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a draught (και αἶδε ἐς ἀρτίσκους πεπλασμέναι πίνονται.) From their heads and tail we must cut off to the extent of four fingers' breadth, and boil the remainder to the separation of the back-bones; and having formed the flesh into pastils they are to be cooled in the shade; and these are to be given in a draught in like manner as the squill."
In like manner, when speaking of theriac, we find the expression κal or διὰ τῶν θηρίων φάρμακον, showing that the compounds we have alluded to above as given by Galen in no wise exaggerated; speaking of epilepsy, theriac is again recommended as one of the compound medicines; and our author relates having seen persons holding a cup below the wound of a man recently slaughtered and drinking a draught of the blood. This being certainly a more severe and terrifying remedy than that mentioned by Pliny as being the formula adopted by Cato as a cure for sprains: "Haut, haut ista pista vista," an expression which would not even be censured at Exeter Hall.
The celebrated accusation made by Juvenal in his 6th Satire against the fashionable women of his day, though evidently levelled against a female practitioner
"Sed jacet aurato vix ulla puerpera lecto
Tantum artes hujus, tantum medicamina possunt
Quæ steriles facit, atque homines in ventre necandos
we find often repeated, though indirectly, by Martial, Tacitus, and other writers, who do not hesitate to affirm that the "jus trium liberorum was seldom claimed as
wine that a sick man asked him to keep at a distance from the bed, upon which Quintus reminded him coarsely that he himself often endured much worse smells in the sick-room. The patient must not be thwarted when compliance is likely to be productive of no evil consequences. Hippocrates points out that the skill of the doctor is often sufficient in itself to produce the necessary respect, and therefore he must be careful of his diagnoses, astonishing those about by the correctness of his assertions or predictions. Galen boasts that he had repeatedly cured persons living at a distance by simply listening to a detailed account of their symptoms, by feeling the pulses suddenly of those whom he suspected of tampering with themselves by taking quack medicines, by finding out the cause to be a case of "being in love," the pulse beating more rapidly as the loved one "entered the room; and of many other cures which he had performed, but which we cannot enter into here, though such of our readers whom the subject may interest will find much pleasant reading and information in the edition published at Leipzig, and forming one of the series known as the "Medicorum Græcorum opera quæ extant, cura C. G. Kuhn, 26 vols., 8, Leipz. 1821-33;" as well as in the "Histories" of Friedlaender, Mommsen, Marquardt, and many of the articles in Smith's Dictionaries of Antiquities and Biography.
Much may be found in the works of Aristæus the Cappadocian, valuable even at the present time; but the remedies would be difficult to procure, and even then persons might object to take down such boluses as the following remedy for elephas: "of the shavings of an elephant's tooth one dram with wine to the amount of two cyathi. But likewise the flesh of vipers formed into pastils are taken at
right, though we often hear of some emperor bestowing it as a recompense, vide Martial, II., 92
"Natorum mihi jus trium roganti
From "The Oath," to be found in the works of Hippocrates, published by the Sydenham Society, edited by Dr. Francis Adams, we make a few extracts having reference to this subject: "I swear by Apollo the physician, and Esculapius and Health and All-Heal (Hygeia and Panacea) and all the gods and goddesses that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this oath and this stipulation-to reckon him who taught me this art equally dear as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring on the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art if they wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of this art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one asked, nor suggest any such counsel, and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary to procure abortion. With purity and holiness I will pass my life and practise my art. I will not cut persons labouring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption, and, further,
from the seduction of females or males, of freemen or slaves. Whatever, in connection with my professional practice or not in connection with it, I see or hear in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art respected by all men, in all times! But should I trespass and violate this oath, may the reverse be my lot!"
Aristotle, the editor informs us, did not display the same humanity as Hippocrates, as he excuses abortion in some cases, and it is much to be feared that this crime was of frequent occurrence, together with that abomination known in the nineteenth century as "baby farming." That medical men would do well to observe the latter part of "the oath" relating to gossip, is a fact apparent to all. How many practitioners of the present day call on patients simply to spread a scandal or evil report from house to house, pocketing as a reward the fee paid to them for the few minutes' enjoyment. This love of gossip was indeed prevalent in Rome, many are the allusions made to it. "At fuit fama ins. Quotusquisque istam effugere potest in tam maledicâ civitate? says Cicero; an expression used by Hieronymus five hundred years later. Juvenal tells us that the fair sex was ever anxious to get the latest information, while Martial sneers at the bellus homo Cotilus, who passes a great part of the day among the chairs of the ladies, whispering into some one's ear, knowing everything, who loves who, therefore present at all suppertables :
"Qui scit, quam quis amet, qui per convivia currit."
