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methuo) being preventives against and fastened the sea abounding in intoxication ; when engraved with a flowing waves, who hath dried up symbol of the sun or moon and Lot's wife and made of her a pillar suspended from the neck by the of salt, receive into thyself the bair of a cynocephalus, this stone spirit and forces of thy mother the will resist magic potions, qualities earth and dry up the fluxion in the which, however, it has evidently lost hands or feet of such and such an since the days of the natural his- one.' Next day take a bone of any torian. The medical men dead animal and dig up the root easily induced by their own super
before break of day, saying stitious feelings to rush into charla- jure thee by the holy names, Jaoth, tanism; Scribonius mentioning a Sabaoth, Adonai, Elohim.' Then remedy against colic which he had sprinkle a little salt upon the root, puchased from an old woman, wbile saying "As this salt shall not inTrallianus for the same disease ad
crease, so let not the pains of the vises the patient to wear an intaglio patient increase.' Then take the of Hercules strangling the lion, small end of the root, tie it upon cut upon a Median stone. As this the patient, but hang up the relatter physician flourished under mainder thereof for 360 days over Justinian, his remarks are the more the fireplace.” interesting, as showing that super- Another remedy against colic stition was as rife at that time as mentioned by him, for an account during the days of Pindar, when of which, as for the above, we are describing the remedies adopted by indebted to the Rev. C. W. King, Æsculapius to cure the many cases M.A., is the wearing of an iron brought to him.
ring engraved with the words QEYTE Scribonius (compos. medic. præf.) ΦΕΥΓΕ ΙΟΥ ΧΟΛΗ Η ΚΟΡΥΔΑΟΛΣ gives a list of remedies against the bite SE ZHTEI. “Fly, fly, ho there! of serpents, against dropsy, stone, Bile, the lark is looking for thee.” and other diseases, and it is assuring Galen in his works refuses to beto us to be told by this “allopathic lieve that any medicinal properties practitioner" that he essayed their are to be found in the human brain, various virtues on himself without liver, flesh, blood, or bones, and evil effects.
blames Xenocrates for asserting The following prescription against such a proposition, though he maingout given by Trallianus we have tains the efficiency of a remedy, great pleasure in transcribing for which we cannot here describe, to our readers, boping that some may be applied externally in cases of thereby combat the dira podagra ulcerated sore throats. He gives with success. • When the moon is a list of several medicines, their in Aquarius or Pisces, dig up, before effects, and the people for whom he break of day, the sacred herb hyos- bad prescribed them. Many of his cyamus with the forefinger and anecdotes and directions would be thumb of the left hand, being care
found useful even at the present ful not to touch the root, and say time, and we can but feel how they 'I speak unto thee, I speak unto remind us of anecdotes relating to thee, O sacred herb! I call thee members of the medical faculty as that thou come to-morrow into the late as the beginning of this cen house of Phileas, that thou mayest tury. Doctors, according to him, stop the fluxion in the feet or hand were addicted to jealousy, strife, of such a But I conjure envy, coarse vehemence in the thee in the great name of A20 schools against rival doctrines, disSABA 20 who hath fixed the earth putes over the sick bed, murder,
and adultry Martial (VI. 31) tuam ærecollato juxta signum Æscuhints the reason why Charidemus lapii statuerunt.) shuts his eyes to his wife's indiscre- Tacitus mentions several cases tions with the medical attendant,- where the court physician attained
to dignities and honours. Fees were “ Uxorem, Charideme, tuam scis ipse evidently pretty considerable,especi. sinisque
ally when the physician had attained A medico futui ; vis sine febre mori." to reputation. Galen received a fee
of 400 pieces of gold for curing the Herodes, stole a cup while attend. wife of Boethus (£435). The court ing a patient whom he supposes physician appointed by Claudius will no longer require it, (IX. 96)— showed by his books that he was
making an income of 600,000 “ Clinicus Herodes trullam subduxerat sestertii, and that by accepting the ægro
post offered to him, the value of Deprensus, dixit, 'Stulte, quid ergo which was less than half that sum bibis'"?
(250,000 S.), he was proving both
his love and loyalty to the Emperor. Cosmetics and other “beautifying” Many more instances might be washes were being constantly made quoted of large sums, but the above up, prepared, and invented by medi- are sufficient, though we
need cal men-dyes, depilatories, scents, scarcely add that several among the and essences.
