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could ever boast, as a new inhabitants in the Inspector, No. 109. into an old house, rotten and corrupted principal flower in this bouquet, was a in its very interior, and bearing every carnation ; the fragrance of this led me mark of dissolution and decay! to enjoy it frequently and nearly: the

Supposing you heard Moses giving sense of smelling was not the only one such a description of the creation as affected on these occasions; while that this; I say, suppose you heard him was satiated with the powerful sweet, representing such a glorious fabric the ear was constantly attacked by an reared in such a pitiful manner; and extremely soft but agreeable murmura still more glorious Operator, as en-ing sound. It was easy to know that gaged for such a space of time in such some animal, within the covert, must a trifling and unmeaning employment; be the musician, aud that the little Could you defend it upon the princi- noise must come from some little ple of reason, or say that it resembled body suited to produce it. I instantly the other works of God? Could you say distended the lower part of the flower, that the vegetable creation was ap- and, placing it in a full light, could plied to better purpose, in flourishing discover troops of little insects friskfor countless ages, for the formation ing and capering with wild jollity of a stratum of the earth, than for the among the narrow pedestals that supsupport of living animals? Or, that ported its leaves, and the little threads the animal creation was better em- that occupied its centre! I was not ployed in the formation of a few fossil cruel enough to pull out any one of remains, than in being subservient to them for examination : but adapting the uses of man? To aver so, would a microscope to take in, at one view, be to make what we now call wisdom the whole base of the flower, I gave folly, and folly wisdom. But things myself an opportunity of contemplatmust not be so turned upside down. ing what they were about, and this

The phenomena of Nature, I pre- for many days together, without givsume, are susceptible of a far more ra- ing them the least disturbance. Thus tional explanation. And if you, Sir, could I discover their economy, their as a friend to the interests of Revela- passions, and their enjoyments. The tion, feel disposed to give regular pub- microscope, on this occasion, had given licity, in your Miscellany, to the MS. I what nature seemed to have denied to have prepared; I will engage to de- the objects of contemplation. The monstrate the subject, not only in a base of the flower extended itself different manner from what has ever under its influence to a vast plain ; been done, but in some measure, at the slender stems of the leaves became least, in which it ought to be demon- trunks of so many stately cedars; the strated. In the event of your so doing, threads in the middle seemed columns this paper will serve as an introduc- of massy structure, supporting at the tion to what shall follow,

top their several ornaments; and the Wishing you all success in your la- narrow spaces between were enlarged borious and important undertaking, I into walks, parterres, and terraces. subscribe myself an

On the polished bottom of these, ADVOCATE OF TRUTH. brighter than Parian marble, walked Edinburgh, 3, Elder-street,

in pairs, alone, or in larger companies, 230 Nov. 1819.

the winged inhabitants: these from little dusky flies, (for such only the naked eye would have shown them,) were raised to glorious glittering ani

mals, stained with living purple, and The examination of flowers by the mi- with a glossy gold that would have croscope opens a new field of wonder made all the labours of the loom conto the inquiring naturalist; by which temptible in the comparison. I could, we are enabled to perceive, that the at leisure, as they walked together, adminutest works of Nature are adorned mire their elegant limbs, their velvet with the most consummate elegance shoulders, and their silken wings; and beauty. As one proof, from innu- their backs vieing with the empyrean merable others that might be selected, in its blue ; and their eyes, each formI beg to subjoin Sir John Hill's inte-ed of a thousand others, out-glittering resting account of what appeared on the little planes on a brilliant ; above examining a carņation; first published | description, and too great almost for

CURIOUS

FACT OF

NATURAL

HISTORY.

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darkness and light, than the prepos- mation of the terrene strata ; when terous conclusions they sometimes Moses assures us, on the highest authomaintain, with the superlatively beau- rity, that both were created within a day tiful and rational account of Moses. / of each other? If such was the case, And in vain, I fear, does he indulge where was the time for the distinct forthe hope, that such a union, and such mation of the respective strata, unless flimsy arguments as can be drawn from you adopt the theory of Mr. Macnab, it, will ever convince of his error, an and give an unlimited extension to the unbeliever in the divine record. It six days of Moses, and call them awwrec, perhaps would be otherwise, however, or ages, or periods of unmeasurable if we would put theory altogether out duration ? But even here, what reason of the question, and have regard to could be traced in such a scheme? the facts of Nature and Revelation

