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criticism on what most people will feel to be the weak points of his book. It undoubtedly contains much useful matter, but does not excel in its arrangement or definitions. Mr. Day divides logic into "two parts-the first treating of the elements of thought; the second of the method of thought. The elements of thought, further, are either its essential properties, in this use of them called laws; or the different kinds or forms_in which thought appears." The forms of thought are stated to be the judgment, the concept, and "the reasoning," the treatment of which occupies the first half of the volume. In the second half, devoted to method-or "the conditions of perfect thought in order to its end, which is truth, science, or perfect knowledge "-these three topics are again discussed, which occasions frequent repetition of what was said before.

We do not see the necessity or advantage of first explaining the process of judgment, and then in a subsequent part of the work discussing the conditions necessary to its correct performance. A similar remark applies to the other two subjects. Again, in the early parts of the book there are brief definitions of generalization and determination, and towards the end fuller accounts of the same processes. We have noticed other instances of repetition, for which we can see no sufficient reason. A method of arrangement which leads to such results is not to be commended, however exact may be the principles on which it is founded.

Mr. Day's definitions are even less to be admired than his arrangement. As one instance the following may be quoted: "The concept is that derived form of thought which springs directly from the matter of a judgment, and appears

in the form of such matter. Or, more briefly, the concept is a derivation of a logical term from the matter of a judgment or judgments." A definition should at any rate be definite and clear, which is more than can be predicated of this. As far as we can gather from its hazy language, it conveys a very different notion of concept, from Sir W. Hamilton's or Archbishop Thomson's.

We object to the author's definition of copula also, which is stated thus: "The essence of the judging act lies in the uniting of the subject and the predicate, and the recognizing of them as the same. This element in a judgment is called the copula. We may accordingly define the copula to be that element of a judgment in which the terms are identified or differenced, or recognized as the same or different. The copula, it should be noticed, is not always expressed by the so-called substantive verb is, is not."

We have always been given to understand that the copula is part of a proposition, or judgment expressed in words, and therefore consists of a word or words; but Mr. Day here speaks of it as an act of the mind, which, though called an "element in a judgment," is, in fact, the whole of it, for what else is there in such an act than the comparison of the subject with the predicate and recognition of their agreement or difference?

Mr. Day says, "The copula is sometimes expressed by such words as contains, comprehends, consists of, involves, and the like;" but all these words contain part of the predicate as well as the copula, which is usually and better considered to consist simply of the substantive verb, with or without a negative particle.

Mr. Day is not so accurate in the

Baines. The etchings by Wilbelo mina Baines. Sampson, Low, and Co. London, 1876.—This is not 80 much a work of literature as of art. The text, consisting of verses on each of the months is in ornamental (but not very legible) writing, with beadings and borders of flowers and leaves. We regret it is not in our power to speak highly of either department of the work. The verses have little freshness or beauty, and the illustrations, though tasteful in design, are imperfect in execution. On the month of June there are the following lines :

“June! the month of Roses bright, Untold charms now greet the sight; Nook, and glade, and glowing noon, Ev'rything proclaims 'tis June."

use of language as might be de sired. He says,

“ Inasmuch as thought is in its very nature discursive, discriminating in every object of knowledge in every datum to thought, subject, and attribute which it yet recognizes as one and the same, and so ever identifies, everything that can be known or thought by us must be accepted as admitting in its nature this discrimination and this identification.”

It is not easy to understand how the subject and the attribute can be discriminated or distinguished from each other as different, and yet be recognized as one and the same."

But passing over this apparent contradiction, we wish to call atten. tion to the confusion and inaccuracy of saying that thought, which is simply an act of the mind, discriminates and recognizes, i.e., performs acts of mind. Of course what Mr. Day means is that the mind itself discriminates and recognizes but that is not what he says.

Mr. Day is guilty of self-contradiction as well as loose language. In one place he says, thought, whether primitive or derivative, is necessarily true, for thought cannot contradict itself.” Elsewhere, on the contrary, we are told, “ It should be remarked, however, that the fallible mind of man is liable to even in pure thought.”

We cannot accept the novelties of principle or language which Mr. Day has introduced, still less his etymological explanations of words. His work will not bear comparison with those already extant in clearness and precision of statement, scientific and convenient arrangement, and general practical utility.

Both on this page and throughout the work the etching far surpasses the writing

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Bluebeard's Widow and her Sister Anne; their History erolved from Mendacious Chronicles. By Sabilla Novello. With illustrations by the authoress. Ward, Lock, and Tyler. 1876. The authoress of this book for young people having previously published “ The History of Blue. beard's Wives," here continues her efforts to amuse that class of readers. She writes in so sprightly and charming a strain, that there can be little doubt this object will be effectually accomplished. The interest is well sustained throughout, and the pages are rendered the more piquant by the pleasantry with which they are interspersed. Some of the jokes, however, are rather above the comprehension of little folks. Many of them consist of ab. surd blunders in the use of words, such as are ascribed to Mrs. Mala

Poems of the Months. By M. A.

