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now so much desired by Dido, Juno devising a plan by which to bring it about (90-128). The queen proposes a hunting excursion, which accordingly takes place; but while all are earnest in the pursuit of the game, a violent thunder-storm is sent down by Juno, causing the hunters to fly in different directions; Aeneas and Dido, however, accidentally take shelter in the same cave (129-172). Soon after this event Jupiter, roused by the remonstrances of Iarbas, sends Mercury to Aeneas with an authoritative command to leave Africa and make for Italy (173-278), which order the son of Venus prepares to obey (279–295). Dido immediately suspects the intentions of Aeneas, and expostulates with him, but in vain (296–449); and, accordingly, being unable to bear up against her grief, she determines to die (450473). Concealing her purpose from her sister, she erects a huge pyre and pretends that it is intended for the celebration of magic cere. monies, by which she may be enabled to shake off her affection for Aeneas and to forget him altogether (474-521). Her grief now increases to frenzy ; but by this time Aeneas has weighed anchor, and stands out to sea in the middle of the night (522-583). In the morning Dido, maddened by the sight of the Trojan ships in the distant. offing, breaks out in a paroxysm of lovesick sorrow, and imprecates calamities on her once cherished guest (584-629); and having dismissed all her attendants, she slays herself on the pyre (630-705).
1. At contrasts the restlessness of Dido with the rest of Aeneas and the others, III. 718. Cura; of love, as in VI. 444. - 2. Vulnus alit. The wound is said to be nourished, as it is kept alive and unhealed. So vivit sub pectore vulnus, v. 67. It does not imply voluntary effort. Venis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. · 3. Multa and multus are to be understood as qualifying recursat, so that they nearly = saepe. -4. Gentis honos the glory of his ancestry; i. e. as descended from Jupiter and Venus. Valor (virtus), high birth (gentis honos), personal appearance (vultus), and the charms of conversation (verba), are the four causes exciting Dido to love. — 6. Lustrabat: was traversing. - 8. Unanimam · of one heart, affectionate. Male sana insana. See on II. 23.-10. Quishospes = quis novus hospes (est) hic (qui) successit nostris sedibus. Novus: eximius. Successit; as in I. 627. —11. Quem- ferens what sort of a personage bearing himself in feature! Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. Quam armis of how powerful a breast and shoulders! Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Armis from armus: generally taken from arma= brave deeds; but Forb. and Con. prefer the interpretation here given. Cf. Enid's words in Tennyson: "O noble breast and all-puissant arms!" Dido speaks first of Aeneas's per sonal appearance, afterwards, v. 13, of his prowess. The meaning then
will be that Dido can well believe from Aeneas's mien and stature that his mother was a goddess.-12. Nec fides nor is my belief unfounded. Genus prolem.-13. Degeneres ignoble, mean. 14. Exhausta endured. 15. Fixum. Gr. 438. 3.. A. &. S. 205, R. 8 (a). Sederet. See on II. 660.-17. Primus amor; i. e. for Sychaeus. Deceptam fefellit cheated me by death and disappointed (me). See on jactatos arcebat, I. 29. — 18. Pertaesum... fuisset; sc. me. Gr. 298; 299. A. & S. 184 and R. 1. Thalami. Gr. 410. III. and 1. A. & S. 215 (1). — 19. Potui expresses that the thing has all but actually taken place. See on G. II. 133. Cf. v. 603. Culpae; i. e. she views a second marriage as a sin against the memory of Sychaeus.-20. Fatebor enim. Cf. E. I. 32.-21. Sparsos... Penates. Gr. 580. A. & S. 274, R. 5 (a). Cf. I. 347 foll. - 22. Labantem impulit; for impulit ut labaret has impelled to waver. Labantem is proleptic.-23. Veteris - flammae. Cf. I. 721, 722. · 24. Optem. Gr. 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Ima to its foundations: join with dehiscat. Dehiscat ... adigat. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4.-26. Erebi; a god of the lower world for the lower world itself. Profundam deep; i.e. the night of the lower world. 27. Ante; a pleonastic repctition of prius occasioned by the length of the intervening passage. Jura resolvo. Cf. II. 157. — 28. Amores. For the plural see on I. II. -29. Abstulit; i. e. has carried them with him to the grave. Cf. Moore's line, "Her heart in his grave is lying."-30. Sinum; Dido's own bosom, not her sister's.
