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Esq., and while travelling in Switzerland in the August following, he received from Admiral Smart, then commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean Squadron, an offer of the post of flag-captain, with the command of his new flag-ship the Victoria, the last of the glorious old three-deckers that was sent out, in which he sailed for Malta in November.

The term of Admiral Smart's command of the Mediterranean Squadron having expired in 1866, Goodenough left with him, and shortly after was appointed flagcaptain under Admiral Warren in command of the Channel Squadron, which he retained until October, 1870.

He then volunteered to assist in the distribution of "The French Peasant Relief Fund," and remained some months in France. On his return he served as a member of a "Committee on Designs for Ships of War," appointed by the Admiralty, and was afterwards appointed naval attaché to the maritime courts of Europe, with orders to visit the different arsenals of the Continent, and report to the Foreign Office upon the navies of the European powers. He visited among other places all the dockyards of France, and as part of his experience of the regard for the Republic among sensible men, he relates the following:

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In April, 1873, Captain Goodenough was appointed to relieve Commodore Stirling in command of the Australian station. He sailed in the Pearl, and was specially instructed to proceed in the first instance to Fiji, and in conjunction with H.M.'s Consul, Mr. Layard, to report on the state of the group of islands, and on the advisability of their annexation to the British Crown. It is a pity his report to the Government is not given in the volume before us, for we know it was most interesting and valuable, and warmly advocated annexation on which the Government acted. From Fiji he proceeded to his Australian command, and at the various ports he visited established the most friendly relations with the inhabitants.

The last fatal cruise of Commodore Goodenough was commenced in June, 1875. He conveyed to Fiji the newly-appointed governor, Sir Arthur Gordon. From Fiji the Pearl proceeded to various other islands in the South Pacific; it being the Commodore's most anxious desire to establish friendly relations with the natives, whose peaceful disposition generally, if approached in a conciliatory manner, he evidently reposed too much confidence.

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On the 12th of August the Pearl was off Santa Cruz, and the Commodore writes in his journal, under that date, that he thought the natives inclined to be "most friendly and anxious to be civil by coming out to us in canoes, and looking as if they wished to please." But he soon changed his opinion, for having landed he was treacherously attacked. The following is his own account of what took place, as written in his journal on the 17th of August, five days after the attack:

"I went on shore with two boats,

a

a

.

At my

but as I got near the shore I saw a native friend that I would do so, and number of canoes hastening to the all of us turned back. place at which I was going to land, so “As I got near the boats I said, made signal for a third to follow. As Order everyone into the boats ;' and we drew into the shore canoes came seeing every one near, turned to see if about us, eager, vociferous, and friendly, any were behind me. I saw Harrison and with a rather villanous look. They up a little passage between a stone wall are big compared to some other island- and the side of a hut, and but just ers about here, are not at all dark, above the white coral sand beach, and some being very light, and with very went up to him to see what he was light hair; but betel nut chewing is about and to be with him. He was universal. All mouths are full of a bargaining for some arrows with a tall chocolate and black masticated mass, man, who held his bow in his left and teeth are as black as jet, with great hand, and was twiddling his arrows in lumps of the lime with which they a rather hectoring way, as I thought. chew the betel adhering as "tartar' to Casting my eye to the left I saw a their teeth.

man with a gleaming pair of black eyes After touching the beach, I re- fitting un arrow to a string, and in an mained some minutes in the boat, so as instant, just as I was thinking it must not to alarm the people by too sudden be a sham menace, and stared him in moves or gestures, and gave away the face, thud came the arrow into my some pieces of calico, bargaining at the left side. I felt astounded. I shouted same time a knife or two for some . To the boats !' pulled the arrow out, pretty matting. Gradually they seemed

and threw it away (for which I am to be less timid, and one man came up sorry), and leapt down the beach, hearwith a present of a little yam, and I ing a flight of arrows pass. gave him some calico, with which he

first sight of them all were getting in seemed pleased. They then began to and shoving off, and I leapt into the beckon us individually up to their vil- whaler; then feeling she was not clear lage close to, and we went up with all of the ground, jumped out, and helped precaution, keeping our eyes about us, to push her out into deep water, and and the third boat's crew remaining on while doing so another arrow hit my the beach.

head a good sharp rap, leaving an inch “ It came on to rain heavily, and at and a half of its bone head sticking in their invitation we went into the houses nearest the beach, and under cover of "I ordered the armed men to fire, and a half-finished house. But after a time

instantly the arrow flights ceased. I (for the rain was heavy, and for half an looked round, and the boats were clear hour) I began to notice that they of the beach. Perry immediately looked round, and withdrew themselves chewed and sucked my wound, and on from every roof where we were, and my coxswain and cook saying they were inclined to separate from us. were hit, gucked their wounds too, Meantime the rain cleared up, and a which were quite slight. I asked, ' Are man was very eager that I should all in the boats?" and was answered by accompany him along the beach to, as Jones, the coxswain of the first cutter, I suppose, the next village. The others *All in, sir! and I'm wounded.' remained by the boats, and I called ‘My only object in firing was to stop eight or ten round me, and followed their arrows and to drive them off, and the men.

