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Son, and begotten Son, when commence- , spondents give any information rement of existence is excluded ?

specting the discovery of Greek manu4. In what manner can Eternal scripts in the ruins of Herculaneum? Existence be predicated of any being and are they possessed of any recent or person who is begotten?

intelligence concerning the discovery 5. Can the word Eternal be united of the works of Epicurus? to Sonor begotten Son, without involving contradictory ideas ?

Theological Questions.
MR. Editor,
Sir,- If you judge the following Que-
ries worthy a place in your excellent

Miscellany, (solutions to which are so1. On Degrees of Cold.

licited from any correspondent,) an OUR correspondent o requests us in

early insertion will much oblige, our list of queries to insert the follow

Your unknown friend, ing. “Is it a fact, that a current of

Jan. 14, 1820.

Theologus. cold air passes round in a room by the wall? Admitting this to be the case, Query 1. Can a good man, consistwhat reason can be assigned for it?

ently with the pure principles of Chris

tianity, send an ungodly son to be a 2. On the Determination of the Will.

Minister in the Established Church ? Iota of Plymouth asks—“ Is the Will

2. Was it possible for Jesus Christ determined to action by the under- to have done more or less than he did standing, or by the passions? And if do, to accomplish the redemption of a not by one or the other, when and why lost world ? any deviation?

3. As Christ assumed a nature that

was common to every individual of the 3. On By the Bye.

human species, was it possible for him J. B. of Liverpool, observing this to have died for any less than every phrase, “ By the Bye,” to be in gene- human being ? ral use, will be obliged to any corre

4. Was the righteousness of Christ, spondent who will favour him with the his obedience to the moral law, true meaning and proper application vicarious ? If it was, why did he die? of it.

Answer to J. H. B. 4. On asking a Blessing on our Food.

We have attended to J. H. B.'s in1. OUR correspondent I. asks, whether this custom was in use among the pri- should be prepared for use,” in the

“ how the æther and arsenic

quiry, mitive Christians ? and if so, when and

“method of preserving birds,” inserthow was it practised ?

ed in our former volume; and we now 2. Is this custom, which seems to be furnish him with the result. founded on the example of our Lord,

“ Sulphuric æther requires no prethe indispensable duty of Christians in

paration; and nothing can be more the present day?

clearly defined, than a saturated solu

tion of arsenic in water. As water Queries, Philosophical and Historical.

will only take up a certain quantity of MR. EDITOR,

arsenic in solution, the superabunSIR,—The insertion of the following dance will precipitate itself to the Queries in your valuable Publication, bottom; therefore it cannot be liable to will much oblige,

error from supersaturation.
Your's, very respectfully,

Your's, respectfully,

W. S.” Birstall, Dec. 25th, 1819.

1. If oxygen form a component in PREMIUMS OFFERED BY THE SOCIETY water, as 85 to 100, why does not water

OF ARTS, LONDON. taste acid, since oxygen is the acidify- 1. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, to any ing principle ?

person who shall cultivate the greatest 2. Do the celestial Intelligences de quantity of land (not less than 50 acres) rive their knowledge of the wisdom of with such potatoes as shall be fit for God, from the Church triumphant, or the table in April, May, and June, the Church militant?

1821. 3. Can any of your learned corre- 2. A gold medal, to any person who

el de

shall furnish the best method of im- perior to any hitherto produced from proving clay, gravel, sand, chalk, peat these substances, and not dearer than earth, or bog land, founded on experi- cloth of equal appearance, made from ments, on not less than 50 acres. hemp, flax, &c.

3. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, for 13. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, will the best set of experiments on 8 acres, reward ingenuity, for the best conto ascertain (being equally divided) structed mill for grinding corn, for the comparative advantages of the private families, &c.; the working to spade and plough, in raising flax, lu- be easy and expeditious, and superior cern, carrots, parsnips, or turnips. to any now in use. For a portable

4. A gold medal, fór ascertaining, by corn-mill, a similar premium is ofa set of experiments, the comparative

fered. advantages of the following manures ; 14. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, to soot, coal ashes, wood ashes, lime, any person who shall furnish the most gypsum, bones, nightsoil, &c., used as effectual way of supplying water in top-dressings on grass and corn lands. case of fire, or for the means best cal

5. A gold medal, or 50 guineas, to culated to extinguish it in buildings, him who, by actual experiment, shall superior to any known at present. increase the force of steam with less 15. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, for fuel than is now used, and without the best method of preventing acciotherwise augmenting the expense.

dents arising from stage coaches. 6. A gold medal, or 50 guineas, to

16. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, to him, who shall invent, and produce to the inventor of a method to prevent the Society, the best and easiest way, accidents, from the falling of horses superior to any now known, of pre- drawing two-wheeled carriages. venting the emission of dense smoke 17. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, will from chimneys, &c.

be given for the most effectual and 7. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, to the cheapest method of making and reperson who shall communicate the pairing roads, in any manner whatever, cheapest method of purifying the in- the same being proved by actual expeflammable gas from coal, superior to riment. any now in use.

18. A gold medal, or 30 guineus, will 8. A gold medal, or 100 guineas, is be given to the person who shall lay offered for a substitute for white lead, before the Society, a method superior as the basis of white paint, if superior to any now in use, for rendering boilers to any at present known, provided it of steam engines, &c. less liable to contains no noxious quality, and will accidents from explosion. not be considerably dearer.

19. A gold medal, or 50 guineas, will 9. A gold medal, or 50 guineas, is be paid for the greatest quantity of offered for a certain method of pre- nutmegs, not less than ten pounds, venting wrought iron from rusting, the equal to those imported from the East same being cheap, and superior to any Indies, raised in any of the British now in use.

settlements in the West Indies, or on 10. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, to the coast of Africa and adjacent isles. any person who shall discover the 20. A gold medal, or 50 guineas, will cause of dry rot in timber, and disclose be paid for the best account of the proa better method of preventing it than cess employed in India or China, in any hitherto known.

the manufacture of what we denomi11. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, is nate India paper, and use in copperoffered for the best composition for plate printing, together with an acprinters' ink, if superior to any now in count of the materials of which it is

The same premium is offered, made. under the same conditions, for the best composition used in the finest copperplate printing.

12. A gold medal, or 30 guineas, to Destruction of the Theatre in Birthe person who shall produce the larg

mingham. est quantity of cloth, not less than 30 | On the morning of January 7th, 1820, yards long, and 27 inches wide, made in the town was dreadfully alarmed by England or Ireland, from hop-stalks, the cry of“ Fire;” when, on further innettles, or other raw vegetable substan- quiry, it was found that the Theatre ces, the produce of these kingdoms, su- was in flames. Every possible assist




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ance was instantly rendered, but the broken, eyes struck out, or their bodies fire remained unsubdued, and in about severely scorched. The house adjointwo hours, that magnificent structure ing was blown away, in part, over the was reduced to a heap of ruins. Hap- heads of the family sitting round a pily no lives were lost ; but not an arti- table; but all escaped without injury, cle of any description was saved. On except one young woman, who was the preceding evening, Pizarro had severely burnt. In another account been performed; and it has been con- it is stated, that, from the violence of jectured, that the wadding from the the shock, some tables and chairs were muskets occasioned the disaster. The thrown across the street, and one winTheatre was insured in the Sun Fire dow being blown quite out, was carOffice for €7000, and the furniture in ried over a wall on the opposite side the Norwich Union for £2000. A for- 1 of the street. mer theatre in this place was burnt down by an incendiary, in 1791.

Fire at Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Gas Explosion in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. On the morning of January 9th, 1820, On Thursday evening last, Jan. 8th, about 3 o'clock, a dreadful fire broké 1820, we had, says our correspondent, out in Magdalen Hall, near Magdalen á dreadful explosion of Gas, within College, which, in three hours, totally 100 yards from my house. This cala- consumed the whole range of buildmity was occasioned by the breaking ings, consisting of about 18 sets of of one of the main pipes, through which rooms, and all the furniture, books, the gas had escaped, and made its way &c. were destroyed ; but happily nó into a house near which it lay, but lives were lost. Fortunately, the lodgwhich had no connection with its light. | ings of Dr. Macbride, the Principal, The explosion took place while the were saved from the conflagration, by family were enjoying the evening with pulling down the buildings which consome friends: and far beyond any nected the two together. This acciscene I had ever witnessed, this was dent is supposed to have originated in awfully tremendous. Two houses were the room of a young man, over the in an instant shivered to pieces; and

It was discovered by we had to pull the family from under the guard of one of the mails, on the the burning ruins. One child was kill- road leading to Oxford ; and but for ed on the spot; and in one of the the timely alarm given by him, it is houses almost every individual was in- probable that many must have pejured. Some had legs, thighs, or arms | rished.

common rooms.

