« ForrigeFortsæt »
ciety has benefited largely by the and scientific practice that is now efforts of homeopathists to pro- followed. In this way homeopagate their doctrines in so far as pathy, by directing attention to those efforts may be taken as a reckless drugging, and stimulating protest against the merciless sys- inquiry, urdoubtedly was the means tom of excessive drugging that of unconsciously serving a good prevailed at the commencement of purpose, yet the inherent folly of the present century, and as having the system is not the less on that materially contributed to the intro- account. duction of the more enlightened
In the previous part of this article on the sword with a fixed purpose, we gave an outline of Servian his- and wield it with a despairing tory down to the middle of the energy, that seldom fail to be eighteenth century. The closing crowned with victory. years of that century, and the So it was with the Servians. It opening years of the nineteenth, has been written of them at this were the epoch in which the period of their history :-" Their Servians re-conquered their inde- wrongs became at length so inpendence. Few tales contain more tolerable that nothing was talked of the elements of romance than of in Servia but revenge.
The the record of their struggle for forests and mountain-defiles were freedom. The rayabs were living, filled with armed men.
unarmed populace trodden fession of a bandit came to be con. under beel by an armed despotism. sidered as the most bonourable. Even the worm turns when trodden To waylay, pillage, and kill the upon. There is a point beyond plunderers of their country and which oppression cannot go—the the defilers of their homes were point at which it becomes better to the most praiseworthy acts which die than longer to bear it-when Servians could achieve. Crimes the most phantom-like hope of were transmuted into virtues, and future freedom becomes a posses- a vast organization, having assassinsion more cherished than any mere ation for its object, was justified temporary benefit. Then men de- by patriotism, if not sanctified by termine to conquer or die ; and, the Church. Servia was in the with this alternative constantly hands of an association of 'Heypresent to their minds, they gird ducs;' and when a Russian noble
man requested a celebrated Ser- most influential of its wayvodes; viau chieftain not to call himself these, assembled in a council of a robber, he replied, I should war, conferred upon Kara-George be sorry indeed if there were in the title of generalissimo. This the world a greater robber than title invested him with few premyself.'"*
rogatives; but genius, in times of In such a condition of the country trouble, very quickly gives to a a leader was required, and one was bold man the actual sovereignty. soon found. Lamartine heard the Danger never bargains with courage. popular story about Kara-George, Obedience is the instinct of people in circumstances unusually pic. to audacity and talent. turesque, and he has told it briefly George Petrovitch, surnamed and gracefully. He arrived in Kara, or Zrin—that is to say, Servia in the autumn of 1833, and George the Black—was born about there terminated his far-famed 1765, in a village of the district of “Voyage en Orient." In his diary Kragau-sewatz. His father was a of September 23, 1833, he relates labouring peasant and shepherd, how, in 1804, at the end of long called Petroni. Another tradition troubles, excited by Passwanaglů, makes Kara-George be born in Pasha of Widin, and which were France, but it is without probasuppressed by the force of the bility. Petroni carried his son, Janissaries, the Servians revolted when an infant, into the mountains against their tyrants. Three chiefs of Topoli. The insurrection of united together in the central part 1787, which Austria was to have of Servia, which is called Scumadia, supported, baving terminated disan immense district, covered with astrouely; the insurgents, pursued impenetrable forests. The first of by the Turks and Bosniaks, were these chiefs was Kara-George, and obliged to take to flight. Petroni, the two others Tanko. Kalish and and George his son, who had fought Wasso-Tcharapitsh.† Kara-George with valour, assembled their flocks, had been a Heyduc. The Heyducs in which their whole wealth conwere in Servia what the Klephtes sisted, and took the route towards were in Greece—a race of inde- the Saave. They were already on pendent and adventurous men, the banks of this river, about to iving in inaccessible mountains, seek safety in the Austrian terriand descending, upon the least tory, when the father of Karasymptom of war, to take part in George, an old man, enfeebled by the conflicts of factions, and to years, and more rooted than his keep up their babits of massacre son to the soil of his country, and pillage. The whole country turned back to look
the rose in insurrection, after the ex- mountains where he left all the reample of Scumadia ; each canton t
membrances of his life, and felt bis chose for its chief the bravest and heart break at the idea of quitting
* Quarterly Review, vol. cxvii. p. 185. There is no doubt that the Servian priesthood became the deliberate partisans of the Heyducs, and that the Servian Church became the champion of their system of robbery. These so-called Christians are now claiming our support as their fellow-believers. The only excuse for them is that they are the dupes of Russian rapacity.
+ It would be an immense benefit both for author and reader, that some attempt should be made to fix by an authoritative standard, the spelling of proper names, both of men and of places. It is absurd that the same name should occur spelt in balf a dozen different ways in the newspapers of the same day. Trouble and confusion are continually arising in consequence.
them for ever to pass amongst a and the Spabis, and as usual the strange people.