31. Luce; i. e. of life. Sorori. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. - 32. Solane.. ...maerens = pining alone; i. e. in widowhood. Perpetua... juventa: all through the springtide of life. Gr. 378. I. A. & S. 236. Carpere wilt thou waste away? See on II. 383.33. Natos dulces. Cf. II. 138. Veneris... praemia: the joys of wedded love. 34. Id; referring to the leading thought of the two preceding verses; viz. her abstaining from marriage. Manes... sepultos; the spirit being represented as buried because its natural dwelling is underground. -35. Esto be it that, granted that its subject is really the sentences which follow. Aegram; not the effect of flexere, but expressing the state of sorrow and desolation which prevented Dido from entertaining former proposals of marriage. Mariti=proci. — 36. Libyae; the gen. of source depending on mariti. Tyro; abl. of source. Gr. 425 and 3. 4). A. & S. 246, R. 3. Despectus; sc. est. Iarbas. See vv. 196 foll. 37. Africa; names of countries were originally adjectives. Triumphis dives; referring to the constant wars between the various tribes. Cf. I. 339. - - 38. Amori. Gr. 385 and 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 40. Gaetulae. The Gaetuli were a barbarous tribe liv.
ing south of Numidia. Genus. See on I. 339. Bello. See on I. 339.41. Numidae; i. e. nomads, so called from their wandering mode of life. They occupied the territory between Mauritania and Carthage, in the modern Algiers. Infreni refers to their habit of riding without bridles; but Virg. probably intended the epithet to have a further symbolical application. Perhaps the whole idea may be brought out by translating, "unbridled as their own horses." - 42. Siti. Gr. 87. II. 3; 414 and 2. A. & S. 82, Ex. 2 (a); 247 and 1.43. Barcaei; the inhabitants of Barce, a city of Cyrenaica. Tyro. Gr. 421. II. A. & S. 255. 1.45. Dis... Junone. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). — Conjugio. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and I. 49. Quantis ... rebus quantis opibus. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.-50. Tu is often expressed to give force to a precept. Posce - veniam; i. e. to avert the anger portended by the ill-omened dreams of v. 9. Sacris litatis= having offered propitiatory sacrifices. -51. Innecte devise one after another; more lit. string together. 52. Desaevitrages furiously; not, ceases to rage. Aquosus Orion; like nimbosus Orion, I. 535. — 53. Quassataeque rates. Cf. I. 551. Non tractabile. See on G. I. 211.54. His dictis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Incensum = already on fire. Amore; with inflammavit. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.—55. Solvit pudorem removes her scruples: apparently referring back to v. 27. Here it is in thought that the restraints of shame are broken. — 56. Per aras; i. e. going from altar to altar. –57. De more belongs to the whole clause mactant lectas bidentes, not exclusively to lectas. Cf. III. 369; V. 96. Bidentes = ewes from one to two years old. The sheep, until it is one year old, has a set of eight primary or milk teeth: the two central of these eight teeth then drop out, and are replaced by the first two teeth of the second or permanent set, which being very large and conspicuous among the six remaining milk teeth, the animal at first sight appears to have only two teeth; hence the appellation bidens: lit. two-toothed. At the end of the second year, two more of the milk teeth drop, and are replaced by two large permanent teeth, one on each side of the first two. The animal is therefore no longer bidens. -58. Cereri. See on G. I. 7. Phoebo. See on E. V. 35. Lyaeo. See on Ov. M. XI. 67. —59. Cui... curae. Gr. 390. A. & S. 227. — 61. Fundit; sc. pateram ; i. e. the contents of it. The libation was preliminary to the sacrifice. - 62. Aut merely distinguishes different parts of the same scene. Ora deum. The statues of the gods, being in the temple, are supposed to be looking on. So v. 204. Pingues aras; i. e. on which many victims were offered. Cf. v. 201. –63. Instaurat fills up; i. e. continually renews the sacrifices during the day. — 64. Inhians expresses attentive gazing. Spiran.
tia= quivering, palpitating. — 65. Quid. Gr. 380. 2.
A. & S. 232
soft; i. e. her
(3). 66. Est. Gr. 291. A. & S. 181. Molles very marrow. -67. Vivit. See on v. 2.- - 69. Urbe. Gr. 422. I and 1). A. & S. 254, R. 2 (b). — 71. Agens telis. Cf. I. 191. Volatile ferrum: the winged steel. -72. Nescius. The archer's ignorance accounts for the doe being left to wander alone, bleeding to death, while it is itself accounted for by the fact that he is shooting among the trees. Fuga. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 73. Dictaeos. See on III. 171; G. II. 536. —74. Moenia; for urbem. See on II. 234- -75, Urbem paratam is an appeal to the weariness of those whose city was yet to be sought. Cf. I. 437, 557; III. 496 foll. 77. Eadem ... convivia; i. e. the banquet of yesterday. -78. Demens; because a second recital was sure to increase her passion. 79. Ab ore on the lips. - 80. Digressi; sc. the guests. Cf. III. 482, 492.· 81. Suadent-s -somnos. Cf. II. 9.