I went back to the ship, and hoisted “However, after three hundred yards the boats up, intending to do nothing or more of beach I saw the village & to them." long way off, and said, 'Oh! this isn't quite prudent; I must set an example

The wound was burned with of sticking to the orders which I have given. We'll visit the other village by

caustic and poulticed, as it was boat;' and I tried to explain to my

supposed the arrow was poisoned

my hat. *

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Six in all were wounded : the Commodore, his coxswain, and his cook (in the whaler), the coxswain of one of the catters, and two young seamen named Rayner and Smale, one in each cutter-these two last fatally.

which it was not.' On consideration only perceptible to him who held he deemed it better that he should his pulse." punish the treacherous attack of The Pearl at that time was about the natives in some way, so he sent 500 miles from Sydney, which hara party on shore to burn a few bour was entered on Monday the huts, but ordered them before 23rd, and next day the funeral took landing to fire a blank volley to place. The two sailors, who died frighten away the natives, and en- of wounds received at the same sure no life being taken. This time, were buried in separate graves order being repeated three times, on each side of their esteemed comso anxious was he in his own words mander, while the Colonial Governto run no risk of hurting either ment, sustained by the unanimous our own people, or the wretched desire of the population, did all islanders."

that could be done to have the By the advice of his surgeon the funeral rites honoured in a manner course of the Pearl was shaped befitting the sad and solemn occasouthward, and it was intended sion, to make either Brisbane or Sydney. In producing his volume his On the 17th, the last day he wrote widow has performed a “labour of in his journal, the first symptoms love,” which we must not scan too of tetanus became manifest, and he critically. Indeed, on the whole, writes :

we must say that the volume is

highly commendable. We have an To-day is Tuesday, just five days;

excellent portrait of the commodore, it seems but a day. In five days more

with three good maps illustrative we shall be able to say that all danger of his special services, while his of poisoning is over; but from the first journal is illustrated with descripmoment I have kept the possibility tive woodcuts. It is altogether an steadily before me, so as to be prepared; excellent work, and we highly comit is very good to be brought to look

mend it. upon a near death as more than usually probable.

“ The weather is lovely, and entirely favourable to the little wounds, which are absuredly small. My only trouble

The Influence of Descartes on is a pain in the small of my back, which

Metaphysical Speculation in England. is a little against my sleeping. I am

Being a Degree Thesis. By the exceedingly well.

Rev. W. Cunningham. Macmillan “I have asked Perry to put out a and Co., London and Cambridge, statement for the papers, so that we 1876. — The volume before may have no outrageously foolish

possesses undoubted merit as an stories. I can only imagine the motive to have been plunder, or a sort of run

academical exercise, showing extenning-a-muck. I don't feel

sive reading and careful study. At the same time it does not appear

to us likely to interest or benefit At this point some one entered many readers of the average type. his cabin, he put down the pen None can enter into it who have which was never resumed. The not

greater familiarity with next day the symptoms became metaphysical speculation than is more marked, and, growing gradu- possessed by the general public. ally worse he died on the 20th of The narrow limits within which the August at a quarter past five in the work is necessarily confined preafternoon-“so quietly and peace- clude the possibility of any adequate fully that the exact moment was account of the various systems of

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philosophy to which it refers, and lowing one another in time, refuting which the author expressly states

one another, and then passing away he has discussed only so far as was

without result. But Philosophy is the needful to show the influence of study of a whole ; each of these sysDescartes on English thinkers.

tems has been an attempted delinea

tion of that whole; each of them is of Hence those whose studies do not

far higher importance for us than they bappen to have lain in this direc

would be if they merely aroused a tion—and they are no doubt the passing curiosity as to what was majority-must be at a loss to com- thought of the matter in this or that prehend or appreciate the brief particular age. allusions to philosophers and their

“The history of the empirical works.

sciences is only a barren account of On the other hand, the com

false abstractions, which have been in

vogue at one time or another: but the paratively few who are well versed

history of Philosophy enables us to in English philosophy must be review the various phases of truth quite able to trace the influence which have been prominent to differof Descartes upon it without Mr. ent minds; phases which are only Cunningham's assistance. The phases (and therefore false), which only question is, whether they will may differ in importance, but all of think it worth while to spend portion of reality which has been

which are true, since they depict & much time in the task. One is

neglected at other times.” tempted to ask, is not such an inquiry more curious than useful ?