Suppose you heard Moses declarsimply as they stand. Who knows ing, in the precise language of modern but this might effect what is in vain Geologists, That ages, and millions of sought for by the other method? It ages, rolled on, while the earth was will not be by telling the infidel, that bringing forth her luxuriant crops, for the earth arose originally “ out of no other purpose than to form a carwater;" and that not only the mcek bonaceous stratum. Suppose you man Moses affirms so, but that it heard him maintaining, with Werner is affirmed by the great philosopher and Hutton, that there were myriads Werner, the founder of a new theory, of ages, during which the terrene mass and the inventor of a set of laws underwent various fusions, overflowwhich determine with precision the ings, and recessions, sometimes by fire, relative dates of the respective strata ; and sometimes by water, in order to and whose system has gained thou- form the primitive and other rocks : sands of proselytes. In vain you lead or, with Cuvier and Macnab, that there him to the six days' work of creation, were myriads of revolutions of the according to Moses, and shew him that seasons, in which the earth spontavegetables were created on the third neously poured forth her luxuriant day,-marine animals or fishes on the productions ; “the herb yielding seed, fifth,-land animals on the sixth,—and and the fruit tree yielding fruit after lastly, man; and then open to him the their kind;” vast forests springing up, bowels of the earth, and bid him take flourishing, and fading, and repeating a pecp of what is to be seen there. ' In the same over and over; and all this vain you try to demonstrate that, as before any creatures, ages before, milvegetables were the first created of or- lions of ages before, any creatures ganized beings, so they hold the first were formed to reap the benefit of place above the primitive rocks. That these productions : yea, that the more as fishes and marine animals were noble part of animated nature could next produced, so they come next in not be formed, till the vegetable had order in the strata of the earth. That existed so long as to compose this so as land animals were formed after the much boasted carbonaceous stratum. fishes, so they are found exterior to And then, afterwards, when in the them in the earth's crust

. And that progress of time this came to be deas man was last produced, and like posited by the slow decomposition of one born out of due time, so his situa- vegetables, animals were formed, but tion in the crust of the earth is the very of species which have now become newest alluvial soil. In vain, I say, do extinct: and, that in order likewise to you avail yourself of such trifling and form a stratum of the remains of these, paltry coincidences. A thinking mind the same process must go on with the discerns neither sense nor reason in animals that went on with the vegethem. It sees them to be all founded tables, to countless ages. in impossibilities and errors; and to complete the whole, after having got its union resembles the clay and the marine and vegetable petrifactions, iron in Nebuchadnezzar's vision.

sea shells, and bones of animals, like What, for instance, can be more de- the grotto of a virtuoso, with a first

, Order of the creation of fishes before to form a firm basis for the soles of his void of sense, than to quote the Mosaic second, third, fourth, and fifth layer, land animals, as an evidence that it feet, he introduces man; man, the corresponds with the order of the for-1 principal creature of which this world

And, to

" The

could ever boast, as a new inhabitants in the Inspector, No. 109. into an old house, rotten and corrupted principal flower in this bouquet, was a in its very interior, and bearing every carnation; the fragrance of this led me mark of dissolution and decay ! to enjoy it frequently and nearly: the

Supposing you heard Moses giving sense of smelling was not the only one such a description of the creation as affected on these occasions ; while that this; I say, suppose you heard him was satiated with the powerful sweet, representing such a glorious fabric the ear was constantly attacked by an reared in such a pitiful manner; and extremely soft but agreeable murmura still more glorious Operator, as en- ing sound. It was easy to know that gaged for such a space of time in such some animal, within the covert, must a trifling and unmeaning employment; be the musician, aud that the little Could you defend it upon the princi- noise must come from some little ple of reason, or say that it resembled body suited to produce it. I instantly the other works of God ? Could you say distended the lower part of the flower, that the vegetable creation was ap- and, placing it in a full light, could plied to better purpose, in flourishing discover troops of little insects friskfor countless ages, for the formation ing and capering with wild jollity of a stratum of the earth, than for the among the narrow pedestals that supsupport of living animals? Or, that ported its leaves, and the little threads the animal creation was better em- that occupied its centre! I was not ployed in the formation of a few fossil cruel enough to pull out any one of remains, than in being subservient to them for examination : but adapting the uses of man? To aver so, would a microscope to take in, at one view, be to make what we now call wisdom the whole base of the flower, I gave folly, and folly wisdom. But things myself an opportunity of contemplatmust not be so turned upside down. ing what they were about, and this

The phenomena of Nature, I pre- for many days together, without givsume, are susceptible of a far more ra- ing them the least disturbance. Thus tional explanation. And if you, Sir, could I discover their economy, their as a friend to the interests of Revela- passions, and their enjoyments. The tion, feel disposed to give regular pub- microscope, on this occasion, had given licity, in your Miscellany, to the MS. I what nature seemed to have denied to have prepared; I will engage to de- the objects of contemplation. The monstrate the subject, not only in a base of the flower extended itself different manner from what has ever under its influence to a vast plain ; been done, but in some measure, at the slender stems of the leaves became least, in which it ought to be demon- trunks of so many stately cedars; the strated. In the event of your so doing, threads in the middle seemed columns this paper will serve as an introduc- of massy structure, supporting at the tion to what shall follow.

