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pulous investigation, or of nice interpretation, it is more than probable that recourse must be had to the statutes themselves, which confer the jurisdiction, for other purposes, as well as for the number of justices empowered to act upon the subject.

The most prominent and ordinary occasions, then, on which the presence of two justices (not in Special, General, or Quarterly, but) in Petty Session, properly so called, is required, seem to be the following, they being generally for judicial, and not for merely ministerial acts.*

ALEHOUSES. Adjudication of forfeiture of licence to, by 57 Geo. 3. c. 19. s. 29.

APPRENTICES. Binding poor, by 48 Eliz. c. 2. Assigning ditto, by 32 Geo. 3. c. 57. Discharging ditto, ditto. Registering ditto, by 42 Geo. 3. c. 46. Binding to the sea service ditto, by 2 & 3 Anne, c. 6. Levying penalties on masters misbehaving to ditto, ditto. Discharging apprentices generally, by 20 Geo. 2. c. 19. Recompensing parish apprentices discharged, for ill usage

by masters, by 32 Geo. 3. c. 57. Punishing masters of apprentices generally, with whom

no more than a fee of 101. was paid, by 38 Geo. 3. c.55.


Order of maintenance of a bastard child upon the re

puted father and the mother, by 18 Eliz. c. 3; and

49 Geo. 3. C. 68. Certificate to session that such order hath been made,

by 49 Geo. 3. c. 68. Sammons, and commitment, of father or mother for

disobedience of the order, by 49 Geo. 3. c. 68.

Rex v. Hempstall. 3T. R. 380.

Setting the assize of, in counties, not being cities, towns
corporate, or boroughs, by 31 Geo. 2. c. 29.

Authorizing the getting stones and other materials for the

repairing of county bridges, by 55 Geo. 3. c. 147.

Commitment of servant for burning a house by negli-

gence, by 6 Anne, c. 31.

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Conviction of a manufacturer of buttons for putting a

false mark on them, by 36 Geo. 3. c. 60.

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Warrant of distress for levying penalty on carrier for

having exceeded the rates of carriage, when such rates
have been set, by 3 W. 3. c. 12; and 21 Geo. 2. c. 28.

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Order for payment of, to the amount of 10l. by 7 & 8

W. 3. c. 6; and 52 Geo. 3. c. 127.

CONSTABLES AND OTHER PARISH OFFICERS. Conviction of, fine upon, and distress against, for neglect

of duty, by 33 Geo. 3. c. 55.

COTTON AND WOOLLEN MILLS AND FACTORIES. Conviction and punishment of masters and mistresses of,

for offences described by 42 Geo. 3. c. 73; and 59 Geo.3, c. 66.

Putting owner into possession of, by 11 Geo. 2. c. 19;

and 57 Geo. 2. c. 52.
Putting churchwardens and overseers into possession of,

when appropriated to the use of the poor, by 59 Geo. 8.

c. 12.


Conviction of fraudulently removing goods to avoid, and

for assisting in the same, by 11 Geo. 2. c. 19.

Dogs. Conviction and commitment for stealing, by 10 Geo. 3. C. 18.

Excise AND CUSTOMS. Informations and convictions under most of the laws

relative to the excise and customs, especially by 12 Car. 2. c. 24; 18 Geo. 2. c. 26'; 24 Geo. 2. c. 48; 5 Geo. 3. c. 43; and 24 Geo. 3. c. 47.

FIRE ARMS. Conviction of undue making, marking, or proving of, by

53 Geo 3. c. 115; and 55 Geo. 3. C. 59.


Informations, orders, and warrants respecting the go

vernment of, by 33 Geo. 3. C. 54; 35 Geo. 3. c. 101; 49 Geo. 3. c. 125; and 59 Geo. 3. c. 128.


Enforcement of rates for, composition for, and discharge

from rates for, by 13 Geo. 3. c. 78; and 34 Geo. S.

C. 64.

N.B. The other acts to be performed by justices, by authority of the different statutes relative to highways, are directed to be at Special, not at Petty, Sessions; excepting the convictions for offences on them, which are generally sufficient before a single justice.

LUNATICS. Commitments of, to safe custody of parish officers, by

17 Geo. 2. c. 5. To lunatic asylums, by 48 Geo. 3. c. 96; and 59 Geo. 3. PLAYERS. Convictions of, in pecuniary penalties, for playing con

c. 197.

trary to provision of 28 Geo. 3. c. 30.

Order of removal of, and suspension of ditto, by 13 & 14

Car. 2. c. 12; and 35 Geo. 3. c. 101.
Rate for relief of, enforcing, by 43 Eliz. c. 2.

N. B. The allowance of the rate is merely a mi

nisterial rate. See ante p. 3. in note. Examination and punishment of overseers of, for negli

gence, &c. by 43 Eliz. c. 2. Of ditto, for disobedience of a lawful warrant, or neglect

of duty, by 33 Geo. 3. c. 55. Relief of, by parents, overseers, &c. by 59 Geo. 3. c. 12, Assignment of pensions of, by ditto.

SERVANTS. Disputes with their masters; settling In the silk trade, by 32 Geo. 3. c. 44. In the cloth trade, by 13 Geo. 3. C. 40; and 29 Geo. 2.

C. 33. In the hat, fur, hemp, flax, and mohair trades, by 12

Geo. 1. c. 34; 22 Geo. 2. c. 27; and 17 Geo. 3. C. 55. In the leather manufacture, by 13 Geo. 2. C. 8. In the iron, cotton, &c. ditto, by ditto. Conviction of, for combining to advance wages, by

39 & 40 Geo. 3. c. 106. Relief of, by enforcing payment of wages to, in money,

by 57 Geo. 3. c. 115 and 122; and 58 Geo. 3. c. 51.

VAGRANTS. Conviction of, for wilfully neglecting to provide for their

wives and families, by 32 Geo. 3. c. 45.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Appointment of inspectors of, by 35 Geo, 3. c. 102; and

55 Geo. 3. c. 43.

Conviction of persons exporting, by 9 & 10 W. 3. c. 246;

and 28 Geo. 3. c. 38.


Estimating value of articles saved from, by 53 Geo. 3. c. 87.
Ascertaining damages done to contiguous lands by re-

moving goods from, by ditto.


Under the second division of the position that has been When expedilaid down, viz, that part which relates to instances wherein discretion would point out the propriety of having the assistance of a second justice for the benefit of deliberation, although positive statute may not require the authority of more than one for execution, little need be advanced. Common prudence and delicacy will suggest to every man of discernment the cases, as they arise, in which he ought to wish only to share responsibility. It is even almost unnecessary to throw out generally, as examples, such cases as concern large pecuniary interests, or persons of eminent station in society ; questions on statutes that admit of some ambiguity of interpretation; as well as those where no remedial process of any description is given from the summary decision of the justice who takes cognizance of the subject, by application to any other tribunal.

SPECIAL SESSIONS are extraordinary meetings of justices Special Sesconvened by some proper authority, for some special purpose. What must be that authority, and of what description are those purposes, become necessary subjects of consideration, Some Special Sessions are periodical, some only occasional, Periodical, although both by statute. Of the former kind are those Occasional. directed to be bolden at particular seasons for the appointment of overseers of the poor, and of highways, as also for the licensing of alehouses. Of the latter, are those for turning and improving highways by 13 Geo. 3. c. 78. and 55 Geo. 3. c. 68; those under the general inclosure act of 41 Geo. 3. c. 109; and those under the 22 Geo. 3. c. 38. for erecting houses of industry; and many others. The form and manner of convening these, and all other Special


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