Martial gives the minor practitioners found it pretty names of some physicians who evi- hard work to make both ends meet, dently were renowned as specialists. and, as we have shown from the Cascellius extracts the aching tooth, extracts quoted from Martial, reHyginus burns away the superfluous turned to their former occupations, hair which may irritate the eye, or began some entirely new trade. Eros effaces the tristia stigmata The most amusing and natural which has branded the forehead of part of Galen's work, and that which the slave now free, while Hermes is even at the present time may be equal to Polidarius in his treatment taken as a
satire on many perof ruptures.
sons, members not only of the proHydropathy numbered many fessions, but those also in enjoyment celebrated physicians in its ranks of private fortunes, is to be found who were opposed to the treatment in bis directions as to the behaviour followed by the school which or- of medical men when attending dered wine to be given, the latter the sick-room. Our author advises being known, as are told by physicians to pay frequent or few Marquardt under the name of visits according to the wish of the oivodóra. To the former school patient, many persons objecting to
. belonged Musa, the physician who repeated visits. Physicians often, cured Augustus by the cold bath by speaking loud, and treading treatment, and who was the first heavily, awake the sick person from physician raised by the gift of the what may be a refreshing sleep, and gold ring (jus annuli) to the rank thus a feeling of dislike is produced. of knight, being exempted from all The attitude adopted must be one taxation, and receiving, as we are of care, neither obtrusive nor sertold by Suetonius, the honour of vile, as, according to Hippocrates, a statue erected by public subscrip- the cure depended on three things, tion, near to that of Asculapius. the patient, the disease, and the (Medico Antonio Musæ cujus opera physician. Quintus, a countryman ex ancipiti morbo convaluerat sta- of Galen, once smelt so strongly of
wine that a sick man asked him to a draught (kataidees αρτίσκους keep at a distance from the bed, πεπλασμέναι πίνονται.) From their upon wbich Quintus reminded
must him coarsely that he himself often cut off to the extent of four endured much worse smells in the fingers' breadth, and boil the resick-room. The patient must not mainder to the separation of the be thwarted when compliance is back-bones; and baving formed likely to be productive of no evil
the flesh into pastils they are to be consequences. Hippocrates points cooled in the shade ; and these are out that the skill of the doctor is
to be given in a draught in like often sufficient in itself to produce manner as the squill.” the necessary respect, and therefore
In like manner, when speaking of be must be careful of his diagnoses, theriac, we find the expression kaì or astonishing those about by the διά των θηρίων φάρμακον, showing that correctness of his assertions or pre- the compounds we have alluded to dictions. Galen boasts that he had above as given by Galen in no wise repeatedly cured persons living at a exaggerated ; speaking of epilepsy, distance by simply listening to a theriac is again recommended as detailed account of their symptoms, one of the compound medicines ; by feeling the pulses suddenly of and our author relates having seen those whom he suspected of tamper- persons holding a cup below the ing with themselves by taking quack wound of a man recently slaughmedicines, by finding out the cause tered and drinking a draught of the to be a case of “ being in love,” the blood. This being certainly a more pulse beating more rapidly as the severe and terrifying remedy than is loved one
entered the room ; that mentioned by Pliny as being and of many other cures which he the formula adopted by Cato as a had performed, but which we can- cure for sprains: “Haut, baut ista not enter into here, though such pista vista,” an expression which of our readers whom the subject would not even be censured at may interest will find much pleasant Exeter Hall. reading and information in the The celebrated accusation made edition published at Leipzig, and by Juvenal in his 6th Satire against forming one of the series known as the fashionable women of his day, the “Medicorum Græcorum opera though evidently levelled against a quæ extant, curā C. G. Kuhn, 26 female practitionervols., 8, Leipz. 1821-33;" as well as in the “Histories" of Friedlaender,
“Sed jacet aurato vix ulla puerpera Mommsen, Marquardt, and many of lecto the articles in Smith's Dictionaries
Tantum artes hujus, tantum medicamof Antiquities and Biography.
ina possunt Much may be found in the works Quæ steriles facit, atque homines in of Aristæus the Cappadocian, valu
ventre necandos able even at the present time; but
Conducit," the remedies would be difficult to procure, and even then persons we find often repeated, though inmight object to take down such directly, by Martial, Tacitus, and boluses as the following remedy for other writers, who do not hesitate elephas : “ of the shavings of an to affirm that the “jus trium elephant's tooth one dram with liberorum was seldom claimed as wine to the amount of two cyathi. a right, though we often hear of But likewise the flesh of vipers some emperor bestowing it as a formed into pastils are taken at
recompense, vide Martial, II., 92
“ Natorum mihi jus trium roganti from the seduction of females or Musarum pretium dedit mearum males, of freemen or slaves. WhatSolus qui poterat. Valebis uxor ever, in connection with my proNon debet domini perire munus."
