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against the King, in defence of the parliament and people of England.

After this he retired again to his private ftudies; and thinking that he had leifure enough for fuch a work, he applied himself to the writing of a history of England, which he intended to deduce from the earliest accounts down to his own times. He had fi nished four books of that history, when, neither court. ing nor expecting any fuch preferment, he was invited by the council of ftate to be their Latin fecretary for foreign affairs. And he ferved in the fame capacity under Oliver, and Richard, and the Rump, till the restoration; and, without doubt, a better Latin pen could not have been found in the kingdom. For the republic and Cromwell fcorned to pay that tribute to any foreign prince, which is ufually paid to the French King, of managing their affairs in his language: they thought it an indignity and meanness, to which this or any free nation ought not to fubmit; and took a noble refolution, neither to write any letters to any foreign ftates, nor to receive any anfwers from them, but in the Latin tongue, which was com mon to them all. And it would have been well, if fucceeding princes had followed their example; for, in the opinion of very wife men, the univerfality of the French language will make way for the universa lity of the French monarchy.

But it was not only in foreign difpatches that the government made ufe of his pen. He had discharged the bufinefs of his office, a very little time before he was called to a work of another kind. For foon after the king's death was published a book under his name, intitled, Enov Basilien, or, The royal image. This book, like Cæfar's laft will, making a deeper impreffion, and exciting greater commiferation in the minds of the people, than the King himself did while alive, Milton was ordered to prepare an answer to it; which was published by authority, and intitled, Eixovoxλa5n99 or, The image-breaker; the famous firname of many Greek Emperors, who, in their zeal against idolatry, broke all fuperftitious images to pieces. This piece


was tranflated into French; and two replies to it were published, one in 1651, and the other in 1692, upon the reprinting of Milton's book at Amfterdam.

But his most celebrated work in profe is his Defence of the people of England against Salmafius; Defenfio pro populo Anglicano contra Claudii anonymi, alias Salmafii, defenfionem regiam. Salmafius, by birth a Frenchman, fucceeded the famous Scaliger as honorary Profeffor of the univerfity of Leyden; had gained great reputa tion by his Plinian exercitations on Solinus, and by his critical remarks on feveral Latin and Greek authors, was generally esteemed one of the greatest and moft confummate fcholars of that age; and is commended by Milton himself in his Reafon of church-government, and called the learned Salmafius. his great learning, he had extraordinary talents in railing. "This prince of fcholars," as fome body faid of him," feemed to have erected his throne up

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on a heap of ftones, that he might have them at "hand to throw at every one's head who paffed by." He was therefore courted by Charles II. as the most able man to write a defence of the late King his father, and to traduce his adverfaries; and a hundred jacobufes were given him for that purpofe. His book was published in 1649, under the title of Defenfio regia pro Carolo I. ad Carolum II. No fooner did this piece appear in England, but the council of ftate unani-moufly appointed Milton, then prefent, to answer it.. He performed the task with amazing spirit and vigour, though his health at that time was fuch, that he could hardly endure the fatigue of writing; and being weak in body, he was forced to write by piece-meal, and to break off almost every hour. This neceffarily occafioned fome delay; fo that his Defence of the people of England was not made public till the beginning of 1651. They who cannot read the original, may yet have the pleasure to read the English tranflation by Mr. Washington of the Temple, which was printed in 1692, and is inferted among Milton's works in the two laft editions. It was fomewhat extraordinary, that Salmafius, a penfioner to a republic, thould pre


tend to write a defence of monarchy: But the ftates howed their difapprobation by publicly condemning his book, and ordered it to be fuppreffed. On the other hand, Milton's book was burnt at Paris, and at Thoulouse, by the hands of the common hangman : But this ferved only to procure it the more readers. It was read and talked of every where; even they who were of different principles, could not but acknowledge, that he was a good defender of a bad caufe. Salmafius's book underwent only one impreffion, while Milton's paffed through feveral editions. On the first appearance of it, he was vifited or invited by all the foreign minifters at London, not excepting even thofe of crowned heads; and was particularly honoured and efteemned by Adrian Paaw, ambaffador from the States of Holland. He was likewife highly complimented by letters from the moft learned and ingenious perfons in France and Germany; and Leonard Philaras, an Athenian born, and ambaffador from the Duke of Parma to the French king, wrote a fine encomium of his defence, and fent him his picture. And what gave him the greateft fatisfaction, the work was highly applauded by those who had defired him to undertake it; and they made him a prefent of 1000l. which, in thofe days of frugality, was reckoned no inconfiderable reward for his perfor mance. But the cafe was far otherwife with Salmafius. He was then in high favour at the court of Chriftina Queen of Sweden, who had invited thither feveral of the most learned men of all countries: But when Milton's Defence was brought to Sweden, and was read to the Queen at her own defire, he funk immediately in her efteem, and the opinion of every body; and though he talked big at first, and vowed the deftruction of Milton and the parliament, yet finding that he was looked upon with coldness, he thought proper to take leave of the court; and he who came in honour, was difmiffed with contempt. He died fometime afterwards at Spa in Germany, and it is faid more of a broken heart than of any diftemper; leaving a pofthumous reply to Milton, which was not published

