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Infelix lolium et steriles nascuntur avenae;
Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso,
Carduus et spinis surgit paliurus acutis.
Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbras,
Pastores; mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis ;
Et tumulum facite, et tumulo superaddite carmen:
'Daphnis ego in silvis, hinc usque ad sidera notus,
Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse.'

Men. Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poëta,
Quale sopor fessis in gramine, quale, per aestum,
Dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguere rivo.

Nec calamis solum aequiparas, sed voce magistrum.
Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo.

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Nos tamen haec, quocumque modo, tibi nostra vicissim 50
Dicemus, Daphnimque tuum tollemus ad astra;

Daphnin ad astra feremus: amavit nos quoque Daphnis.

Mop. An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus ?

Et puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista

Jam pridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis.

Men. Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi,
Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera Daphnis.
Ergo alacris silvas et cetera rura voluptas
Panaque pastoresque tenet Dryadasque puellas.
Nec lupus insidias pecori, nec retia cervis

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iii. 649. Steriles avenae. Wild oats, called by Linnaeus avena fatua.40. He calls upon the shepherds to perform the wonted honours to the tomb of Daphnis, sprinkling leaves, and enveloping in thick shades (umbras, plur.) of numerous branches the running waters near which his tomb was placed.-46. Quale. See Ecl. iii. 80.-47. Restinguere. As the infinitive is a verbal substantive (See Zumpt, § 597, &c.), it corresponds with other substantives, as here with sopor. See Georg. 25, iii. 181; Aen. x. 759.-49. Alter has the force, as often, of secundus. Ab; the order of immediate succession is expressed by this preposition with the force of post. -54. Cantari dignus. The infinitive with the force of the ablative is rare in prose, but not uncommon in verse. See a similar construction, ver. 89.-56-80. We have now the deification of Daphnis, in which the poet ascribes to him all the attributes, and claims for him all the honours, of a rural deity. Candidus. Either serenely majestic, or glowing with heavenly splendour. Olympi. It is well known that the poets employ this mountain of Thessaly to denote heaven, the residence of the gods. See Ecl. vi. 86; Georg. i. 450; Aen. i. 374, &c.-58. Alacris qualifies voluptas.-59. Pana. The Greek god of shepherds, identified by the Romans with their own Faunus. Dryadas. The nymphs of trees, from deus, any wild-growing lofty tree.-60. Not only happiness, but serenity prevails.-61. Bonus, kind. See ver. 65;

Ulla dolum meditantur; amat bonus otia Daphnis.
Ipsi laetitia voces ad sidera jactant

Intonsi montes; ipsae jam carmina rupes,

Ipsa sonant arbusta: Deus, deus ille, Menalca !'
Sis bonus o felixque tuis! en quatuor aras:
Ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duas altaria Phoebo.
Pocula bina novo spumantia lacte quotannis
Craterasque duos statuam tibi pinguis olivi,
Et multo in primis hilarans convivia Baccho,
Ante focum, si frigus erit, si messis, in umbra,
Vina novum fundam calathis Ariusia nectar.
Cantabunt mihi Damoetas et Lyctius Aegon;
Saltantis Satyros imitabitur Alphesiboeus.
Haec tibi semper erunt, et cum sollemnia vota
Reddemus Nymphis, et cum lustrabimus agros.
Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum piscis amabit,
Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicadae,
Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt.
Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota quotannis
Agricolae facient; damnabis tu quoque votis.

Mop. Quae tibi, quae tali reddam pro carmine dona?
Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus austri,
Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam litora, nec quae
Saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valles.

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Men. Hac te nos fragili donabimus ante cicuta. 85