COMMERCIAL REPORT, JANUARY 21st, 1820. The year commenced with a season of unusual severity, which has greatly interrupted our conmunications with the interior; and by closing the ports of the Continent to shipping, bas tended to narrow the commercial operations of this Port, in a great degree. However, the leading articles of import, have maintained their prices, and seem inclined to improve in value.

In raw Sugars, there has been a fair demand, with an advance of 2s. to 3s. per cwt.; the low rate of this indispensable article of luxury, appears at length to have attracted attention.The spirit of speculation may probably be checked, by the new duties now imposed upon the introduction of refined Sugars into Russia ; hitherto that country has been the mart, for the disposal of refined goods.

Coffee is stationary in price; the consumption of this berry increases considerably,--the quantity taken out of Bond for home consumption, during the last year, amounted to 16,822 cwt.

Cotton Wool is io steady demand ; the new American Cottons are coming in very freely, yet prices are firmly supported. The annual consumption is in progressive increase: it has been ascertained that last year's consumption in the United Kingdom amounted to 428,500 bags, averaging 8240 bags weekly.

Dyewoods are in limited request. Fish Oils are looking up, but Tallow remains unaltered in price. The stocks of British American Timber have very much accumulated of late, and the prices are very moderate. Mirimachi Pine in cargoes sells at 19d. per cubic foot.

Irish Provisions are generally inquired after at this season, for shipment to the British American settlements. Irish Butter' has lately been a favourite article of speculation, at an advance of price.

Since our last, two vessels have sailed from hence for the Cape of Good Hope, with about 400 settlers, under the conduct of an officer of the navy.



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WHOLESALE.-L.pool, Jan. 22, 1820.


8. d. 1 d. SUNDRIES.- Liverpool, 22d Jan.

Beef new, y tierce 98 0 a 115 0 SUGAR, o cwt.

HAY, old, y 2015. .... ..Is. Od. a os.od

barrel 65 0
56 a 62
Muscovado, dry brown

78 0

middling 63 71

Butter, pcwt.

68 0 70 0

STRAW, Wheat, 2011. 0 4
73 79
Cork dry 3rds. new

POTATOES, ....211b. 0 5 6
85 88

pickled new ands. 77 0 78 0 OATMEAL, Psack 240fb.35 0 38
Belfast dry new...... 83

0 84 0 Refined,Dble.Loavs. 6.a 71b. 144

FLOUR, best, 'sk.2401b.48 0 52 0
Single do. 10-14th. 114

Newry do...


seconds........42 0 45
Lar. Lmps. 46-501b. 94 95
Pork, Irish, brl. 80 926

FRESH BUTTER, 16oz 1 2 1 3
Canary do. 24-281b. 114

Cheese, old, 41201b 700 85 0
MOLASSES, British ...... 23 28

55 0 65 0 RUM, gallon, 16 O. P.38. 2d. a 38. 3d. LEATHER, lb.

Average Prices of Number of BankLeewards, common 2 1 2 2

Butts, 40 th

.1 10

Sugar. Gazette. rupts in Gazette. BRANDY, Cognac.... 3 O 3 6

Dressing, 20 a 21tb ....19

1 10
Dec. 22 ..358.31d. Dec.21....

