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flames. (2,) I would admonish you, saith the apostle, though you once knew this, that Sodom and Gomorrah thus suffered the vengeance of eternal fire. Now, from the history of Genesis, and the writings of the prophets, they might know that these cities, and the inhabitants of them, were overthrown, ɛis aiova, with a perpetual desolation, Zeph. ii. 9, but they could not know from thence that their souls were afterwards cast into hell fire. (3,) To deiyue, an example, is to be taken from something visible to, or knowable by, all who were to be terrified by it, especially when it is an example manifested and proposed. Now such was not the punishment of their souls in hell fire; but nothing was more known and celebrated among authors, sacred and profane, Jewish, Christian, and heathen writers, than the fire that fell down upon Pentapolis, or the five cities of Sodom, they being mentioned still in Scripture, as the cities which God overthrew with a perpetual desolation.

"Nor is there any thing more common and familiar in Scripture, than to represent a thorough and irreparable vastation, whose effects and signs should be still remaining, by the word aleiros, which we would here render eternal. I will set thee, is ignor aidírior, in places desolate of old, Ezek. xxvi. 20. I will destroy thee, and thou shalt be no more, sis tòr aiăra, forever, verse 21. I will make thee, guiar aláírior, a perpetual desolation, and thy cities shall be built no more, chapter xxxv. 9. See also Ezek. xxxvi. 2; Isaiah lviii. 12. They have caused them to stumble in their ways, to make their land desolate, and agıyun aláírior, a perpetual hissing, Jer. xviii. 15, 16. I will bring you, orεidiouòr aláírior, an everlating reproach, and a perpetual shame, which shall not be forgotten, Jer. xxiii. 40, and xxv. 9. I will make the land of the Chaldeans a perpetual desolation, they shall sleep, varov aionor, a perpetual sleep, Jer. li. 39. And this especially is threatened, where the destruction of a nation or people is likened to the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah; thus Babylon shall be as when God prerthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, οὐ κατοικηθήσεται εἰς

Tov aiova zoóror, it shall never be inhabited, Isa. xiii 19, And again, Jer. 1. 40."

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This furnishes full proof, that Dr. Whitby believed in the doctrine of endless misery, and probably believed that many of the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah would suffer eternal torments; but he did not believe, that the words, Jude, verse 7, should be applied to a future state of punishment at all, but to the overthrow and destruction of those cities upon the earth.

XC. Jude, verse 13.

Here we find the phrase forever applied to punishment, as we did also in 2 Peter ii. 17. For our remarks on this point, see on Rev. xiv. 9-11, section XCII. of this chapter.

XCI. Rev. ii. 11; xx. 6, 14; xxi. 8.

In these four passages, and in these alone, in the whole Bible, we find the phrase SECOND DEATH.

It is fortunate for us that we are not left to learn the import of the phrase in question from men. The inspired writer has himself given us a clue to the subject, which it will now be our business briefly to trace. From two passages it seems very manifest, that being cast into the lake of fire, is the second death. See Rev. chap. xx. 14, and xxi. 8. If we can learn any thing in relation to the lake of fire, we shall at the same time learn the circumstances attending the second death.

The lake of fire is mentioned five times only in the Bible, viz. Rev. xix. 20, xx. 10, 14, 15, and xxi. 8. And here we beg leave to ask the advocates of endless misery, if they believe the lake of fire and brimstone spoken of as the place of the second death, to be a lake of literal fire and brimstone? If they are pleased to answer in the affirmative, we would again ask them, if they consider the beast, mentioned xix. 19, and 20, to be a literal beast? If so, we suppose death and hell, mentioned xx. 14, are to be understood as literal likewise, and they too, cast into the lake of fire. By turning to chap. vi. 8, we shall see death mounted upon

a pale horse, which of course was literal, "and hell," literal also, "followed with him.” If all these things are to be received as literal, death mounted upon a pale horse, and hell following with him, the beast with "seven heads and ten horns," and last, though not least, the lake of fire burning with brimstone, into which the others were cast, · Catholic credulity itself will, we fear, prove insufficient for the task. But this no one in his sober senses will pretend. Still, if the lake of fire must be understood to be literal, why not all the rest? Let consistency be preserved, and let us not cast a figurative beast, and death, and horse, and hell, into a literal lake of fire and brimstone.