Aen. xii. 647.-63. Intonsi; silvosi.-65. Aras. Any structure for worship by offering was called ara; that whereon victims were slain in honour of the superior deities was called altare. Duas (aras) altaria Phoebo. The celebration of the birthday of Julius Caesar fell upon the eve of the ludi Apollinares, the 12th July.-67. Bina; 68. duos. Two pocula to each altar, but only one crater, as larger. Such is the force of the numerals here. Zumpt, § 119. It is probable that Virgil here declares his intention to rank Caesar among the Lares worshipped in April, when the harvest began (at the Ambarvalia), and at the close of the vintage in autumn. To the first refer novo lacte, messis; to the latter, olivi and frigus. On both occasions he is to pour forth libations of wine.-69. Baccho, for vino; as Georg. i. 344; Aen. i. 215.—71. Ariusia. A district of the island of Chios, producing the choicest wines, called here nectar.-72. Lyctius: equivalent to Cretensis; from Lyctus, a town of Crete.-75. Probably again an allusion to the autumnal feast, and the Ambarvalia; for which, in connection with lustrabimus agros, see Georg. i. 338, &c.-80. A vow (votum) partook of the nature of a bargain. The worshippers covenanted to perform some specified service to the god (vota fecerunt), on condition that the god granted their prayer. If he did so, he was said damnare voti, or voto, to find them

Haec nos, 'Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim,'
Haec eadem docuit, ' Cujum pecus? an Meliboei ?'
Mop. At tu sume pedum, quod, me cum saepe rogaret,
Non tulit Antigenes—et erat tum dignus amari—
Formosum paribus nodis atque aere, Menalca.

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liable to pay their vows (vota reddere), as having had their prayer granted.86, 87. The commencement of the second and third Eclogues.

For the most beautiful imitation of this Eclogue, see Milton's Lycidas.

ECLOGA VI.

L. ALFENUS VARUS had been appointed by Octavianus, B. c. 40, to preside over Cisalpine Gaul, in room of Pollio, who belonged to the party of Antony, and had been driven from his command. With Varus were associated the poet Corn. Gallus, a Roman eques, and Octavianus Musa. Varus and Virgil had before together received instructions in philosophy from Siron, an Epicurean. In the year B. C. 39, Virgil, who had fled to Rome from violence offered to him by the soldiery, even after his lands had been restored, returned home, and, to conciliate Varus, composed this Eclogue. The subject is principally a rapid and poetical account of the Epicurean theory of the creation of the world, along with some of the most noted mythes, and a delicate compliment to Gallus.

SILENUS.

PRIMA Syracosio dignata est ludere versu
Nostra, nec erubuit silvas habitare, Thalia.
Cum canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem
Vellit, et admonuit: Pastorem, Tityre, pinguis
Pascere oportet ovis, deductum dicere carmen.
Nunc ego-namque super tibi erunt, qui dicere laudes,
Vare, tuas cupiant, et tristia condere bella-

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1. Prima; either first in Latin poetry, or at first, for primum; as Georg. i. 12. Syracosio. Theocritus was a native of Syracuse. See Ecl. iv. 1.-2. Thalia. The Muse that presided over pastoral poetry. -3. When Virgil, who had written pastoral poetry, was attempting higher strains, he was checked by Apollo (Cynthius, from Cynthus, a mountain in Delos, at the foot of which he was born), and recommended to sing a humble (deductum) song.-6. Super tibi erunt; the same as supererunt. This separation is not uncommon. See Georg. ii.

Agrestem tenui meditabor arundine Musam.
Non injussa cano. Si quis tamen haec quoque, si quis
Captus amore leget, te nostrae, Vare, myricae,
Te nemus omne canet; nec Phoebo gratior ulla est,
Quam sibi quae Vari praescripsit pagina nomen.
Pergite, Pierides. Chromis et Mnasylos in antro
Silenum pueri somno videre jacentem,
Inflatum hesterno venas, ut semper, Iaccho;
Serta procul, tantum capiti delapsa, jacebant,
Et gravis attrita pendebat cantharus ansa.
Aggressi―nam saepe senex spe carminis ambo
Luserat-injiciunt ipsis ex vincula sertis.
Addit se sociam timidisque supervenit Aegle—
Aegle, Naïadum pulcherrima-jamque videnti
Sanguineis frontem moris et tempora pingit.
Ille dolum ridens, Quo vincula nectitis?' inquit;
< Solvite me, pueri; satis est potuisse videri.
Carmina, quae vultis, cognoscite; carmina vobis,
Huic aliud mercedis erit.' Simul incipit ipse.
Tum vero in numerum Faunosque ferasque videres
Ludere, tum rigidas motare cacumina quercus;
Nec tantum Phoebo gaudet Parnasia rupes,
Nec tantum Rhodope mirantur et Ismarus Orphea.
Namque canebat, uti magnum per inane coacta
Semina terrarumque animaeque marisque fuissent
Et liquidi simul ignis; ut his exordia primis
Omnia, et ipse tener mundi concreverit orbis ;