18 GENEVA....

... 26
2 8
Calf, Edoz. 40 a 501b..2 7 2 9

- 29.. 34 0


12 Do. 30 a 35 ..2 2 2 4 COFFEE, y cwt.

Jan. 5..34 34

West India, ordinary.. 115 a 119
Horse, lb. ........1 6 1 7

12 ..35 8
Jan. 1....

middling ..125 138

fine........140 150
List of Vessels Arrived. Cleared

8...... 20 MAHOGANY, V foot, 8. d. 8. d. From West India and Bri

for sea. Prices Coal

11........ 10 Honduras

1 2 a 1 4
tish Settlements in 38 26

Ton of 22401b. 15..........15
St. Domingo
...... 1 10
2 0
North America


....158.6d. Cuba 1 5 1 7 East India and Africa 4 3 Country ,.100

Total.. 121 COTTON,Ulb.Sea Isl.


7 19 2 2 3 6 good to fine

United States

.14 13 ordinary to middling 1 11 2 1

82 77 Prices of Bullion.

Bowed, Georgia.... 10 1 1

Europe and all

Foreign Gold, in Bars ......£3 17 104

39 New Orleans 1 04 14 other Parts ......

Portugal Gold, in Coin........3 17 101 Pernambucco 1 34 1 6

New Doubloons

.........3 15 6 Maranham 1 34 1 44 22d Dec. to 21st Jan. Total 174 177 New Dollars...

5 0 Barbadoes 1 1

Silver, in Bars, Standard......0 5 2
West Indies

1 0 1 14
Total Tonnage

........28596 27489
07 1 0

Rates of Insurance.- Liverpool, Bengal


09 Liverpool Exports of British Manufac- To West Indies...... cent. 35 a 40$ DYE WOODS, 4 ton, £. s.


tures, from 22d Dec. to 21st Jan. U. States of America .... tic, Cuba..... 90 a 10 10

Cotton Stuffs 306492 pcs. & 975735 yds. Britisu America ......Season closed.
Porto Rico.... 6 0 7 0

Woollen do... 15823

Jamaica ...... 7 0 80

Brazils ...
Worsted do... 4981

..... 30

East Indies Logwood, Campeachy 7 0 8 0

.... 45

Jamaica.... 6 10

Coast of Africa and back..126
7 0
Linen Cloth..

7 10
Honduras,.. 6 10


...... 30 Kerseymere.. 759


Nicaragua Wood,

..23 0
24 0

...... 40


France and Holland...... 40
large solid..)



8 0 11 0
Blanketing 113 pairs,

season closed.

4787 TOBACCO, y tb. s. d.


25 James River

6523 doz. pairs.
0 31 a 0 8
Hats, 2737 10.21 N 590 cwts.

Ireland West Coast...... 40
stemmed.. ....051

East Coast ........30
Copper, 9251.-Glass, 19271 cwt. 1140 cts
Rappahanock ......0 34 05

Bar and Bolt Iron, &c....... 697 tons.
stemmed... 0 35 06

Prices of Stock, London, Jan. 19. 0 31

Steel, 76 cwts.--Tinplates, 743 boxes.

0 54

.. 213 tons. Reduced Annuities
ASHES, 4 cwt.
S. d. $. d.

685 Earthenware ..........1712 crates, &c. Consols 1st, Pot, fresh, U. S. 41 0 a 42 0

67. ex div. Refined Sugar.. ....10457 cwts. Consols for Acct. Montreal ........36 0 390

672 White Salt to Foreign Parts,..1379 tons. 4 ¥ Cents American, 1st, Pearl 41 0 43 0

... 66!

Ireland... TAR, Ybarrl. Stockholm 19 0

5 y Cent Navy
21 0

Rock Salt to Foreign Parts.. 446
Archangel 19 0 210

Exchequer Bills

par. Ireland

American 16 0 18 0

IRISH FUNDS.-- January 18.
Coal to Forei:n Parts

505 chal. RICE, y cwt. American,

Bank Stock


Government Debentures,3 V cent, 803 East India 15 19

5 cent, 1047 HIDES, lb. Buenos Ayres 7d. a 10 d. Liverpool Imports, from the 22d Dec. Government Stock, 3 y cent.... 77 West India 6

to the 21st January.

5 pcent..

...... 1041 BRIMSTONE, Yton, £. $.

Sugar, P. B. 730 hhds. 83 brls. 14 tces.

Grand Canal loan, 4 cent.......
...23 0 a 23 10 Foreign, 179 cases.--Coffee,B. P. 44 bgs.