82. Maeret. See on maerens, v. 32. Stratisque relictis; i. e. the couch in the banqueting-hall which Aeneas had left. — 84, 85. These lines have been supposed to imply that Ascanius is left behind, so that the queen can fondle him after his father has retired. But Virg. is not necessarily narrating the events of a single day. The simple meaning is, that whenever they are separated, she has him always in her mind, and, when she can, solaces herself by the presence of Ascanius. Detinet holds him long. Cf. I. 670. Infandum. See on II. 3. Si possit (to see) whether she can beguile. Gr. 525 and 1. A. & S. 265; 198. 11, R. (e). — 86-90. Cf. I. 423 foll., 504 foll. Arma exercet, for exercet se in armis. Cf. III. 281; VI. 642. Portus. See on I. 427. Minae - ingentes: the great threaten, ing walls. Machina = the military engine. Cf. II. 46, 151, 237. Quam. Gr. 453. A. & S. 206 (17). Tali... peste by such a destructive passion. See on I. 712. - 91. Famam = regard for her reputation. 95. The words are as sarcastic as possible: the triumph is of two over one, of gods over a mortal, and that a woman. — 96. Adeo. See on E. IV. 11. — 98. Modus = limit; sc. inimicitiam exercendi. Quo whither (i. e. with what view) now (will you go on) in so great a contest?-99. Quin why not. Pactos hymenaeos a marriage contract. -100. Exercemus: cultivate... solemnize: zeugma.-102. Communem = = in common: a predicate. Paribus... auspiciis with joint authority. - 103. Liceat; sc. Didoni. -104. Dotales: as a dowry. Tuae. Venus is said to receive into her power what Aeneas, her son, receives. — 105. Olli limits est ingressa. Gr. 186. 3. 1). A. & S. 134, R. 1. Enim gives the reason why Venus does not speak sincerely: she repels craft by craft. Mente. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.-106. Oras. See on Italiam, I. 2. 107. Est ingressa=
began to speak.
108. Abnuat...malit. Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5.-109. Factum sequatur = a favorable result may attend the scheme.—110. Fatis — feror I am borne along in uncertainty by the fates. - 111. Velit. Gr. 525 and 1. A. & S. 265; 198. 11, R (e). Tyriis Trojaque profectis. Cf. I. 732. 114. Excepit respondit: one speaker taking the conversation from another. 115. Mecum : = meus. Iste that of yours; i. e. that which you speak of. Gr. 450. A. & S. 207, R.
25. Quod instat which is in hand;
i. e. the present business.
–116. Advertite; sc. animum. — 117. Venatum. Gr. 569. A. & S. 276. II. -118. Ortus extulerit shall have brought forth his rising for extulerit se ortu. Titan Sol; as being the son of Hyperion, one of the Titans. - 120. Nigrantem - grandine = black with mingled hail. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.—121. Trepidant alae the mounted hunters are hurrying hither and thither. Saltus. See on G. I. 16. Indagine with nets, dogs, and men lit. with an encircling. Indago means the process of catching wild beasts by stopping up the outlets of the woods with nets, men, dogs, etc. - 124. Speluncam. See on I. 365. Adero; i. e. as the goddess of marriage. Tua- voluntas = if I may rely on your compliance: lit. if your compliance (shall be) reliable to me: certa being predicate. 126. Cf. I. 73 and note. 127. Hic; the adverb. Hymenaeus; the god of marriage. Petenti; better with adnuit. — 128. Dolis... repertis; of Juno's craft discovered by Venus. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257.-130. Portis. Gr. 422. 2. A. & S. 255, R. (b). Jubare (sc. solis) = the light (of the sun). — 131. Retia rara... . plagae. See on Hor. Ep. II. 33. Ferro. See on I. 313.-132. Massyli; a people of eastern Numidia, here put for Afri. Ruunt properly applies only to the horsemen and the dogs, but the hunting apparatus is regarded as a part of the cortege, and only one verb is used: zeugma. Odora canum vis the keenscented dogs. 133. Cunctantem; i. e. at her toilet. Limina; i. e. of the palace. 134. Ostro auro. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.-135. Sonipes the prancing steed. 137. Chlamydem circumdata = having thrown a mantle over her. Gr. 374. 7. A. & S. 234, R. 1 (a). Limbo. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 138. Nodantur in aurum = are tied into a knot and fastened with gold; i. e. with a gold hair-pin or clasp. In aurum; on account of the common construction, in nodum.—142. Agmina jungit. See on II. 267.-143. Lyciam. See on Hor. C. III. 4. 64. —144. Delum maternam. See on III. 73.-145. Instaurat is here used of the renewal of intermitted observances. See on III. 63. Choros. See on I. 499.146. Cretes; the inhabitants of the island of Crete. Dryopes; a people who lived in the neighborhood of Parnasus.