But, by looking a little closer to the subject, we shall find very good evidence to believe, that the lake of fire, terrible as it may be, is yet in this our insignificant and passing world, and makes no part of the apparatus of eternity. We read, chap. xix. 20, "And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet, that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast ALIVE into the lake of fire and brimstone." Now, whatever may be said to the contrary, it cannot be reasonably supposed, that, literal or figurative, the beast and false prophet could be cast alive, that is, without suffering death or change, into the lake of fire, allowing that to be in the future and eternal world. But that they were so cast there, must be believed, or the notion that the lake of fire is removed from this world be given up. Dr. Clarke's notes on this passage are amusing; "The beast," says he, "has been represented as the Latin empire; the image of the beast, the popes of Rome, and the false prophet, the papal clergy." On the phrase, "were east alive into the lake of fire," he says, by way of exposition, "Were discomfited when alive, in the zenith of their power, and destroyed with an utter destruction;" that is, the Latin empire and the papal clergy were discomfited, &c. This is being cast into

the lake of fire!! The pope and his clergy were discomfited!! If the Doctor was right here, the lake of fire and brimstone is not only in this world, but quite tolerable too.

Again we read, chap. xx. 10, "And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night, forever and ever." Here too, we observe, that the lake of fire was plainly in this world, inasmuch as the alternations of day and night can hardly be imagined to belong to any other state of existence than the present.

For ourselves, we are unable to find any satisfactory proof that the second death is beyond the grave. Various circumstances, on the contrary, combine to lead us to a very different result. Those above specified are among the number. The expressions relative to "the dead, small and great," standing before God, and to the sea, and death, and hell giving up the dead in them, we conceive to refer to Dan. xii. 2, and John v. 29. We understand them all to relate not to those literally dead." And they were judged every man according to his works." See Matt. xvi. 27, 28, where such a judgment is described as coming during that generation. Matt. xxv. 31, &c. refers to the same time.

The supposition that seems most probable to us, is, that the lake of fire is the same as the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels; see Matt. xxv. 41; the same as the furnace of fire; Matt. xiii. 42; and is clearly foretold by Mal. iv. 1, 5. See also Ezek. xxii. 17-22, inclusive. That all these were in this world, is susceptible of the most satisfactory proof. The second death consisted in being cast into this lake of fire, or it was the punishment which the wicked, particularly the Jews, suffered in the subversion of their state, and the total overthrow of their temple and city.*

*For these remarks we are indebted to the "Christian Messenger," Vol. II. No. 4.

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The views of Rev. Warren Skinner, on the "Second Death," may be found in the work entitled, "Eternal Hell Torments Overthrown," pp. 70-75, note. For the views of Rev. Hosea Ballou, see his work entitled, "Examination of the Doctrine of Future Retribution," pp. 185-196. For an essay on the book of Revelations in general, see "Universalist Expositor," Vol. III. pp. 193-220; IV. 101.

A sermon on this subject was published in 1832, at Taunton, by Rev. J. B. Dods, then pastor of the Universalist society in that place, now of Provincetown, Mass., in which many things are advanced worthy of deep consideration. The following very long extract will pay the reader for a careful perusal.

"Our opposers suppose, that by the first death is meant the death of the body, and by the second is meant an eternal death in the future world, which consists in the most exquisite sufferings that the imagination can conceive. It must be granted by all that a second death, not only presupposes a first, but implies that it must be of the same character with the first death, or that there must at least subsist between them an analogy sufficiently strong to justify the subsequent phrase, second death, as relative to its antecedent, a first death. But what resemblance is there between the death of the body, which is a total loss of all sensation and pain, and a state of the most exquisite suffering in the immortal world? None at all. Then they do not stand in relation to each other, so as to jus

tify the expression of first and second death. *

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"We now proceed to show, that the first and second death mean the first and second destruction of the Jews as a nation, which took place at the destruction of their first and second temple. We will show that the second death is national, not moral.

"God established the Jews, as a nation, in the land of Judea, under a government purely religious, which constituted their national existence. Their first temple

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