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prop. Unfortunately the words “3. The World of Mind. are often far beyond the range of " 4. The Social World. a child's knowledge, so that very “5. Things arbitrarily distin. much of the fun must be missed.

guished, constructed or Except in these instances, the lan

produced. guage is so simple and racy as to • 6. Persons.” be easily understood and highly It is evident that his divisions are enjoyed. The illustrations are not mutually exclusive, and the tolerably good as the work of an same thing might belong to several amateur, but show an insufficient classes. This fault vitiates all his training in figure drawing. It is subordinate classification, and runs highly desirable that children's through the whole book, leading to story books, if illustrated at all, utter confusion. should contain none but correct drawings. From the earliest years the eye should be accustomed to truthful delineation of natural forms.

The Errors of Homæopathy. By Dr. Barr Meadows. London: G.

Hill, 1876. — This is the third A Classified English Vocabulary. edition of a little work designed to Being an attempt to faciliate a know- expose the fallacies of the Homeoledge of words and their mean- pathic system. That the principles, ings by an arrangement of ideas or more correctly speaking the sup according to their scientific connec- positions, on which that system is tions. London: Provost and Co. based should ever have seriously 1876.—We are at a loss to discover engaged the attention-let alone in what way this book is intended received the approbation-of men to be used, or what practical advan- of intelligence and education, only tage can be gained from its use. serves to illustrate to what extremes Bare lists of words, arranged under human credulity and delirium can be certain headings, are neither in- carried, when men of active minds teresting nor instructive reading. allow imagination and not reason Nor are they suitable for learning to guide and control their invesby heart, except as spelling lessons, tigations. In such cases ridicufor which they are not intended or lous and fanciful hypotheses take adapted. They have been drawn up, tbe place of scientific truth, and we are told,“ to facilitate a know. reason is altogether lost sight of. ledge of words and their meanings." Like almost any kind of human Yet, strange to say, not a single folly, however, the absurdities of word has a meaning attached to it. homeopathy have been the inThe object of the author seems to direct cause of good. The persisbe to form habits of comparing and tency with which these absurdities classifying, but unfortunately he have been proclaimed, and their himself has no idea of logical divi. adoption and advocacy by some sion and arrangement. He arranges medical men, have promoted scienhis materials under the following tific inquiry for the purposes of heads .

refutation, and such inquiry can “1. Existences in General; their never be searchingly conducted in

forms, and conditions of a proper spirit without advantage manifestations.

to the cause of truth. “ 2. The Material World.

In one respect partieularly so

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ciety has benefited largely by the efforts of homoeopathists to propagate their doctrines in so far as those efforts may be taken as a protest against the merciless system of excessive drugging that prevailed at the commencement of the present century, and as having materially contributed to the introduction of the more enlightened

and scientific practice that is now followed. In this way homœopathy, by directing attention to reckless drugging, and stimulating inquiry, undoubtedly was the means of unconsciously serving a good purpose, yet the inherent folly of the system is not the less on that

account.

DUBLIN

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

No. DXXVII.}

NOVEMBER, 1876.

SERVIA, AND THE SLAVS.

PART II.

In the previous part of this article we gave an outline of Servian history down to the middle of the eighteenth century. The closing years of that century, and the opening years of the nineteenth, were the epoch in which the Servians re-conquered their independence. Few tales contain more of the elements of romance than the record of their struggle for freedom. The rayahs were livingan unarmed populace trodden under heel by an armed despotism. Even the worm turns when trodden upon. There is a point beyond which oppression cannot go the point at which it becomes better to die than longer to bear it-when the most phantom-like hope of future freedom becomes a possession more cherished than any mere temporary benefit. Then men determine to conquer or die; and, with this alternative constantly present to their minds, they gird

[VOL. LXXXVJII.

on the sword with a fixed purpose, and wield it with a despairing energy, that seldom fail to be crowned with victory.

So it was with the Servians. It has been written of them at this period of their history:-"Their wrongs became at length so intolerable that nothing was talked of in Servia but revenge. The forests and mountain-defiles were filled with armed men. The profession of a bandit came to be considered as the most honourable. To waylay, pillage, and kill the plunderers of their country and the defilers of their homes were the most praiseworthy acts which Servians could achieve. Crimes were transmuted into virtues, and a vast organization, having assassination for its object, was justified by patriotism, if not sanctified by the Church. Servia was in the hands of an association of 'Heyducs;' and when a Russian noble

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