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PASTORUM Musam Damonis et Alphesiboei,
Immemor herbarum quos est mirata juvenca
Certantis, quorum stupefactae carmine lynces,
Et mutata suos requierunt flumina cursus,
Damonis Musam dicemus et Alphesiboei.


Tu mihi, seu magni superas jam saxa Timavi,
Sive oram Illyrici legis aequoris, en erit umquam
Ille dies, mihi cum liceat tua dicere facta?
En erit, ut liceat totum mihi ferre per orbem
Sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno?
A te principium, tibi desinet. Accipe jussis


Carmina coepta tuis, atque hanc sine tempora circum
Inter victricis hederam tibi serpere laurus.
Frigida vix coelo noctis decesserat umbra,

Cum ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba;
Incumbens tereti Damon sic coepit olivae.

Dam. Nascere, praeque diem veniens age, Lucifer,

Conjugis indigno Nisae deceptus amore

Dum queror, et divos, quamquam nil testibus illis
Profeci, extrema moriens tamen alloquor hora.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.



1. Musam, equivalent to carmina.-4. Either mutata cursus, see Ed. i. 55; or requierunt cursus, an analogous construction.-6. Mihi. The dative of personal pronouns is often used in cases where it seems superfluous, but where, in reality, it brings home a lively feeling to the person indicated by the pronoun. Here the feeling is of joy. (Zumpt, § 408.) It is called in such cases the dative ethicus. Timavi. The Timavus was a river flowing into the Sinus Tergestinus, at the head of the Gulf of Venice. The springs of the Timavus are numerous, bursting out from rocks (saxa), and then uniting into one stream. See Aen. i. 244. Superare may allude either to a voyage or a march. Probably here the former; and then the alternative would be, whether marching round through Istria, from the Parthini (see Argument), or hugging (legis) the Illyrian shore in ships.-7. En expresses a strong desire.8. Virgil expresses his anxiety to sing the praises of Pollio, as a warrior, and as a writer of tragedies alone worthy of being ranked with those of Sophocles. Cothurnus, a part of the dress peculiar to tragedy, as soccus was to comedy.-16. Either leaning on a staff of olive-wood, or reclining against an olive-tree.-17. Join prae and veniens.-18. Conjugis; used not in its strict sense, but in that of one who was to be, or who wished to be. So below, verses 30, 66; Aen. ii. 344, iii. 330, vii. 189. -21. Such lines, regularly repeated at intervals, are common to many

Maenalus argutumque nemus pinosque loquentis
Semper habet; semper pastorum ille audit amores,
Panaque, qui primus calamos non passus inertis.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Mopso Nisa datur: quid non speremus amantes ?
Jungentur jam gryphes equis, aevoque sequenti
Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula damae.
Mopse, novas incide faces: tibi ducitur uxor;
Sparge, marite, nuces: tibi deserit Hesperus Oetam.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
O digno conjuncta viro! dum despicis omnis,
Dumque tibi est odio mea fistula, dumque capellae
Hirsutumque supercilium promissaque barba,
Nec curare deum credis mortalia quemquam.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Sepibus in nostris parvam te roscida mala—
Dux ego vester eram—vidi cum matre legentem.
Alter ab undecimo tum me jam acceperat annus;
Jam fragilis poteram ab terra contingere ramos.
Ut vidi, ut perii! ut me malus abstulit error!
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Nunc scio, quid sit Amor; duris in cotibus illum
Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes,

