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cular spot. In 1756 they reckoned ninety distinct families ; but it is possible that some of these families may also have been counted among those of other districts. These wandering Laplanders inhabit, during the winter, the mountainous tracts, and move from place to place with their tents, and herds of rein-deer; but in summer they draw towards the coast for the benefit of fishing. At Kautokeino there are some very fine fields of meadow and arable land; the latter of which yield as much oats and barley as supplies the inhabitants for six months. Horses they have none: all journeys are performed on foot or in boats in summer, and during winter, in sledges drawn by rein-deer. What hay they possess serves as provender for their cows; and the corn they obtain is converted into flour for their own use, which, through long habit, is become so necessary an article of their subsistence, that they are miserable if they have it not all the year round. From fishing and the chase they derive as much resource as they possibly can. A people inured to a roving and hazardous kind of life, prefer to the laborious pursuits of agriculture, the chances of fishing and the chace.
* The method of hunting the bear is the same here as in Finland, but that of hunting the rein-deer is attended with excessive fatigue, and to be performed only by a Laplander. The wild rein-deer, which scorn to live in a herd, but remain in a solitary state among the woods and mountains, possess a nicety and acuteness of precaution that nothing can equal. When a Laplander perceives one of those animals at the distance of about half an English mile, he takes a circuit to the windward ; coming nearer and nearer to it, creeping on his hands and feet, until he comes within gun-shot. I have been assured by a Laplander, that he has been obliged to creep in this manner for five miles, through shrubs and moss, in order to reach the most convenient spot for taking aim at his prey.
* In the small village of Kautokeino, there is in the month of February an annual fair, which is frequented by the neighbouring Laplanders and the merchants from Tornea, who come thither for the purpose of purchasing rein-deer skins, furs, and other articles. In those fairs the medium of trade
is barter.. The Laplanders give the skins of rein-deer, foxes, wolves, and bears, with gloves and shoes, or rather short boots, in exchange for coarse flannels, but above all, for brandy, tobbacco, meal, and salt.
• In the course of our journey through these lofty and dreary regions, we started a white hare, and some birds of different sorts: but it was not without difficulty and trouble that we could fire a shot, on account of the insects. The pleasure of shooting any thing was dearly purchased by the pain to be endured in performing that operation. In order to charge, level our pieces, and take aim, it was necessary to pull off our gloves, and put aside the veils that covered our faces: but when all this was done, or while doing, our enemies, ever watchful for a favourable moment of attack, allured by the scent of their prey, fell on the parts exposed without mercy by millions.
We began to be exceedingly fatigued ; but as there was no fuel at hand for making fires to drive away the musquitoes, which did not permit us either to take refreshment or repose, we pushed on in quest of some trees, and made, by a roundabout way, towards a cabin, which we were told by one of the oldest of our guides, had been erected in a plantation not far off by some travelling merchants, for the purpose of resting and warming themselves in the winter season, while the Laplanders baited their rein-deer. This cabin is a square room about eight or ten feet in diameter, constructed of wood, with a hole in the top for letting out the smoke of the fire in the centre. We did not all go into the cabin at once ; but after the Laplanders had collecte abundance of the withered branches of trees, one of them entered alone and lighted the fire, having first used the precaution of stopping up the hole in the roof in order to keep in the smoke. When the chamber was so completely filled with smoke as almost to prevent respiration, the rest of the company were permitted to go into it. The insects, with which we were covered from head to foot, were obliged to quit their prey and remain at the door, enraged that they durst not advance to attack us in our retreat. This little hole, in which we were all huddled one
aanong another, quite full of smoke, and with no other carpet or floor than the bare earth, was more agreeable to us than any of the inns I had ever visited in France or England. In the middle of the room there was a good fire, and our tent placed on leaves of the birch-tree served us for a bed. We now set about dressing the game we had killed, being ourselves the cooks. We had a comfortable supper; and while the thick and pungent smoke made the tears trickle down our cheeks in large drops, we merrily drank, in a bumper of brandy, to the destruction of our enemies, who kept us in a state of blockade, still hovering at the gate of our citadel, and furious with resentment at the trick we had played them.'
On reaching Alten, they were conducted to the house of a Norwegian merchant. On the road,' says our adventurer,
we observed in an adjoining pasture two or three horses. The appearance of this animal, which we had not seen in the course of five hundred miles, indicated that we had come to the residence of a person who was a stranger here, and the native of a civilized country. The house was situated on an eminence, and commanded on one side a view of the opposite mountains, and the masses of snow with which they are constantly covered ; on the other side it afforded a prospect to the Frozen Ocean, which here penetrates into the land, and forms a considerable gulph, near which the house in question was built. We were delighted at finding ourselves at so short a distance from the object of our journey, which was to put an end to our toils and hardships. The beautiful colour of the sea, and the brilliant transparency of the waters, offered a most pleasing spectacle to our eyes; but nothing, indeed, cheered our minds so much as the idea of having so far succeeded in our enterprise. The sight of mountains covered with snow, and the name of the Frozen Occan, amidst a heat as great as that in Italy, heightened the contrast between those opposite circumstances, and represented this place to our imagination as something singular and extraordinary, which was not to be met with in any other part of the world.'
Determined to visit the North Cape, which was one hundred miles distant, our travellers engaged a boat to go by
sea, for the peninsula is one continuation of mountains, intersected by lakes, rivers, and impenetrable morasses. The North Cape is described to be an enormous rock projecting into the ocean, where every thing is sterile, sad, and despondent. On the coast, during this excursion, they were hospitably entertained, and remarked that the Laplanders seemed to live in plenty, and were strangers to the coersions of a regular government. Having thus achieved the object of their perilous journey, our travellers returned by a similar route to that by which they had advanced, and our author concludes in the words of Reignard, who also travelled in Lapland.-" Thus ends a course which I would not but have made for all the gold in the world, and which I will not for all the gold in the world make over again."
IN the summer of the year 1739, a war with Spain appearing
inevitable, the ministers determined to attack the distant settlements of that nation. The command of this expedition was entrusted to Mr. George Anson, then captain of the Centurion. The squadron put under his orders consisted of five men of war, a sloop of war, and two victualling ships. They were the Centurion of sixty guns, four hundred men, George Anson, esquire, commander; the Gloucester of fifty guns, three hundred men, Richard Norris commander: the Severn of fifty guns, three hundred men, the honourable Edward