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Nec casia liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi:
At secura quies et nescia fallere vita,
Dives opum variarum; at latis otia fundis,
Speluncae vivique lacus; at frigida Tempe
Mugitusque boum mollesque sub arbore somni
Non absunt; illic saltus ac lustra ferarum
Et patiens operum exiguoque adsueta juventus,
Sacra deum, sanctique patres; extrema per illos
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit.

Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musae,
Quarum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore,
Accipiant, caelique vias et sidera monstrent,
Defectus solis varios lunaeque labores;

Unde tremor terris; qua vi maria alta tumescant,
Objicibus ruptis, rursusque in se ipsa residant;
Quid tantum oceano properent se tinguere soles
Hiberni, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet.
Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partis,
Frigidus obstiterit circum praecordia sanguis;
Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes,





466. Casia. This does not seem to be the casia mentioned in ver. 213, Georg. iv. 30, 182, 304, which was probably spurge flax. It is evident that this casia was an odoriferous plant used to perfume their unguents. -467. At. For the force of at, see Zumpt, § 349. Fallere. The genitive. See Ecl. v. 47. The force of fallere here is to disappoint with false hope.-468. As Virgil (ver. 412) recommends small farms, latis fundis must here mean the open expanse of view that the country yields.— 469. Tempe. This delightful valley, in Thessaly, between Olympus and Ossa, watered by the Peneüs, is often used to denote any rural scene of surpassing beauty.-474. Justitia. See Ecl. iv. 6.-475. Primum. Virgil wishes first to be a poet and philosopher; next, if that be unattainable, to be blessed with a country life. See 483, &c. Join dulces ante omnia.-476. Sacra fero. Poets are sometimes called priests of the Muses, and it was part of the duty of the priest, ferre sacra. Percussus amore. Smit with the love of sacred song.'-Milton, Par. Lost, iii. ver. 39.-477. Vias et sidera, equivalent to vias siderum. So verses 486, 487, campi Spercheosque, equivalent to campi Sperchei, and so in other passages, where the last term modifies or explains the first. Thus Aen. vii. 751. Fronde et felici comtus oliva; crowned with a leafy chaplet, and that (et) of the blessed olive.-481, 482. The short days of winter, when the sun seems to hurry to his ocean bed, and the long days of summer, when night seems to be obstructed in her approach, are alluded to. See a similar passage, the subject being a favourite one with some of the earlier Greek poets, Aen. i. 740, &c.-483, &c. Virgil prays that if the dulness of his faculties (arising from the coldness of his blooda hypothesis of some ancient philosophers) prevented him from being a poet and a philosopher, he might enjoy rural delights. See ver. 476.

Flumina amem silvasque inglorius. O, ubi campi
Spercheosque et virginibus bacchata Lacaenis
Taygeta! o, qui me gelidis in vallibus Haemi
Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra!
Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,
Atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum
Subjecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari!
Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestis,
Panaque Silvanumque senem Nymphasque sorores!
Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum
Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres,
Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab Histro;
Non res Romanae perituraque regna; neque ille
Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti.
Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura
Sponte tulere sua, carpsit; nec ferrea jura
Insanumque forum, aut populi tabularia vidit.
Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque
In ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum;
Hic petit excidiis urbem miserosque Penatis,





486, 487. Campi Spercheosque. For this form of speech, which the grammarians call Hendiadys (v dia dvov, one term by two), see ver. 477. The Spercheos was a river of Thessaly.-488. Taygeta (juga). The Taygetus was a mountain range of Laconia, on which the Laconian maids celebrated the rites of Bacchus (virginibus, &c). Haemi. A wooded mountain range of Thrace.-489. Finely imitated by Cowper-'Oh for a lodge in some vast wilderness, Some boundless contiguity of shade.'


-490. Happy the philosopher, happy, too (fortunatus et ille, ver. 493) the peasant.-492. Acherontis avari. The Acheron was a small river of Epirus, but was supposed to communicate with the infernal regions. Here the poet alludes to it as an emblem of insatiable death, the fear of which the philosopher overcomes.-495. Fasces. The ensigns of power for power itself.-496. Fratres. Probably Phraates and Tiridates, near relations, who were contending for the throne of Parthia.-497. Dacus. The Dacians, who lived along the north of the Danube (Hister), west from the Black Sea, made constant inroads on the Romans; nor were they finally subdued till the time of Trajan. Conjurato used actively. Zumpt, § 633.-499. Peasants are freed from beggary and wealththey have a competency.-503-512. Virgil describes the passions and vices of a city life; 503, 504, love of military glory tempting some to seek fame abroad; 505, 506, luxuriousness tempting others to civil war; 507, some are misers; 508-510, others are attracted by the desire of distinction, as lawyers and statesmen; 510-512, and some, stained with blood, are forced to settle in foreign climes.