published till after the restoration, and was dedicated to Charles II. by his fon Claudius: But it has done no great honour to his memory, abounding with abufe much more than argument.

Ifaac Voffius, who was at Stockholm when Milton's book was brought thither, in fome of his letters to Nicholas Heinfius, fays, that he had the only copy of Milton's book, that the Queen borrowed it of him, was very much pleafed with it, and commended Milton's wit and manner of writing; and that Salmafius was very angry, and very bufy in preparing his anfwer, wherein he abufed Milton as if he had been one of the vileft catamites in Italy, and alfo criticised his Latin poems. Heinfius writes again to Voffius from Holland, that he wondered that only one copy of Milton's book was brought to Stockholm, when three were fent thither, one to the Queen, another to Voffius, and the third to Salmafius; that the book was in every body's hands, and there had been four editions in a few months, befides the English one; that a Dutch tranflation was handed about, and a French one was expected. Afterwards he writes from Venice, that Holftenius had lent him Milton's Latin poems; that they were nothing, compared with the elegance of his Apology; that he had offended frequently against profody, and here was a great opening for Salmafius's criticism: But as to Milton's having been a catamite in Italy, he fays, that it was a mere calumny; on the contrary, he was difliked by the Italians, for the severity of his manners, and for the freedom of his difcourfes against Popery. In others of his letters Heinfius mentions how angry Salmafius was with him for commending Milton's book; and fays, that Grafwinkelius had written, fomething against Milton, which was to have been printed by Elzevir, but it was fuppreffed by public authority.

The first reply was published in 1651, intitled, An apology for the King and people, &c. Apologio pro rege & populo Anglicano, contra Johannis Polypragmatici (alias Miltoni Angli) defenfionem deftructivam regis & populi Anglicani.

Anglicani. It is not known who was the author of this piece. Some attributed it to one Janus a lawyer of Gray's-inn, and others to Dr John Bramhall, then Bishop of Derry, and after the restoration Primate of Ireland. But it is utterly improbable, that so mean a performance, written in fuch barbarous Latin, and fo full of folecifms, fhould come from the hands of

prelate of fuch diftinguished abilities and learning. But, whoever was the author of it, Milton did not think it worth his while to animadvert upon it himfelf, but employed the younger of his nephews to anfwer it; only as he supervised and corrected the anfwer before it went to the press, it may in a manner be called his own. It came forth in 1652 under this title, Johannis Philippi Angli responsio ad apologiam anonymi cujufdam tenebrionis pro rege & populo Anglicano infantiffimam. It is printed with Milton's works. Throughout the whole Mr. Philips treats Bp. Bramhall with great feverity, as the author of the Apology, thinking probably that fo confiderable an adverfary would make the answer more confiderable.

Sir Robert Filmer likewife published some animadverfions upon Milton's Defence of the People, in a piece printed in 1652, intitled, Obfervations concerning the original of government, upon Mr. Hobbes's Leviathan, Mr. Milton against Salmafius, and Hugo Grotius de jure belli. But I do not find, that Milton or any of his friends took notice of it. But Milton's quarrel was afterwards fufficiently avenged by Mr. Locke, who wrote against Sir Robert Filmer's principles of government, more I fuppofe in condefcenfion to the prejudices of the age, than out of any regard to the weight or importance of Filmer's arguments.

Milton, foon after he was made Latin secretary, removed from his house in High Holburn, to an apart ment appointed for him in Scotland-yard. There his third child, a fon, was born, and named John; but, through the ill ufage or bad conftitution of the nurse, he died an infant. His own health too was greatly impaired. This made him remove from Scotlandyard to a houfe in Petty- France, Westminster, for


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