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and consumption were also provided. Of the latter, sufficient for two years were put on board ; and among the former were tools, implements of agriculture, and such other articles as were considered necessary to a colonial establishment.
The whole complement of marines, including one major commandant, four captains, twelve lieutenants, twelve serjeants, twelve corporals, eight drummers, and one hundred and sixty privates, with an adjutant and quarter-master, amounted to two hundred and twelve; besides which, twentyeight women, wives of marines, carrying with them seventeen children, were permitted to accompany their husbands. The number of convicts was seven hundred and seventy-eight, of whom five hundred and fifty-eight were meri.
This expedition sailed on the 13th of May, 1787; and completed the voyage in eight months and one week (the whole fleet being safe at anchor on the 20th of January, 1788), a voyage, which before it was undertaken, the mind hardly dared venture to contemplate, and on which it was impossible to reflect without some apprehensions as to its termination. In the course of that time they had sailed fifteen thousand and sixty-three miles; had touched at the American and African continents; and had at last rested within a few days' sail of the antipodes of their native country, without meeting any accident, in a fleet of eleven sail, nine of which were merchantmen that had never before sailed in that distant and imperfectly explored ocean; and when it was considered that there was on board a large body of convicts, many of whom were embarked in a very sickly state, they might be deemed peculiarly fortunate, that of the whole number of all descriptions of persons coming to form a new settlement, only thirty-two had died since their leaving England, among whom were to be included one or two deaths by accident; although previous to their departure, it had been conjectured, that before they should have been a month at sea, one of the transports would have been converted into an hospital ship. Fortunately, however, it happened otherwise. Their provisions were excellent, and they had all partaken liberally of refreshments at the cape of Good Hope and Rio de Janeiro.
The governor having found Botany bay extremely inconvenient, determined on examining the adjacent harbours of Port Jackson and Broken bay; and for that purpose set off the day following the arrival of the Sirius and her convoy, in three open boats, accompanied by some of the officers of the settlement.
The coast, as he drew near Port Jackson, wore a most unpromising appearance, and the natives every where greeted the little fleet with shouts of defiance and prohibition, the words · Warra, warra,' Go away, go away, résounding whereever they appeared. The governor's utmost expectation, as he drew near the harbour, being to find what captain Cook, as he passed it by, thought might be found, shelter for a boat; he was most agreeably surprised at discovering, on his entrance, a harbour capable of affording security for a large fleet.
In one of the coves of this noble and capacious harbour, he determined to fix the future seat of his government, it having been found to possess a sufficiency of water and soil. Having completed his research in three days, he returned to Botany bay, and gave directions for an immediate removal thence; a circumstance which gave general satisfaction, as nothing had been discovered in that place which could excite a wish to pass another day in it. This removal would have taken place the morning following his return, but at day-light they were surprised by the appearance of two strange sail in the offing. Various were the conjectures of what nation these could be, and whence they had arrived. It was soon known, however, that they were two French ships, Le Bousole and L'Astrolabe, under the command of M. de la Perouse, then on a voyage of discovery.
Governor Phillip, with a party of marines and some artificers, arrived in Port Jackson, and anchored off the mouth of the cove intended for the settlement, on the evening of the 25th ; and in the course of the following day, sufficient ground was cleared for encamping the officer's guard, and the convicts who had landed in the morning. The spot chosen for this purpose was at the head of the cove, near a run of fresh water, which stole silently through a very thick wood, the stillness of which
had then, for the first time since the creation, been interrupted by the rude sound of the labourer's axe, and the downfal of its ancient inhabitants :-a stillness and tranquillity which, from that day, were to give place to the noise of labour, the confusion of camps and towns, and the busy hum of its new possessors.
This impressive scene has not escaped the notice of the painter and the poet. The ingenious Mr. Wedgewood modelled a medallion from a small piece of fine clay sent from Sydney Cove. The design is allegorical; it represents Hope encouraging Art and Labour, under the influence of Peace, to pursue the employments necessary to give security and happiness to an infant settlement.
In the evening of this day, the whole of the party then present were assembled at the point where they had first landed in the morning, and on which a flag-staff had been purposely erected, and an union jack displayed; when the marines fired several vollies, between which the healths of his majesty and the royal family, with success to the new colony, were most cordially drank. The day, which had been extremely fine, concluded with the safe arrival of the Sirius and the convoy from Botany bay,—thus terminating the voyage with the same good fortune which had from its commencement been so conspicuously their friend and companion.
The disembarkation of the troops and convicts took place from the following day, until the whole were landed. The confusion that ensued will not be wondered at, when it is con. sidered, that every man stepped from the boat literally into a vood. Parties of people were every where heard and seen variously employed; some in clearing ground for the different encampments; others in pitching tents, or bringing up such stores as were more immediately wanted; and the spot which had so lately been the abode of silence and tranquillity was now changed to that of noise, clamour, and confusion; but after a short time, order gradually prevailed. As the woods were opened and the ground cleared, the various encampments were extended, and all wore the appearance of regularity and decorum.