fessional practice or not in con
nection with it, I see or hear in the From “The Oath,” to be found in
life of men, which ought not to be the works of Hippocrates, published spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, by the Sydenbam Society, edited
as reckoning that all such should by Dr. Francis Adams, we make a
be kept secret. While I continue few extracts having reference to
to keep this oath unviolated, may this subject: “I swear by A pollo the
it be granted to me to enjoy life physician, and Æsculapius and Health and All-Heal (Hygeia and
and the practice of the art re
spected by all men, in all times ! Panacea) and all the gods and
But should I trespass and violate goddesses that, according to my this oath, may the reverse be my ability and judgment, I will keep lot!" this oath and this stipulation-to
Aristotle, the editor informs us, reckon him who taught me this art
did not display the same humanity equally dear as my parents, to share
as Hippocrates, as he excuses my substance with him, and relieve
abortion in some cases, and it is his necessities if required; to look
much to be feared that this crime upon his offspring on the same foot
was of frequent occurrence, together ing as my own brothers, and to
with that abomination known in the teach them this art if they wish to
nineteenth century as “baby farmlearn it, without fee or stipulation; ing.” That medical men would do and that by precept, lecture, and well to observe the latter part of every other mode of instruction, I “the oath ” relating to gossip, is a will impart a knowledge of this art
fact apparent to all. How many practo my own sons, and those of my
titioners of the present day call on teachers, and to disciples bound by patients simply to spread a scandal stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none
or evil report from house to house,
pocketing as a reward the fee paid others. I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my
to them for the few minutes' enjoy
ment. This love of gossip was ability and judgment, I consider indeed prevalent in Rome, many are for the benefit of my patients, and
the allusions made to it. “At fuit abstain from wbatever is deleterious and mischievous.
fama ins. Quotusquisque istam effu
I will give no deadly medicine to any one
gere potest in tam maledicâ civi.
tate ? says Cicero ; an expression asked, suggest any
used by Hieronymus five hundred counsel, and in like manner I will
years later. Juvenal tells us that not give to a woman a pessary to
the fair sex was ever anxious to get procure abortion.
With purity the latest information, while Mar. and holiness I will pass my life
tial speers at the bellus homo and practise my art. I will not
Cotilus, who passes a great part of cut persons labouring under the stone, but will leave this to be done ladies, whispering into some one's
the day among the chairs of the by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I who, therefore present at all supper
ear, knowing everything, who loves enter I will go into them for the
tables :benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mis
"Qui scit, quam quis amet, qui per chief and corruption, and, further, convivia currit.”
The following description of a ointment for the same disease C. not uncommon malady, taken from Cap. Sabiniani. Diapsoricum ad Paulus Ægineta, may amuse some Calig-the latter (caligines) being of our readers ; the section being dimness of sight produced by overheaded “On love-sick persons.' work, or by the glare of the burn“ It will not be out of place here ing Italian sun. A stamp found at to join love to the affections of the Gloucester reads thus Q. IV.L brain, since it consists of certain MYRANI. MELINVM. AD.
For care is a passion of the CLARITATEM — this being a soul occasioned by the reason's honey-wash useful in clearing being in a state of laborious emo- the sight. M. Tochon d'Anneci, in tion. The following symptoms at- his brochure, gives several curious tend lovers ; their eyes are hollow names of remedies, and the learned and do not shed tears, but appear German writer, Grotefend gives, as if overflowing with gladness, many more details in his “ Stempel their eyelids move rapidly; and der röm. Augenärzte." even when none of the other parts From the above account it may of the body are affected, these be seen how, in many instances, the parts are always so affected in characters of the medical men of lovers. There is no pulse peculiar ancient Rome correspond almost to lovers, as some bave supposed, exactly with those of our own phybut it is the same as that of persons sicians ; how the small differences labouring under care. When they between the contraria contrariis call to recollection the beloved curantur and the similia similibus object, either from seeing or hear- were looked upon as of the same ing, and more especially if this vital importance as they are even occurs suddenly, then the pulse now, how the Sangrado school undergoes a change from the dis- maintained its opinions, and how order of the soul, and therefore it in many cases the patients suffered does not preserve its natural equa- when a necessary theory was to be bility or order.” These being the proved.
proved. Martial and Juvenal have symptoms, we find among the reme. handed down to us dies the following: “Rhases, with against the vices of their day, unusual brevity, merely recom. levelling accusations against the mends, in general terms, repeated “fast” set in Rome, which almost enjoyment, fasting, walking, and fre- appear to reflect some of the imquent intoxication.” The latter we morality and vice vet prevalent in the may suppose to be on the similia nineteenth century. But taking such similibus theory.
works of the early medical profesArcheology, which has in the last sion as have come down to us, we few years been greatly developed in find contained in their pages much its many branches, gives us some to be taken to heart. As to the knowledge of the medicaments writings of the satirists, those of found useful in ophthalmic cases. Juvenal must be read with interest, In the work by Mr. King, to as being from the pen of a fearwhich we have alluded, we find less author who did not dread to mention made of some of the
expose, even at the risk of losing stamps bearing inscriptions refer- his life, the terrible sins which he ring to these medicines. M. Ulpius saw taking place around him ; who Heracles was the inventor of the did not fear to bold up to scorn stratioticuin, the diarrhodon (rose- Domitian, the blackest of all salve) for impetus, or inflammation tyrants. of the eyes; of cycnaricum, an Of Martial te can but speak