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349, 351; Aen. ii. 567, vii. 559.-8. See Ecl. i. 2.—9. Injussa; referring to the instructions of Apollo.-13. Chromis et Mnasylos. The names of two Satyrs.-14. Silenum. This constant companion of Bacchus, at least in the later mythes, is represented as old, and ever indulging in wine.-15. Inflatum venas. See Ecl. i. 55. Iaccho. A name for Bacchus, from laxx, to utter loud shouts of joy; here equivalent to vino. See Ecl. v. 69.-17, 18. A brief and graphic picture of the old god, stretched in sleep, still keeping hold of the wine-jar, and his garland lying beside him. Procul indicates interval of space, small or greatthe interval to be judged of from the context. Here the interval is small, near. Tantum, referable either to time, or rather to space; from his head, and no more.-21. Videnti. Silenus had been awakened, and saw what they were doing.-27. In numerum, keeping time with the music.-30. Rhodope et Ismarus, mountains of Thrace, the land of Orpheus. Orpheă to be pronounced Orphyā.-31. Here commences the Epicurean cosmogony. Inane; the void which the Epicureans held to be the original condition of the universe. The scattered atoms (semina) of earth (terrarum), air (animae), water (maris), fire (ignis),

Tum durare solum et discludere Nerea ponto
Coeperit, et rerum paulatim sumere formas;
Jamque novum terrae stupeant lucescere solem,
Altius atque cadant submotis nubibus imbres;
Incipiant silvae cum primum surgere, cumque
Rara per ignaros errent animalia montis.
Hinc lapides Pyrrhae jactos, Saturnia regna,
Caucasiasque refert volucres furtumque Promethei.
His adjungit, Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum
Clamassent, ut litus, 'Hyla! Hyla!' omne sonaret;
Et fortunatam, si numquam armenta fuissent,
Pasiphaën nivei solatur amore juvenci.
Ah, virgo infelix, quae te dementia cepit!
Proetides implerunt falsis mugitibus agros:
At non tam turpis pecudum tamen ulla secuta est
Concubitus, quamvis collo timuisset aratrum,
Et saepe in levi quaesisset cornua fronte.
Ah, virgo infelix, tu nunc in montibus erras:
Ille, latus niveum molli fultus hyacintho,
Ilice sub nigra pallentis ruminat herbas,
Aut aliquam in magno sequitur grege.

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Claudite, Nym

Dictaeae Nymphae, nemorum jam claudite saltus,
Si qua forte ferant oculis sese obvia nostris
Errabunda bovis vestigia; forsitan illum,

Aut herba captum viridi, aut armenta secutum,

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were united (coacta) to form bodies. See Ovid, Met. i. 21, &c.—35. Nerea. A sea-god, here put for the waters of the sea, but to be translated literally. Ponto, in ponto.-38. The rains are represented as falling from a greater height, in consequence of the greater elevation of the clouds.-39. Cum primum incipiant, &c.; that is, Canebat primum ortum silvarum, et primos errores animalium, &c.-41. See Ovid, Met. i. 348, &c.-42. Prometheus, for having stolen fire from heaven (furtum), and given it to man, was by Jupiter's command chained to Mount Caucasus, an eagle preying on his liver.-43. The third mythe was that of the Argonautic expedition, in which Hylas, a youth beloved by Hercules, was carried off in Mysia, by a nymph, and sought in vain. Quo fonte, apud quem fontem.--44. Hylā, Hylă: neither a is cut off. The first is long by the arsis, the second short before omne.-48. Proetides. The daughters of Proetus were driven into madness by Juno, and believed themselves to have been changed into cows.-53. Fultus hyacintho. The -us made long by the arsis. This is rare after a long syllable, and at the end of the fifth foot, but it is in imitation of the Greek usage. For the construction of latus fultus, see Ecl. i. 55.-55. Pasiphae herself is introduced as uttering these words.-56. Dictaeae;

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