It is not very easy to understand The chief thing to be determined how phases can be false and yet with regard to any system of philo- all true. Nor does Mr. Cunningsophy would seem to be how far

ham satisfactorily explain why & it is true, not how it originated. refuted system of philosophy should Mr. Cunningham maintains that

be so much more highly valued than no system of philosophy can be

an exploded scientific theory. The pronounced untrue, but every one fact that science endeavours to excontains truth of permanent value.

plain the phenomena of external

nature, and philosophy is occupied “Each

age
has contributed a phase

with those of human nature, is not of truth, or has amassed experience for

a sufficient reason. If there is, as other ages to explain. The part given by each age is valuable not only as a

Mr. Cunningham asserts, “a conlandmark, to show how far we have necting unity, or traceable order of travelled, but as one of the wheels development,” in philosophical which have borne us along. It was systems, this is surely much more necessary that each system should evidently and indisputably true of come to clear the way for other scientific theories. thinkers, and also to give utterance to a thought which should be true and

Mr. Cunningham occupies far too of value for all time.

much space with his introduction, “In the empirical sciences each false

in which he discusses the abstract hypothesis becomes utterly worthless : question how far a system of philoin Philosophy & refuted system still sophy is affected by preceding maintains its place. The Understand- systems and surrounding circum. ing reigns in the empirical sciences, it stances. After a long preamble, comes forward to pronounce its ab- full of wearisome repetitions, he stract judgment—the system is not

arrives at the following conclusion: true, therefore false. · If we take the same method, we

-" Each separate system, then, is shall get an utterly false view of the

dependent on the expressions of the history of Philosophy, as if it were & Idea which it finds around it, and succession of systems of opinions fol- from which it gathers some phase

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of the Truth which it fimperfectly into elements. The various sensuous. represents." What is meant by impressions are perfectly simple so far “ the Idea" is not distinctly ex

as he sees; nature impresses them on plained, but the general meaning

the mind, and the mind must receive

them as they come; but it does not seems to be, that philosophers are

occur to him that there is any other assisted in the construction of their

difficulty, or that the sensation in an systems by the attempts of their

unprejudiced mind could be open to predecessors, which surely required doubt at all. Let us get these undis. no such laboured statement to ex- torted sensations, we shall then have plain and substantiate it.

knowledge of nature and power over When Mr. Cunningham comes to

nature. the proper subject of his work, he “Descartes, on the other hand, feels writes with less circumlocution and

strongly the distinction between his repetition, but falls into the oppo.

own thinking power and the convic

tions it gives him, and the reports that site fault of excessive brevity, as are brought to him by others; the might naturally be expected from further question occurs, why are the the attempt to notice so many reports of my senses to be trusted ? philosophical systems within the The systems of philosophy do not narrow limits of a degree thesis.

satisfy me; am I justified in letting my The evil might have been avoided,

senses do so either? Here we have

the recognition of mind as something or at any rate diminished, if he

distinct from its impressions; we had confined his attention to the

find a permanent ego, not a mere most prominent writers in English flux of sensations which have nothing philosophy, instead of cramming in common but that they are received into his pages a number of com- from without. paratively unknown names. His “It is the recognition of mind as allusions and descriptions are often

distinguished from its impressions that so brief as to be unintelligible,

marks the difference between Des. cartes and Bacon.

Bacon's philosoexcept to those who have made

phy did not rise above sensation, DesEnglish philosophy their special

cartes recognized mind as distinct from study. It must be admitted that its sensations. Self-culture was his he manages in a few words to de- aim in life, and the recognition of self scribe the leading features of a in knowledge was his contribution to philosophical system with clearness the progress of Philosophy." and general accuracy. There is truth in the distinction he draws Mr. Cunningham has some just between Bacon and Descartes :- observations on Descartes' famous

first principle, “Cogito ergo sum,” "The aim of the two men is quite which, he says, is not intended to different; Bacon desires knowledge in be an argument, so much as a stateorder that man's physical wants may ment of fact.

The phrase is given be better supplied : Descartes seeks for truth which shall satisfy the crav

as an example of a mental condition

which is absolutely free from the ings of his own heart, though he does not altogether neglect the other ad.

possibility of doubt-the immediate vantages. This difference in their dis- knowledge of its own state by the positions might be illustrated from mind; but such knowledge it is their lives no less than from their impossible to describe, nor can its philosophies; in the last it is very pro- validity be proved without a mani. nounced, and the superficial resem.

fest paralogism, examples of which blaince is probably not due to more

may be culled from the pages of than the close similiarity of their surroundings: their constructive philoso

Sir William Hamilton." phers are absolutely distinct.

Mr. Cunningham's composition “ Bacon cannot analyze knowledge

is sometimes scarcely so correct as

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