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ate in a vacuum; the process continues All these facts, then, prove distinctly till there is a complete disappearance that yeast breathes when placed in of the oxygen dissolved in the serum, contact with dissolved oxygen. The and of that which is fixed in the measure of the respiratory power, under hæmaglobin. If this explanation is the most favourable conditions, shows correct, the experiment ought to suc. us this respiration to be as active, and ceed, even when the blood is separated even more so, than that of fishes." from the yeast diffused in water or serum by means of a membrane per- M. Schützenberger sometimes meable to gas and to liquids, but

rather staggers one with apparent capable of preventing all direct contact

inconsistency. Thus in one place between the yeast-cells and the red globules. This is, in fact, what takes

he says distinctly, “there is really place. I have thus been able, by

no chemical vital force." Yet in arranging a suitable apparatus, to imi.

another we find this passage :tate artificially that which takes place in the organs and tissues of animals, “No one doubts that in organic living when the red and oxygenated arterial cells, whether they be isolated, like blood traverses the network of capillary those of yeast, or form an integral vessels, and passes out into the veins part of a more complicated organism, under the form of black and partially there resides a special force, capable of deoxygenated blood.

producing chemical reactions under For this purpose, it is only necessary conditions quite different from those to cause red blood to circulate slowly which we employ in our laboratories, through a sufficiently long system of and to produce results of the same hollow tubes, the walls of which are class. This force, which we imagine formed of thin gold-beaters' skin, which to be as material as heat, reveals to us is immersed in a mixture of yeast its activity by decompositions effected diffused in fresh serum, without glo- on complex molecules. Whether we bules, kept at 35° C. (95° F.).

reduce the problem to the action of a We see the red blood pass out black soluble product elaborated by the orand venous at the other extremity. A ganic ferment, and to which it has confirmatory experiment, made at the communicated its power, or suppose same time, with a system of tubes pre- that the whole of the ferment exercises cisely similar, but immersed in serum an action of this kind, we ultimately without yeast, proves that yeast is in- arrive at a motion communicated, more dispensable for thus rapidly effecting or less directly, by vital force, and the deoxidation of the blood. This dependent on it." experiment is the exact representation of what takes place in the animal This vital force, which the author organism, with the exception of the here

says we imagine to be as perfect method employed by nature to

material as heat," is elsewhere posi. multiply contacts and surfaces. In the latter case, the cellular and

tively asserted to be “as material

as all those which we are accushistological elements of the tissues play the part of the yeast; they absorb the tomed to utilize.” Mere imaginaoxygen dissolved in the plasmic liquids tion is rather slender ground for which bathe them, and constantly tend professedly scientific assertion, and to bring down to zero their oxymetric we are surprised it should even be condition. The oxygen, but feebly fixed

alleged in a work of this nature. in the hæmaglobin, re-establishes the equilibrium by a series of gaseous diffusions from the red globules to the plasm of the blood, and from the plasm Terra Incognita ; or, The Conof the blood to that of the organs. vents of the United Kingdom. By These continual diffusions are the inevitable consequence of the disturbance

John Nicholas Murphy, author of of equilibrium produced by the aëration

“ Ireland, Industrial, Political, and of the organic cells, or of the cells of Social.”—London, Burns & Oates. yeast in the experiment just described. 1876. We noticed at some length

the first edition of this work, when that there is not a single Roman it appeared, some three years ago. Catholic country in the whole world The present is a "popular edition," which has not been compelled to with several new chapters, and the exercise some sort of supervising statistics of convents in the United authority over such institutions. Kingdom brought down to the pre. The conclusion to which this fact sent day. The spirit in which Mr. inevitably leads is irresistible--that Murphy writes is highly commend- had not serious abuses existed no able, while his object is laudable. such authority would ever have Great ignorance and prejudice, he been exercised. affirms, prevail in Protestant minds There is a very wide distinction on the subject of conventual in- to be drawn between monastic and stitutions, and he is anxious “to conventual institutions whose indissipate the mists and darkness mates, engaged in the active charithat envelope the truth.” No doubt ties of life, enjoy a comparative freethe great body of Mr. Murphy's dom as regards vows and action, and statistical information may

be taken those established the inmates of as perfectly reliable, but the con- which take vows for life, and are tents of his volume do not realize practically dead to the world. In the idea conveyed by its title. The his chapter on “Objections to terra incognita is not revealed to Convents,” Mr. Murphy has failed us. We are not led through the even to notice those which have unknown land, and permitted to been urged, not against such as are explore its mysteries.

charitable or educational instituWe are supplied, in the first tions, but against such as bind instance, with very partial and im- their inmates by perpetual vows, perfect sketches of the origin of immure them in what may be hopemonks and nuns ; of early British less confinement, and maintain, reand Irish Monachism, and of ancient specting their internal discipline religious orders; a list of convents and government, an impenetrable is given, with their characteristics, mystery. rules, and constitutions; but, as re- Mr. Murphy bas failed to see, or gards the inner life, the terra in- at least to notice, that public policy cognita of such institutions as are is involved—that the State has not devoted to the active charities duties to perform to its subjects of life, we have absolutely no in- —that rights are relative. In reformation whatever. We have, it turn for allegiance the State is is true, Mr. Murphy's general as- bound to maintain personal rights sertion that there is no unhappi- inviolate, and the simple question ness in conventual life-that “there is, how can the proper performance is no life happier than that of a of such unavoidable duty be reconnun ;” but it is impossible to credit ciled with the State permitting inthis, and consider such establish- stitutions to exist wherein its subments so entirely free from abuses jects may possibly be immured as he would represent them, unless against their will.