SHUMAC, o cwt.

$. d.
s. d.

-Cotton, W. India, 76 bales. Ameri- 3 Cents
.21 0 a 216
can, 5364 bales. Brazils, 4300 bags;

New 6 y Cents
HEMP, y ton,

- 100

.984 £. 8. £. $. 527 bales; 873 serons. East India,

(The above with Div. from October.) Petersburg clean 46 0 a

1131 bales.--Rum, 427 punchs. 2 hhds. U.S. Bank Shares ... Riga Rhine

490 -Brandy, 2 pipes.--Wine, 10 hhds;
FLAX, ton,

£. s. £. 8.
29 pipes; i butt: 15 cases.-Molasses,

Liverpool Dock Shares, Dec. 17.
St. Petersburg 12-head 500 a 53 0 5 puncheons.--Fustic, 2 tons.-Ashes,

£92 17 3 3-10th average price for £100 HOPS, Kent pock. new 3 18 4 10 1349 brls-Turpentiné, 35 tris.-Rice,

at 5 cent per annum; interest pay& Sussex, bags, do. 3 16 4 8 686 bags - Tobacco, 480 hhds. 154 bales.

able in London or Liverpool half yearly. Worcester,

do. 4 0 4 16 -Iron, 4081 bars --Flax, 143 bales.Yearling, Kent or 3 0 3 14 Hides, 21905.-Madder Root, 18 bales.

Worcester, in ps. 3 10 4 0 -Elephants' Teeth, 62, & íit cwt.PINE TIMBER,cub ft. s. d. 8. d.

Sumac, 2746 bgs.-- Brimstone, 1684 tons. American

16 al 7 --Valonla, 120 tons.--Saltpetre,1649 bgs. Baltic

2 5 2 6 -Indigo, 10 chests.-Wool, 58 bales.SALT PETRE, Ycwt. 33 0

-Flaxseed, 2112 bags; 20 casks.-LinGRAIN

8. d. seed, 650 qrs.-Corn, Wheat, 13277 qrs. Barley, Engl y 60th. 4 6 a 5 9 -Barley, 6969 qrs. 22 tons.--Oats, Irish & Foreign 39 5 0

27534 qrs.-Beans, 621 qs.--Peas, 135 qs. Beans, Engl. Y qr...420 45 0 Malt, 933 qrs.-Flour, 231 tons; 1364 bris

Foreign ....360 45 0 48 sacks.Oatmeal, 2264 bolls; 37 tons.
Flour, ¥ barrel,

-Oranges and Lemons, 2045 chests;
American, sweet 400

4509 boxes.-Raisins, 753 brls. 2301 bxs. sour..32 0 34 0 2351 drums; 5058 baskets; 182 casks. Oats, Engl. Y 45lb.

Figs, 490 drums; 2 frails; 59 mats.3 4 3 7

Almonds, 20 bales; 5 bags.-Apples, Irish & Foreign 2 10 3 7 116 brls.-Nuts, 100 bags.-Walnuts, Wheat, Engl. 4 7015.10 0 10 6 11 bags.-Currants, 151 caroteels; Irish.... 9 0

9 6 122 butts; 5 casks. Dantzig .... 96 10 3 Oil-Cód, 480 csks-Dogfish, 268 csks. TALLOW, 1121b. s. d.

$. d.

Seal, 94 casks; 89 brls. i puncheon.-Russia Y. Candle 57 0 a 58 Blubber, 30 casks.-Palm, 303 casks; Brazil .......59 0

10 brls. 280 punchs. 96 butts; 120 pipes; IRON, Eng. bar ......£110 11 10 170 hhds. 96 kegs.-Rape, 10 pipes. Foreļgn, in bond 17 0

17 10 Timber, 21 cargoes. OILS, Y tun, Olive.... £77 0 a 780

Seal ......35 0

Butter, 21546 frks. 140 crocks, &c.
Cod ......30 0

Rapeseed, 113 bgs. 2174 scks. 734 qrs.--
Greenland Whale....38

Cows, 197-Pigs, 1764.-Bacon,347 bales
Palm ....39

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Ports closed against all kinds of Grain for home consumption.