top their several ornaments; and the Wishing you all success in your la- narrow spaces between were enlarged borious and important undertaking, I into walks, parterres, and terraces. subscribe myself an

On the polished bottom of these, ADVOCATE OF TRUTH. brighter than Parian marble, walked Edinbnrgh, 3, Elder-street,

in pairs, alone, or in larger companies, 230 Nov. 1819.

the winged inhabitants: these from little dusky flies, (for such only the naked eye would have shown them,) were raised to glorious glittering ani

mals, stained with living purple, and The examination of flowers by the mi- with a glossy gold that would have croscope opens a new field of wonder made all the labours of the loom conto the inquiring naturalist; by which temptible in the comparison. I could, we are enabled to perceive, that the at leisure, as they walked together, adminutest works of Nature are adorned mire their elegant limbs, their velvet with the most consummate elegance shoulders, and their silken wings; and beauty. As one proof, from innu- their backs vieing with the empyrean merable others that might be selected, in its blue; and their eyes, each formI beg to subjoin Sir John Hill's inte- ed of a thousand others, out-glittering resting account of what appeared on the little planes on a brilliant ; above examining a carnation; first published | description, and too great almost for

CURIOUS

FACT OF NATURAL

HISTORY.

admiration. Here were the perfumed other day. Ex. 2. " It continued groves, the more than myrtle shades, of seven weeks; that is, for seven weeks.” the poet's fancy, realized; here the What is this but an avowal that as little animals spent their days in joy- active verbs have an immediate regiful dalliance ; or, in the triumph of men of the accusative case, so the their little hearts, skipped after one neuter verbs govern that case by a another from stem to stem among the preposition ? painted trees; or winged their short Page 129. “ Participles govern the flight to the close shadow of some accusative case; as, sold to slavery; broader leaf, to revel undisturbed in -relieving the distressed.” Mr. B. the heights of all felicity."

here stiffly contends that slavery is ASTROP. governed by the preposition to, &c.

That point is not disputed, though

sometimes overlooked by the best STRICTURES ON W. P. B.'s Review OF

writers. The late Rev. John Shaw, MR. SUTCliffe's GRAMMAR.

A. M. head master of the Grammar [Concluded from col. 58.]

School at Rochdale, published a coPage 125, Him, miswritten for he, pious English Grammar, which the occasioned this page to be cancelled, Rev. Mr. Simpson of Macclesfield, with sixteen other pages. Mr. B. used to say was the best in the Engquotes my retraction of “who, for lish language. On illustrating this whom say men that I am ;” and it is rule, he selects three examples with a very strange he should not acknow- preposition, and one without: I here ledge this circumstance! The quotation exactly imitated his four examples. proves, that he could not be ignorant And, as these examples run through of each page so cancelled.

all the three improved editions of his Page 128.

“ After a verb infinitive, work, published during his life, it is a noun or pronoun is often under believed that he would vindicate his stood: as,

he cheats' in trade. three first examples, on the ground, Here Mr. B. observes, “ that there is that the servitude of a slave sold to a no infinitive.'

!-True; because he has new master is not governed by the serpassed it over. The example is, A vant who conducts him, and who is father governs his family with indul- also a slave; but that poor Mungo gence, and his children delight to obey would assuredly regard his slavery as shim.)”. The second example, which governed by the participle sold. Hence, should have stood distinct, farther il- the preposition can have no more than lustrates the rule, that active verbs

a subordinate regimen ; and Mr. Shaw govern an accusative case, by the neu-would not thank Mr. B. for charging ter verb “ he cheats.”

Because, ac- him so pertly, with the violation of a cording to Gebelin, (la forme active rule he had been teaching all his life, sert pour les verbes actifs, neutres, et “ that prepositions govern the accuréfléchis. Docet, il enscigne; rubescit, sative case.” il rougit; &c.] “ the active form serves Page 141. “ Adverbs, &c.”—“ He for verbs active, neuter, and reflec- conducted himself agreeably to his intive; as docet, he teaches; rubescit, he structions, &c." Here, the adverb blushes." Now, it is presumed, with agreeably' governs the whole phrase deference to the contrary opinion, that his instructions.' Mr. B. asks, how every neuter verb is limited ; and con- can it be said, that a whole phrase is sequently defective in its affirmation. in the accusative case ?

But Mr. B. When we say," he blushes; he weeps, fails to say, that this rule is illustrated we leave the cause unexpressed, and from the best authorities, viz. Harris's that cause forms the real accusative to Hermes, the French Encyclopædia, the verb; as, “ he blushes, for his er- &c.