The following description of a not uncommon malady, taken from Paulus Egineta, may amuse some of our readers; the section being headed "On love-sick persons.' "It will not be out of place here to join love to the affections of the brain, since it consists of certain cares. For care is a passion of the soul occasioned by the reason's being in a state of laborious emotion. The following symptoms attend lovers; their eyes are hollow and do not shed tears, but appear as if overflowing with gladness, their eyelids move rapidly; and even when none of the other parts of the body are affected, these parts are always so affected in lovers. There is no pulse peculiar to lovers, as some have supposed, but it is the same as that of persons labouring under care. When they call to recollection the beloved object, either from seeing or hearing, and more especially if this occurs suddenly, then the pulse undergoes a change from the disorder of the soul, and therefore it does not preserve its natural equability or order." These being the symptoms, we find among the remedies the following: "Rhases, with unusual brevity, merely recommends, in general terms, repeated enjoyment, fasting, walking, and frequent intoxication." The latter we may suppose to be on the similia similibus theory.
Archeology, which has in the last few years been greatly developed in its many branches, gives us some knowledge of the medicaments found useful in ophthalmic cases. In the work by Mr. King, to which we have alluded, we find mention made of some of the stamps bearing inscriptions referring to these medicines. M. Ulpius Heracles was the inventor of the stratioticum, the diarrhodon (rosesalve) for impetus, or inflammation of the eyes; of cycnaricum, an
ointment for the same disease C. Cap. Sabiniani. Diapsoricum ad Calig-the latter (caligines) being dimness of sight produced by overwork, or by the glare of the burning Italian sun. A stamp found at Gloucester reads thus Q. IV.L MYRANI. MELINVM. AD. CLARITATEM this being a honey-wash useful in clearing the sight. M. Tochon d'Anneci, in his brochure, gives several curious names of remedies, and the learned German writer, Grotefend gives, many more details in his "Stempel der röm. Augenärzte."
From the above account it may be seen how, in many instances, the characters of the medical men of ancient Rome correspond almost exactly with those of our own physicians; how the small differences between the contraria contrariis curantur and the similia similibus were looked upon as of the same vital importance as they are even now, how the Sangrado school maintained its opinions, and how in many cases the patients suffered when a necessary theory was to be proved. Martial and Juvenal have handed down to us many hits against the vices of their day, levelling accusations against the "fast" set in Rome, which almost appear to reflect some of the immorality and vice yet prevalent in the nineteenth century. But taking such works of the early medical profession as have come down to us, we find contained in their pages much to be taken to heart. As to the writings of the satirists, those of Juvenal must be read with interest, as being from the pen of a fearless author who did not dread to expose, even at the risk of losing his life, the terrible sins which he saw taking place around him; who did not fear to hold up to scorn Domitian, the blackest of all tyrants.
Of Martial we can but speak
with feelings bordering on contempt. His lash might, indeed, have been turned on himself, as belonging to a class of sycophants who did much by their toadyism to encourage the very faults which he himself held up to scorn. But severe as those writers are, the fact that they scarcely ever hold up members of the medical profession to censure may be taken as a sign that the physicians in Rome did not spare their time or energies when
called upon to oppose some dread disease, but as a class kept themselves as free from scandal as do most of the members of the profession at the present time. Taking, therefore, the various notices and works that have come down to us, we can but look back with admiration on those who devoted themselves to the healing art, leaving behind them names enrolled in golden letters among the great workers of the world.
A Woman Scorned. By Owens Blackburne. 3 vols. Tinsley Brothers, London, 1876. The clever writer who under the name of Owens Blackburne, has recently appeared in the literary world, promises to take a leading position amongst the great band of female authors who have chosen it as their mission to supply the incessant craving of society for light, fantastic fiction. It is sad to think that a race so gifted should be so ephemeral. They are eagerly read, but as rapidly forgotten; and their books, when the season is over, are flung into the limbo of oblivion, from which there is no resurrection.
Writers like Disraeli and the late Lord Lytton will be studied as long as the English tongue exists for their deep thought, immense variety of character, profound knowledge of life and human nature, and magnificent perfection of form, style, and language; but it may be safely affirmed that but a very small percentage of the novels written by women will be heard of or remembered a year after publication. They glitter for a day and die. Yet, at least, the glory of the moment compensates for the speedy oblivion that covers them. They command great prices from publishers, become the idol of a clique, and have all that a woman's heart most desires-praise, homage, flattery, adoration.
But the evil day comes at last; women write only from within, and when the experience or the
memory of passions, triumphs, sorrows, and trials from which they drew their materials has been exhausted, they have nothing more to
say the vein of rich ore is. worked out, and lead begins to replace the silver. It is hard, however, to abdicate a throne, and so the women novelists still work on, though no new element comes to their minds, and they can only repeat themselves, or give us the old lay figures in new attitudes, until at last the fire burns low on the altar, and the worshippers begin to forsake the temple for other shrines.'
For subtle analysis of character, varied and striking modes and moods of thought, and the strong contrasts of conflicting passions that stir the human soul, we must look to the writings of men. Their genius is heightened and stimulated by a wider experience, and the full liberty of living unfettered by the narrow prejudices and the mean and torturing conventionalisms that keep women's souls in an iron bondage. The minds of men are fed from without, and while the imaginative faculty in woman, never very strong, is soon exhausted and worn out, the intellect in man grows day by day, progressing in power as new types of character unceasingly come before him, and the infinite varieties of experience gain definite forms through the strong and matured thought of advancing years. Thus, for instance, Disraeli's last novel, "Lothair," is unsurpassed even by