2 : 2 U.


, 341. effect. Cadiz, 344.
Course of Exchenge, in London, January 18.
Amsterdam, 11 : 19 C. F. Ditto at sight, 11 : 16. Antwerp,
12: 1. Ex. M. Hamburg, 36 : 1:2 U. Altona, 36
effect. Barcelona, 34. Gibraltar, 30. Leghorn, 474, Genoa, 44).
Venice, Italian Liv. 27. 30. Malta, 46. Naples, 384. Palermo,
216. Lisbon, 52. Oporto, 52. Rio Janeiro, 57. Dublin, 114.
Paris, 3 days” sight, 25 ?'.

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03 0

0 0

28 csks. --Beef, 766 tces, 431 bris. 74 tubs. Linseed, gall... 38. 8d. a 0s. od. - Pork, 1387 barrels.--Linen Cloth, Rape .. 4 0

382 bales, 574 boxes.--Flax, 231 bales, Turpentine,Pewt. 62 0

168 bags, 10 boxes.

18th Dec.
25th -
1st Jan,
8th -


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of sins.

The vile defamer's pois'nous breath
Diffuses pestilence and death;
Assuming friendship's sacred guise,
His mouth's the vehicle of lies;
An enemy to all that's good,
Destruction is his proper food.

What king so strong,
"Can tie the gall up in the slanderous tongue!


ruin: in all such cases, tho’ publicity would not be defamation, it would unquestionably be a total departure from that charity which covereth a multitude

What then is defamation? It is intentional misrepresentation, for the purpose of detracting from the reputation of any one.* I have said intentional

misrepresentation, because a person Among the various vices which de- the most benevolent, and the most hosform human nature, and derogate from tile to any thing defamatory, may give the happiness of the species, perhaps circulation to a misrepresented fact, there is none more extensive in its not knowing or supposing it to be range, and pestiferous in its influence, such. The authority from whom he than Defamation. It respects neither received it, might be such as to preage, nor sex, nor character, nor condi- clude the suspicion of inaccuracy; tion, but blows its poisonous breath and the motive which actuated him in upon all, and generally most copiously its repetition, might be the most virupon those who are celebrated either tuous and commendable.

It might for wisdom or virtue.

possibly be to shew the inexperienced By defamation I do not mean a sim- the dangers to which the imprudent ple relation of the truth, however that are exposed, from the adoption of certruth may operate to the injury or dis- tain principles, the formation of cerhonour of any individual; for the pub- tain habits, or an association with licity of facts, however painful to the persons of bad or doubtful character ; delinquent, is often salutary, at once or it might be to throw a little light correcting the offender, and exhibiting into the picture, by shewing that the a beacon for the admonition of others. disgraceful fact possibly arose from Any pain experienced by such publi- peculiar circumstances, that it was city, must be considered as the neces- the result of unexpected and violent sary result of folly and wickedness,- temptation, that the fact is a solitary as confirmatory of those scriptures one, and that no one can condemn it which teach that the way of transgres- with greater severity than that with sors is hard,—and as the natural pro- which he condemns it himself, and that moter and guardian of virtue. But although in his character there is much although truth is not defamation, how to blame, yet there is also much to adever it may affect the reputation or mire, and that therefore he ought not circumstances of the guilty, yet pru- to be avoided as a pestilence, or exedence, and especially Christian charity, crated as a demon, but pitied, and, if will in many cases conceal and not possible, restored as a fallen brother. publish the infamy of others; and more Defamatory reports circulated by perespecially if such infamy be a devia- sons actuated by such motives, and tion from general character; or if they accompanied by such palliatives, lose have repented of their evil, and have much of their malignity ; the poison is given evidence that they have done so not only diluted, and thus weakened, by a change of conduct; or if publicity would produce no good effect on adopied the definition given of this term by

* The reader will perceive that I have not themselves or others; and farther, if lawyers. According to them, any offensive truth such pablicity would entail infamy is defamation; hence the maxim--the greater upon such as had no participation in the truth, the greater the libel. As a check on their crime, and thus involve the inno- the malignant, perhaps such a definition may cent and the guilty in one common be necessary to the good order of society,

No. 13.--VOL. II.


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