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INTRODUCTION. Dr. George H. Blakeslee..
1. THE MEANS OF UNIFYING China. Charles W. Elliot, LL.D.,
President Emeritus of Harvard University.
II. THE EFFECT OF THE REVOLUTION UPON THE RELATIONS
BETWEEN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES. Ching-Chun
Wang, Ph.D., Assistant-Director of the Peking-Mukden
Railway, Delegate from the Republic of China to the re-
cent International Congress of Chambers Commerce.. 19
III. THE NEW HOLY ALLIANCE FOR CHINA. Albert Bushnell Hart,
LL.D., Professor of Government in Harvard University.. 37
IV. A PLEA FOR FAIR PLAY AND THE RECOGNITION OF THE CHINESE
REPUBLIC. Major Louis Livingston Seaman, M.D., LL.B.,
F.R.G.S., President of the China Society of America... 50
V. THE GENESIS OF THE REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION IN CHINA
FROM A South CHINA STANDPOINT. John Stuart Thom-
son, sometime Agent at Hong Kong, China, of the Pacific
Mail and Toyo Kisen Kaisha Trans-Pacific Steamship
VI. THE WESTERN INFLUENCE IN CHINA. Edward W. Capen,
Ph.D., Hartford School of Missions; recently on special
sociological and missionary research in the Far East...... 93
VII. CHINA's Loan NEGOTIATIONS. Hon. Willard Straight, Rep-
resentative of the American Banking Group....
VIII. THE RELATION OF THE RETURNED STUDENTS TO THE CHINESE
REVOLUTION. Y. S. Tsao, Secretary of the Chinese Stu-
IX. AMERICAN AND JAPANESE DIPLOMACY IN CHINA. Masujiro
Honda, D.Litt., Tokyo, Japan; recently Editor of The
X. SOME OF CHina's PhysICAL PROBLEMS. Charles K. Edmunds,
Ph.D., President of the Canton Christian College and Ob-
server in Charge of the Magnetic Survey of China under
the Auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington... 181
XI. THE WESTERNIZING OF CHINESE MEDICAL PRACTICE. Charles
W. Young, M.D., Professor of Bacteriology and Pathology,
Union Medical College, Peking ....
XII. THE OPIUM ABOLITION QUESTION. J. 0. P. Bland, formerly
of the Imperial Maritime Customs, Secretary of the Shang-
hai Municipality and Times Correspondent in China... 223
XIII. AMERICA'S BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY IN CHINA. B. Atwood
XIV. THE INDUSTRIAL FUTURE OF SHANSI PROVINCE. Rev. Paul
XV. SIR ROBERT HART AND HIS LIFE WORK IN CHINA. Edward B.
Drew, A.M., Commissioner of Chinese Imperial Maritime
XVI. A PERSONAL ESTIMATE OF THE CHARACTER OF THE LATE
EMPRESS DOWAGER, TZE-Hsi. Katharine A. Carl, Painter
of the Portrait of the Late Empress Dowager..
XVII. THE MANCHO CONQUEST OF CHINA. F. W. Williams, Assist-
ant Professor of Modern Oriental History, Yale University 319
XVIII. SOME EXPERIENCES AT THE SIEGE OF NANKING DURING THE
REVOLUTION. C. Voonping Yui, M.D., of the Chinese
XIX. THE EFFECT OF THE REVOLUTION UPON THE EDUCATIONAL
SYSTEM OF CHINA. P. W. Kuo, M.A., Ex-President of
Chinese Students' Alliance in America....
XX. MORAL AND SPIRITUAL ELEMENTS IN THE CHINESE REVOLU-
TION AND IN THE PRESENT OUTLOOK. Rev. Charles L.
Storrs, Shaowu, China, Foochow Mission........
XXI. ORGANIZATION AND RECENT WORK OF THE CATHOLIC MISSIONS
IN CHINA. Rev. Father Leo Desmet, for Thirteen Years
XXII. SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN
CHINA. John Franklin Goucher, LL.D., President Emer-
itus of Goucher College; President of Board of Governors,
University of Chengtu; Trustee, University of Peking..... 388
The Pacific is challenging the supremacy of the Atlantic. Half a century ago Baron von Humboldt and our own keensighted statesman, William E. Seward, both prophesied the eventful triumph of this greatest of all oceans; and today it is claimed that the center of the world's trade and commerce, which in the past has moved from the Tigris-Euphrates Valley to the Mediterranean, and then from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, bids fair, “in the life time of those now children to shift once more westward to the Pacific." As Ex-president Roosevelt expressed it, not many years ago, "The Pacific Era destined to be the greatest of all, and to bring the whole human race at last into one great comity of nations, is just at the dawn." Whether the Pacific will actually surpass the Atlantic as a center of human interest and business activity may well be doubted, but that it will very soon share with the Atlantic the unquestioned supremacy which the latter has so long enjoyed seems reasonably certain.
Already the world's political center of gravity has shifted, to the Pacific. The changes which are upsetting the longestablished equilibrium of the nations, which are overturning the present balance of power, are taking place primarily in the lands washed by that ocean. It has already, in the past two decades, given birth to one new world power, Japan, which in the last few years has most profoundly changed the aspect of international politics, and whose alliance with Great Britain is today the controlling political fact in Asia certainly, and possibly in Europe as well. It is this alliance, according to some critics of international politics, which has led to the realignment of the great military states in Europe itself. After Japan there comes China, soon to be a second new world power and destined still further to disturb the world's present international balance.
The population and the resources of the Pacific, which will determine the eventful importance of the ocean, compare
favorably with, and in some instances surpass those of the Atlantic. In climate, fertility of soil and ability to produce large quantities of the world's staples, there is not very much difference between them. In population, the Chinese and the Japanese alone outnumber the inhabitants of Europe, while the recent success of Japan in proving itself superior to one of Europe's military powers in a kind of competition which Europe has voluntarily chosen as the supreme test of international ability, shows the humor of regarding these Asiatic peoples as racial inferiors. It is in the supply of the great natural resources, however, coal and iron, that the Pacific has the especial advantage of the Atlantic. According to Mr. Gifford Pinchot, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and Professor Tornebohm of Sweden, the workable deposits of coal and iron in both the United States and in Europe, provided the existing increase in the rate of consumption continues, will be used up before the end of the present century. Whether this gloomy prophesy is accepted as accurate or not, it seems evident that when the coal and iron of the Atlantic lands are exhausted, China alone will have an abundance of these raw materials which have been well called “the vital essence of our civilization."
A rapid development in the Pacific of European communities, largely Anglo-Saxon, will soon still further strengthen this ocean. Most of the lands of the temperate zone throughout the world capable of supporting great virile populations, but which are now relatively undeveloped, are situated on the Pacific. Western Canada with its thousands of miles of coast and its virgin grain fields; our own far Western states, Washington, Oregon and California, probably unsurpassed in climate and agricultural possibilities; New Zealand and Australia, a continent in extent, will all in the near future in power and in vigor of race balance many of the countries of the Atlantic.
Even a slight consideration of these possibilities of the Pacific must give some idea of the increasingly important influence which its leading countries will exert upon the nations of the West. This influence, already potent, is bound to increase rapidly in the future, especially that of