rayahs suffered on all hands. Kara-George, at first overcome “Plundering and war-levies," says by the regrets and prayers of his Ranke, "imprisonments and strangfather, had sent back the servants lings, were henceforth the order of and flocks ; and, in devotion to the the day." rigour of filial obedience, which is Taking its rise in the Scumadia, the second religion of the Orientals, or Forest-region, wbere Karahe bowed bis head, and was pro- George was in immediate command, ceeding to resume in sadness the the insurrection of 1804 spread with route of slavery, in order that marvellous rapidity across the KoPetroni might yet remain on the lubara and the Morava, till at length Servian soil, when the voices and the whole population was in arms. shots of the Bosniaks announced The Turks were driven from every the approach of their enemies, and village and town, and forced to take the inevitable torments with which shelter in the fortresses. The Serthey would gloat their vengeance. vian guerilla bands were soon com. “My father," said he, “decide; we bined into a powerful army, and have but an instant; arise, throw Kara-George was unanimously yourself into the river; my arm elected to the command. will support you, and my body will The Servians immediately atcover you from the balls of the tacked the fortresses, captured one Osmanlis. You will still live, and after another, and at length laid pass happier days on the territory siege to Belgrade. Turkish diploof a friendly nation.” But the in- macy here came to their aid. "By flexible old man resisted all his order of the Porte, the Pasha of efforts, and determined to die on Bosnia joined the besieging army, the land of his nativity. Kara- declaring the Dabis to be enemies George, driven to despair, and un- of the Sultan, not less than of the willing that his father should fall Servians. The city was taken, into the bands of the Turks, fell on the usurping Dabis were beheaded, his knees, asked the old man's and Kara-George was invited to blessing, slew him with a pistol- disperse his army, as if the whole shot, and, jumping into the river, object of the insurrection bad been swam over to the Austrian do- attained. minions.
But the Servians were not disIt was one of those deeds which posed to disband themselves without leave their impress on a man's some satisfactory guarantee that whole after-life. From this time the Turkish Government would not forth George Petrovitch devoted again reduce them to their previous his whole energies to the liberation condition.
condition. By the sword they bad of Servia.
gained relief from oppression, and When Hadji Mustafa became they were not prepared to lay down Pasha of Belgrade, the rayahs found the sword until that relief had been in him a protector against the rapa. fully secured. It was at this junccious Janissaries, and George could ture that they took one of the most safely return to Servia. He did important steps in their modern 80 ; but, soon after, the Janissaries history. They invoked aid from seized Belgrade, killed the Pasha, Russia. In August, 1804, they sent and administered the government an embassy to St. Petersburg, under four Dahis or Deys. A con- asking the intervention of the Czar test for the proprietorship of the in favour of the demands wbich they soi) ensued between the Janissaries were about to make upon the Porte,
and Russia promised to promote Russia, the Servians repulsed the their cause at Constantinople. Turks. In 1811 negotiations with
The demands of the Servians the Porte were renewed, and in were that the fortresses should in 1812 the war between Russia and future be garrisoned by their own Turkey was terminated by the treaty troops, and that the country should of Bucharest, in which, at the inbe relieved from all arrears of taxes. stance of Russia, the following Deputies were sent to Constanti. clause affecting Servia was inserted : nople to urge these demands, but —“ It has been deemed just, in without success, for the Sultan ar- consideration of the share borne by rested them as rebels, and ordered the Servians in this war, to come to the Servian army to be disarmed. A a solemn agreement respecting their Turkish force was sent to the fron- security. Their peace must not in tier, but it was defeated.
any way be disturbed. The Sublime In the following years the war Porte will grant the Servians, on continued with unabated violence. their petition, the same privileges The Servians gained numerous which her subjects in the islands of victories, and even made themselves the Archipelago, and in other masters of portions of Turkish parts, enjoy; and will moreover territory. Turkish rule was now confer upon them a mark of her repudiated, and an independent generosity by leaving the adminisgovernment established under Kara- tration of their internal affairs to George.
themselves, by imposing upon them The campaign of 1809 was not moderate taxes, and receiving them successful for the Servians, but is only direct from them, and by makworthy of special note on another ing the regulations requisite to this ground. It was undertaken by end in an understanding with the Kara-George for the same end, and Servian nation themselves." with the same allies as the present Had the Russian army remained war between Servia and Turkey. in Belgrade or on the Danube, it is The Montenegrins joined in it, and possible that the troubles of Servia it received Russian support. The might have been brought to a close dream of reviving the glory of the under this clause, vague and indefiancient Sclavonic kingdom of Ste- nite as it is. But Napoleon's celephen Duschan inspired the Slavs of brated march upon Moscow, and 1809 :—the dream of profiting by the subsequent wars between France the attempt to revive it inspired the and the Allied Powers, occupied the Russian Czar of 1809. The same whole attention, and the whole dreams are prompting the various available forces of Russia. The actors and instigators of the war of Porte saw its opportunity, raised 1876. Poets sang of the glorious disputes as to the interpretation of enterprise, and their verse is among the treaty of Bucharest, and rethe traditions of the Slavs.*
newed its hostilities with Servia. In 1810, with assistance from The result was disastrous to the
“There is extant,” says Ranke, “a spirited poeticaleulogium by the then Vladika of Montenegro, on the valour and unanimity of the Servians, before whose arms the Turkish mosques fell to the ground and the Hodscha gave way; and likewise on Kara-George, who again unfurled the banner of the Emperor Nemanjitsch, and whom the Vili adorn with wreaths of laurel ; a reward not to be obtained by gold, but only by glorious deeds. The hero of the poem, however, is not satisfied with the success he has achieved, but determines to drive the Turks out of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to form an alliance with Montenegro, which, situated in the midst of Turks and Catbolics, has from remote times enjoyed freedom purchased by the blood of its people.”