No one can we utterly discredit and repudiate rationally hold that such confinea vast body of Roman Catholic tes- ment is impossible-is it not, theretimony respecting the operation of fore, the imperative duty of the monastic and conventual institu- State to inspect, and, if necessary, tions in Roman Catholic countries. to protect? One great fact stands before us- Rightly considered, the matter of


religion does not enter into this which it is the duty of the State
question at all. It is not because to afford.
convents are established and con- Thus, the question is not one of
ducted as Roman Catholic institu- mere religious belief, but broadly
tions that a right of inspection by and simply one of public policy.
the State should be exercised. Is it consistent with the preserva-
That right exists entirely apart tion of the natural rights of sub-
from any form of religious belief. jects that institutions should exist
There are now several conventual in a free country under the sole
institutions established for charita- irresponsible control of private
ble purposes on professedly Pro- parties, or Churches, in which per-
testant foundations; we not sons are bound by vows to confine
aware, however, of there being any themselves for life, without the
that require their inmates to take State adopting such precautions as
vows involving rigid seclusion for will ensure that the confinement is
life ; but were there such, the mere entirely voluntary and in no wise
profession of Protestantism should compulsory?
not exclude them from inspection This is the real question at issue,
by the State-should not deprive and with its decision the mere form
the inmates of that protection of religious profession has nothing
against imprisonment for life whatever to do.


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“The turn of Arabia."
"All grudges shall be taken away out of your hearts.”

The state of life and the progress stand the development of their of politics in the far Orient have, inoral and social life, we have to at all times indeed, a very espe

leave our

own standpoint, and cial claim on our attention. Not search sympathetically into the merely on the universal-brother- causes which underlie the distincbood principle of philosophers, tive forms which influence them which, as far as the East is from most strongly. the West, would unite all men on Sympathetically,--for there is no the common ground of humanity, use in studying such questions from but as drawn still closer to our the outside. By looking at the dialAsiatic fellows within the magic plate of a clock we can watch the ring of one imperial crown. Now, progress of the hour hand, but if too, the feverish progress of events we would understand the how and in Turkey—the one, so to speak, the why of its motion, we must oriental kingdom in Europe-in- know something of the machinery vests all the circumstances of their behind. law, politics, and religion with a Sir Rutherford Alcock, in a paper deeper interest. We have a on our Colonial Empire, quotes the Dearer kindred, a greater simi- remark made in a Parliamentary larity, with all the other Euro- speech by Mr. Forster, that “ideas pean nations, Russia, perhaps, ex- rule the world." Commenting cepted. We can, as the tide of thereon, he


“ Then it is history rolls on, argue from them essential to take note of such to ourselves and vice versâ, and ideas. In the dealings of Western guess at the hidden springs of Powers with the East, it will be action and character.

found that a knowledge of the But to theorize with any degree leading ideas of Eastern races, of probability on Mohammedan and of the influences most constant forms of government, to under- with their rulers, constitutes the

“ We

best foundation for successful used to appeal to it as the proof of policy."

his mission. There may be dif“ Their common faith in the ferences of opinion as to its style. Korān and its precepts as of Divine The Prophet himself said (Korān, authority, is stronger even than Sura XVII.), “If men and genii race affinities, and makes common were assembled together that they cause against all giaours and in- might produce a book like the fidels."

Korān, they must fail.” The Thus the Korān is one of the Moslem world fully endorses this sources where we are to seek for judgment. They challenge the some of these ruling “leading world to rival this book, this ideas." One of these, perhaps the “Reading,” “Thing to be read," very chiefest, is the idea, the in- as its name implies. They think effaceable impression, left on every it impious to translate it. chapter of the Korān, of its author, hear of Mahometan doctors that Mohammed. Louis XIV. used to had read it seventy thousand say “L'état c'est moi”— Mohammed, times." + with far greater truth, might have By Europeans of the Aryan race, said “ The Korān is myself.”. To the book is generally regarded as quote from

Dean Stanley's almost unreadable. Mr. Bos“ Eastern Church,” “it is to the worth Smith tells us that Bunsen, Mugsulman, in one sense, far more Sprenger, and Renan found the than the Bible is to the Christian. task of reading it through all but It is his code of laws, his creed, impossible, and for himself, after and, to a great extent, his liturgy." reading it through repeatedly, he

Thus in the Korān we find at pronounces that “ duluess is, to a once the mainspring and the com- European who is ignorant of Arabic, plex machinery which it sets in the prevailing characteristic of the motion.

book, until he begins to make a If,” observes Mr. Bosworth minute study of it.” Mr. Carlyle's Smith, “our Scriptures are • they verdict is, “ I must say it is as toil. which testify of Christ,' here (in the some reading as I ever undertook. Korān), if anywhere, we have a . . . Nothing but a sense of duty mirror of one of the Master-spirits could carry any European through of the world, often inartistic, in- the Korān.” Such is this strange coherent, self-contradictory, dull, book to Mohammedans, and such but impregnated with a few grand to Christians. Most probably no ideas which stand out from the degree of insight would awaken us whole, a mind seething with the in- to the enthusiasm of the Moslem spiration pent within it, intoxi- for his book, but is there an “open, cated with God, but full of Sesame” which would admit us to human weaknesses from wbich he a better vantage-point of study? never pretended, and it is his last- It seems to us that sympathy is ing glory that he never pretended, the clue, as we said before; and of to be free." *

this we find an apt illustration in The Arabs had a proverb that Mr. Carlyle himself. To him, after "Mohammed's character is the all, it is not unintelligible how Koran," He himself used to call the Arabs could so love it. Behind it bis one "standing miracle," and “the confused coil” he begins to

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• “Mohammed and Mohammedanism,” by R. Bosworth Smith, M.A., p. 17.

+ Carlyle s "Heroes and Hero-worship," p. 50.

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