of the Gilbertines, was established at Sempring- On Acquittal, Pardon, &c. ham, in the year 1148, and was thence
MR. EDITOR, called the Sempringham order; but Sir,-Should you deem the following the disgusting characteristics exhi- remarks worthy insertion in your Imbit such an outrage on common de perial Magazine, I may occasionally cency, that delicacy compels us to sup- give you my sentiments on some of the press further particulars.
higher doctrines of the Gospel, wherein The Mathurines, so called from their my brethren appear to me, in some founder tJom Matha, were likewise measure, to have missed the mark in styled Trinitarians, because they lay their application of them. under an obligation of dedicating all
I am, &c. their churches to the Holy Trinity;
Sincerely yours, they professed the rules of St. Austin, Nov. 18, 1819. JOHN COOKE, and added to them several others; Dublin, No. 6, Ormond Quay.
* John Bah, in his Acts of English Votaries, was taught to kneel at proper places ; a hymn, Part II, cap. 109. John Cupgrave, in Vita no less childish than impious, was sung in his Gilberti Confessoris.
and when the ceremony was ended, † Prosper. Stell. lib. de Reg. Ord. Rel. the priest, instead of the usual words with
which lie dismissed the people, brayed three It seems highly probable, that Dr. Ro- times like an ass; and the people, instead of bertson, in bis history of the emperor Charles their usual response, We bless the Lord, brayed the Fifth, alludes to this order, in the following three times in the same manner. paragraphs, which describe what may be denu- “ This ridiculous ceremony was not, like the . minated
festival of fools, and some other pageants of The Ceremony of the Ass.
those ages, a mere farcical entertainment exhi“ In several churches of France, in early bited in a church, and mingled, as was then ages they celebrated a festival in commemora- the custom, with an initation of some religious tion of the Virgin Mary's flight into Egypt. It rites. It was an act of devotion performed by was called the Feast of the Ass. A young girl the ministers of religion, and by the authority richly dressed, with a child in her arms, was of the Church. However, as this practice did set opon an ass superbly caparisoned. The not prevail universally in the Catholic Church ass was led to the altar in solemn procession.. its absurdity contributed at last to abolish it.", High Mass was said in great pomp.
|| Dugdale Monast, Vol. II. page 834. No. 13.-VOL. II.
“TH'e subject which at present engages regenerates his nature, giving him a my attention, is the observation of new heart, and renewing a right spirit Alexander, on Justification, inserted in within him. Thus, by looking contiyour Magazine for October, 1819, col. nually to God, through Jesus Christ, 729, wherein he reprehends a minister, and faithfully using the grace already who had used that term as importing received, more and more will be given “ An Acquittal from guilt,” whilst he him, while he goes on from strength himself considers it as precisely syno- to strength, and from one degree of nymous with Pardon.
grace to another, till he is enabled to “ It has oftentimes excited my sur- love the Lord with all his heart, and prise, that, among so well-informed a with all his soul, and with all his body as the Methodists, who are not strength, and with all his mind, and satisfied with receiving any doctrine his neighbour as himself. Being thus on trust, but who bring it to the law sanctified wholly, spirit, and soul, and and the testimony, to prove whether body, he will, if true to his trust, be it be sterling, the majority of them preserved blameless unto the coming should consider the term Justification of the Lord Jesus Christ: ‘for faithful as exactly equivalent with Pardon. is he that calleth, who also will do it.'
The word Justification is well “ The order, and succession of salknown to be a law-term. But could vation, therefore, seems to be, first, any thing be more absurd, than for Justification, or the acceptance of the one arraigned at the bar, pleading sinner through faith in the Lord Jesus guilty, imploring mercy, and obtaining Christ. Secondly, Pardon of sin. pardon, to affirm that he was justified? Thirdly, Regeneration, or the commuOr, if an individual in society, charged nication of a new principle to the with a crime, should confess it, entreat soul, enabling it to love and obey for Pardon, and obtain it; could he, the Lord. And, fourthly, a degree of consistently either with truth or jus- sanctification as the result; which tice, assert that he was justified in the fourfold act, though momentary, seems sight of his accuser ? In either case to have this order and succession. he was pardoned, but not justified. And this initiatory sanctification will Nor does the term Justification, in be fully and perfectly accomplished in scripture, appear to me ever to war- those who perseveringly and faithfully rant its application as synonymous exercise the grace already communiwith Pardon. I consider Justification, cated to them; when the very princiin its primary acceptation, to be an ple, and being of sin, will be so deemanant act of the Most High, stamp- stroyed in them, that they will be ing his approbation on something he filled with all the fulness of God.' sees just and right in those who are 1. “ Justification, implies some rethe objects of it, and giving them a lative change in our situation with consciousness of that approbation, by God. his Spirit bearing witness with their 2. “ Pardon, signifies something forspirits that they are the children of given us. God, thus enabling them to cry, Abba, 3. “ Regeneration, imports someFather. This therefore can have no thing wrought in us. possible immediate relation to sin, or 4. “ Sanctification, is something to the pardon thereof, as sin is abhor- done by us, through the agency of the rent to the very nature of God; while Spirit of God.” that which occasions this demonstra- Again, tion of his favour, must be something
Justification, is our adoption he highly approves of.
into the family of God, through faith “ The term Justification, therefore, 1 in Christ Jesus. in its primary sense, I apprehend, re- 2. “ Pardon, is cancelling our oblates solely to the simple act of the noxiousness to punishment. sinner's belief in, acceptance of, and 3. “Regeneration, is implanting a recumbency on, the merits of Jesus new principle in us. Christ, as his only Saviour. And God 4. “ Sanctification, is imparting an having justified or approved of this altogether new nature to us. exercise of faith in the believer, as “ But, in a secondary sense, Justifithe first token of his favour, pardons cation extends to every act of obediall his past iniquities; and, to enable ence, which the children of God render him to render a future obedience, he ! to his commands. And, finally, their