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languages, especially in ballads, and are called refrains. Maenalios, equivalent to Arcadian, from Maenalus, a mountain in Arcadia. This refrain was probably intended to introduce a bar of mournful music from the tibia, as preliminary to each new thought in the song.— 24. Panaque. See Ecl. ii. 32. Pan is appropriately introduced in Arcadia, where principally he was worshipped.-26. Datur nuptum. Speremus. Spes and spero, like the Greek arís and soda, often indicate not merely hope-expectation of good-but expectation of any kind, as here. See Aen. i. 543, xi. 275.-27. Gryphes. These were mythic animals, with a lion's body, but an eagle's face and wings, who frequented the Rhipean mountains, and were at constant war with horses.-29. Allusions are made in these two lines to marriage usages. Torches of pine (faces) were burned, and, among the Romans, nuts were scattered, by the marriage procession.-30. Oeta was a mountain range, forming the south boundary of Thessaly. The evening star is represented as leaving it; that is, as appearing in the sky above it, and ushering in the evening. The lover must therefore be supposed to be on the east part of the range.-37. Roscida. Still wet with the dew of morning.-39. Alter ab undecimo. The twelfth. See Ecl. v. 49.-41. Ut-ut-ut. The first ut is equivalent to simul ac. The others are words of exclamation. There is no elision of the i of perii. -43. Illum at the end of the line indicates emphasis.-44. Tmaros. A mountain range in the north-east of Epirus, above Dodona. Rhodope,

Nec generis nostri puerum nec sanguinis edunt.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Saevus Amor docuit natorum sanguine matrem
Commaculare manus; crudelis tu quoque, mater;
Crudelis mater magis, an puer improbus ille?
Improbus ille puer; crudelis tu quoque, mater.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Nunc et ovis ultro fugiat lupus, aurea durae
Mala ferant quercus, narcisso floreat alnus,
Pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricae,
Certent et cycnis ululae, sit Tityrus Orpheus,
Orpheus in silvis, inter delphinas Arion.
Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, versus.
Omnia vel medium fiant mare. Vivite, silvae:
Praeceps aërii specula de montis in undas
Deferar; extremum hoc munus morientis habeto.
Desine Maenalios, jam desine, tibia, versus.

Haec Damon; vos, quae responderit Alphesiboeus,
Dicite, Pierides; non omnia possumus omnes.

Alph. Effer aquam, et molli cinge haec altaria vitta,
Verbenasque adole pinguis et mascula tura :

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Conjugis ut magicis sanos avertere sacris

Experiar sensus; nihil hic nisi carmina desunt.

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.

a mountain range in the west of Thrace, an offshoot from Haemus. Garamantes. A people inhabiting the interior of Africa, south of Libya, notorious for cruelty; hence Amor is here said to be of their race. The e of Rhodope is not elided, after the Greek model.-47. Matrem. Probably an allusion to Medea, who, from the pangs of violated love, slew her own children by Jason. The meaning of the following lines seems to be: If it is asked whether Medea was more cruel, or Amor more wicked (magis improbus); he was wicked, but she, too, who obeyed him, was cruel.'-54. It was believed that amber was an exudation from the stately trees (not the lowly myricae) that skirted the Po. See Ovid, Met. ii. 365.—56. Arion. A Lesbian lyric poet, who, when cast into the sea, was saved by the dolphins (delphinas), whom he had charmed by his songs.-58. In his despair, he wishes all nature to become one common (medium) sea. Vel (velim), a word expressive of wish. Vivite. Equivalent to valete.-60. Hoc. This leap of mine.64. The poet now introduces Alphesiboeus. See Argument. Daphnis calls to Amaryllis, who is her attendant, to supply her with what is necessary in her magic rites. Purificatory water, an altar encircled by a woollen (molli) fillet, vervain, and strong-smelling (mascula) frankincense, for burning, are first spoken of. All is ready for the incantations (carmina).-66. Conjugis. See ver. 18.-69, &c. She magnifies the

Carmina vel coelo possunt deducere Lunam;
Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi;

Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis.

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Terna tibi haec primum triplici diversa colore
Licia circumdo, terque haec altaria circum

Effigiem duco; numero deus impare gaudet.




Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Necte tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colores;
Necte, Amarylli, modo, et, 'Veneris,' dic, 'vincula necto.'
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit
Uno eodemque igni, sic nostro Daphnis amore.
Sparge molam, et fragilis incende bitumine laurus.
Daphnis me malus urit, ego hanc in Daphnide laurum.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Talis amor Daphnim, qualis, cum fessa juvencum
Per nemora atque altos quaerendo bucula lucos,
Propter aquae rivum viridi procumbit in ulva,
Perdita, nec serae meminit decedere nocti-
Talis amor teneat, nec sit mihi cura mederi.


Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 90
Has olim exuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit,

Pignora cara sui; quae nunc ego limine in ipso,
Terra, tibi mando; debent haec pignora Daphnim.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.

efficacy of incantations.-70. The companions of Ulysses were changed into swine by the incantations of Circe, a sorceress, who lived in the island of Aeaea. Ulixi. The same as Ulixei, from Ulixes and Ulixeus, which is obsolete. Zumpt, § 52.-73, &c. The sorceress then ties three threads (tema for tria), of three different colours, round a small waxen image of Daphnis (tibi, explained by imaginem, ver. 75), and then carries it thrice round the altar. Amaryllis is engaged in tying up the ends of the threads into love-knots, and is told what to say while doing it.-80. The image of clay was to harden him against others.-81. Uno codem; pronounce un' yodem.-82. She then sprinkles the sacred molu of flour and salt, and burns laurel branches steeped in bitumen, to produce a black flame and crackling (fragilis). The burning of the laurel was emblematic of her wish to turn the omen to the heart of Daphnis in Daphnide (iπì sáqvidi).-85. The construction is, Talis amor Daphnim teneat, qualis amor buculam tenet cum, &c.-88. Nocti decedere. The notion of yielding to the influence of the night is combined with that of moving homewards. So Georg. iii. 467, iv. 23.-91. Exuvias. Garments formerly worn by Daphnis. See Aen. iv. 496, 651. These she buries in the earth, at the door of her house, to draw him home.


Has herbas atque haec Ponto mihi lecta venena
Ipse dedit Moeris; nascuntur plurima Ponto.
His ego saepe lupum fieri et se condere silvis
Moerim, saepe animas imis excire sepulchris,
Atque satas alio vidi traducere messis.

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Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 100
Fer cineres, Amarylli, foras; rivoque fluenti

Transque caput jace; nec respexeris. His ego Daphnim
Aggrediar.-Nihil ille deos, nil carmina curat.


Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Aspice, corripuit tremulis altaria flammis
Sponte sua, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse. Bonum sit!
Nescio quid certe est-et Hylax in limine latrat.
Credimus? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt?
Parcite, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, carmina, Daphnis.

95. Along with the garments she buried magical herbs, gathered in Pontus, which Medea had rendered famous for poisons.-97. So in more modern times the loup-garrou.-99. The magician Moeris-who he was, is unknown-transferred the growing crops from one field to another (alio).-101. Amaryllis is directed to take in her hand ashes from the altar, to stand with her back to a running stream, and, without looking behind her, to throw them over her head.-105. While engaged in this, a good omen appears. The cinders on the altar, not the burning wood, (cinis ipse), untouched (sua sponte), while she is delaying to help Amaryllis in carrying them away for a last trial, burn tremulously.-107. Hylax. The dog of Daphnis.-108. Qui. Unelided and short, after the Greek model.-109. Parcite. She calls upon the incantations to cease, for Daphnis comes.


THE division of a part of the lands of Italy among the soldiery, has already been spoken of in the Arguments to the first and sixth Eclogues, and it has been mentioned that those of Virgil had been saved for him. But it would seem that the party of Octavianus Caesar, headed by Varus, not only dispossessed the Mantuans of a portion of their lands, but were either unable or unwilling to maintain Virgil in his farm, who fled from the threats of a centurion named Arrius (see ver. 16). Virgil retired to Rome, and wrote this Eclogue, B. C. 40. Moeris, the slave of Menalcas (Virgil himself), is represented as driving to Mantua some kids, at the bidding of his new master Arrius. He meets Lycidas, a slave from a neighbouring farm, and entering into conversation, they quote unconnected por

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