It is granted, that adverbs of rors;" “ he weeps for his sins;" "he fluctuating position have no regimen, cheats in trade."-In support of this and they may be suppressed without opinion, I cite the Rev. Mr. Fleming, disturbing the sense.

But here, the ose little grammar, forty years ago, adverb can neither be suppressed nor had a place in most of our schools. transposed : we cannot say, “ He con; His words are, “ If neuter verbs seem ducted himself to govern the accusative case, some Why then should youthful rashness preposition is understood; as, ' It hap- venture to attack those venerable and pened the other day; that is, on the learned grammarians? Mr. Harris's

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idea, that agreeably governs the de- If ne be not a negative, how would be pendent word, is obviously correct. translate Ut vide ne mentiaris? and,

Page 146, 147. “We cannot accord Ne irascamini in via ?-Gen. xlv. 24. with Mr. S. in the opinion here laid Here I claim some right from my down respecting negatives, ais-ne, years, to instruct this young man in say you not, or do you say? Je ne sais etymology, and from learned authority. pas, I do not know.' In neither of Gebelin says, [Ni s'est formé de la nethese does do stand in the place of a gation ne, &c.] “ The Latin conjuncnegative.”-Reply. Mr. B. meant to tion ni is formed of tbe negation ne, say, “ in place of the negative ne.” derived from the nasal n, which is proHe says above, that Mr. S. has judi- nounced by forcibly repelling the air ciously illustrated the auxiliary verbs; from the nostrils. N was therefore of here he hints that Mr. S. does not un- all sounds the most proper, to paint derstand them! Certainly, do is a the negation. Hence, ne and non of substitute for ne, and a happy one the Latins, common to our modern too; for by it we can close the above languages, are formed in the same phrases, by the mellifluous verbs say way.”Gram. Univ. p. 334. Ne is conand know. It was therefore the feli- sequently not only a negative in the city of these substitutes do, any, &c. example referred to, but in every exwhich induced our fathers in the reign ample without exception. of Elizabeth to suppress the double Page 148. “ He loves us, &c.” Mr. negation. The French, having no B. justly remarks bere, “ that there is such substitutes, retain the ancient no preposition.” The fact is, that in form. Their aucun, and n'aucun, can- the illustration of the 11th rule there not happily occupy the position of our are but two examples, and none with any and not any.

accusative pronouns. Therefore these Mr. B. errs in representing Mr. S. two belong to that rule, and were inas wishful to revive and restore the terpolated in the wrong place. But double negative; whereas no more is the moral wrong is greater than the intended than to say, by way of com- grammatical mistake. Mr. B. was inment, as the Westminster Greek gram-formed, six months prior to the dates mar, (Duæ negativæ apud Græcos of his review, that the page was canplerumque vehementiùs negant] that celled, and that the rule now stood at two negatives deny with greater force. the head of the 148th page. Where

Mr. B. adds, Though a few rare now is his doing to another as he would examples of a double negative may that men should do to him? A minisbe found in old Latin authors, they ter often from home, and who conseare not to be regarded as standards of quently studies under every disadvangrammatical accuracy.” This remark tage, ought not to have his faults exis quite new, and a very juvenile posed with injustice. one indeed. Where is the Latin au- Page 150. Mr. B. condemns the thor without them? only in that lan calling the verb were a plural verb, and guage, the double negation is not di- | insists on reading,

*The subjunctive vided by other words, as in the Greek, verb.This, it is conceived, would be the Anglo-Saxon, and the French. Is a mere change of difficulties, as will Cicero no standard author? He says, appear from the etymology of that Nescis non in pace, nec in bello vivere. word. Sub, under ; junctus, joined; a And, Nihil nè tibi mentem, &c. And, circumstance joined to an indicative Nunquam es reversurus? And, Ne sentence. Now, it happened during non esset bonum. Is Virgil no stand the early part of the last century, that ard author ? He says,

nearly the whole of our writers took no notice of the influence of a conditional conjunction on the verb, but

wrote, “ If he was in health ;" But Mr. B. still persists to add, that comes to-day.” Ne is not a negative, and requires no Page 174. “Author, for Anacharsis." correspondent word in English.” Mr. This being a metonymy in which all B. is quite original and solitary in this writers indulge, Mr. B. could have no remark. It is granted, that ne, sub- right to point it out as a fault. What stituting an idea for the real word, is do we know of Anacharsis but as an often an affirmation ; as when we say author ?

no harm," meaning “ all is well.” Page 175. “ Study your grammar

Necnon Lamyrumque, Lamumque, Et juvenem Serranum, &c. Æn. lib. ix, v. 334. "Nor even Lamyrus, Lamus, and young Serranus.”

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