Ut gemma bibat, et Sarrano dormiat ostro;
Condit opes alius, defossoque incubat auro;
Hic stupet attonitus Rostris; hunc plausus hiantem
Per cuneos geminatus enim plebisque Patrumque
Corripuit; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum,
Exsilioque domos et dulcia limina mutant,
Atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole jacentem.
Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro :

Hinc anni labor; hinc patriam parvosque nepotes
Sustinet, hinc armenta boum meritosque juvencos.
Nec requies, quin aut pomis exuberet annus,
Aut fetu pecorum, aut Cerealis mergite culmi,
Proventuque oneret sulcos, atque horrea vincat.
Venit hiems: teritur Sicyonia bacca trapetis;
Glande sues laeti redeunt; dant arbuta silvae,
Et varios ponit fetus autumnus, et alte
Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis.
Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati;
Casta pudicitiam servat domus; ubera vaccae
Lactea demittunt, pinguesque in gramine laeto
Inter se adversis luctantur cornibus haedi.
Ipse dies agitat festos, fususque per herbam,
Ignis ubi in medio et socii cratera coronant,
Te, libans, Lenaee, vocat, pecorisque magistris
Velocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo;

Corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestrae.
Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini,
Hanc Remus et frater; sic fortis Etruria crevit
Scilicet, et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma,
Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces.
Ante etiam sceptrum Dictaei regis, et ante
Impia quam caesis gens est epulata juvencis,







506. Sarrano. Tyrian. See ver. 465.-509. Cuneos. The wedge-formed divisions of the Roman theatres. Enim has here the force of a strong affirmative. See Aen. viii. 84.-513, &c. How different are the pursuits of the peasant!-516. He enjoys constant and innocent returns to his labour all the year round.-519. Sicyon, west of Corinth, was famous for its olives.-527. Ipse dominus agitat; presides at the holiday rejoicings.-528. Ignis. The altar fire. Cratera. From this the cups of libation were filled. Coronant. Encircle with a chaplet of flowers (see Aen. iii. 525), as was the usage of our poet's time.-536. Dictaei. An epithet applied to Jupiter, from Dicte, the mountain in Crete, where he was born.-537. The early Romans deemed it impious to eat so useful an animal as the ox.

Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat.
Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum
Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.

Sed nos immensum spatiis confecimus aequor,
Et jam tempus equum fumantia solvere colla.


538. Saturnus. According to the old Italian mythes, the Golden Age, full of rural innocence and peace, flourished under the paternal rule of Saturn. See Aen. viii. 319, &c.


In the third Book of the Georgics, Virgil treats of the animals employed in agriculture, and which are the farmer's peculiar care— horses, oxen, sheep, goats, and dogs. He introduces his subject 1-8, by addressing Pales, the goddess of shepherds, Apollo, and Arcadia, and by expressing his intention to shun the mythic themes of ordinary poets. He is to make Mantua renowned for producing a poet, who, victorious in the contest of genius, shall celebrate in song and festal games, and with a votive temple, the praises of Caesar, 9-39. But he informs Maecenas that first he will deal, at his request, with rural themes, 40-48. The breeding of horses and oxen, 49-156. The rearing and training of oxen, 157-178. The rearing and training of horses, 179-208. The effects of love on animals, 209-283. Virgil, after some introductory remarks, gives directions for the care of sheep in winter, 284-299. Directions regarding goats, which, for some purposes, he recommends as preferable to sheep, 300-317. Directions regarding the care of goats during winter, 318-321. Directions regarding the summer pasturing of sheep and goats, 322-338. The Nomadic tribes of Libya described, 339-348. The shepherd tribes of cold Scythia described, 349-383. Directions to those who cultivate sheep for the sake of the wool, 384-393; for the sake of the milk, 394-403. The care and uses of dogs, 404-413. To beware of serpents, 414-439. The causes and cure of disease in sheep, 440-463. The necessity of promptness urged from the danger of infection, 464-473. This introduces (474-481) a striking description of an autumnal epidemic among cattle in the Noric Alps and neighbourhood. Complicated nature of the disease, 482-485. Its sudden effects on sheep, 486-493; on heifers in the pastures, 494, 495; on dogs and swine, 496, 497. Commencement of the disease in horses, 498-502. Its progress, 503-514. Sufferings of the innocent steers at work, 515-530. Hardships thereby imposed on the people, 531-536. Other animals shared the evil effects, 537-547. All remedies were

unavailing, 548-550. Fearful havoc made by the pestilence, and its pernicious effects on the animal system, 551-566.

TE quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande, canemus,
Pastor ab Amphryso, vos, silvae amnesque Lycaei.
Cetera, quae vacuas tenuissent carmine mentes,
Omnia jam vulgata. Quis aut Eurysthea durum,
Aut illaudati nescit Busiridis aras?

Cui non dictus Hylas puer, et Latonia Delos,
Hippodameque, humeroque Pelops insignis eburno,
Acer equis? Tentanda via est, qua me quoque possim
Tollere humo, victorque virum volitare per ora.
Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit,
Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas;
Primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas;
Et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam
Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat
Mincius, et tenera praetexit arundine ripas.
In medio mihi Caesar erit, templumque tenebit.
Illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro
Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina currus.
Cuncta mihi, Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi,
Cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu;
Ipse, caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae,

Dona feram. Jam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas
Ad delubra juvat, caesosque videre juvencos;
Vel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus, utque
Purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni.

In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto
Gangaridum faciam, victorisque arma Quirini;
Atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem
Nilum, ac navali surgentes aere columnas.
Addam urbes Asiae domitas, pulsumque Niphaten,
Fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis,
Et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea,
Bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentis.







1-8. Virgil introduces his subject-horses, oxen, sheep, goats, and dogs-by addressing Pales, the goddess of shepherds, Apollo (Pastor ab Amphryso), and Arcadia, and by expressing his intention to shun the mythic themes of ordinary poets.-9-39. He is to make Mantua renowned for producing a poet, who, victorious in the contest of genius, shall celebrate in song, and with festal games, and a votive temple, the praises of Caesar.

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