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watch for any elephant that might perchance be about. We had thus waited for about an hour when Barrakee leaped up and said he saw two elephants in the distance, so we got our guns and went off to stalk them. The elephants were walking towards the south, following the main body of the herd which had passed very early in the morning. Our object was to cut them off on their way, and Barrakee led us sometimes over the low hills, and sometimes round the sides of them, and we gradually approached nearer the two elephants, who were moving along swinging their trunks about, and sometimes stopping to pick off a bit of a shrub which looked more dainty than the rest. At last there was only one little hill for us to go over, and to cross it would bring us right across the path of the two elephants.
"We were creeping along very quietly when, as we came to a few rocks, where, in the rainy season, a torrent evidently poured down, Barrakee stopped suddenly and said, Ambasa!' which is Amharic for lion. I snatched hold of my express, rushed up and saw a fine male lion moving slowly away among the rocks. At the moment I was going to fire, H. came up and fired his heavy rifle close behind me; both barrels went off at once, and I thought at first I was shot, as nine drams of powder is rather a large charge to be let off close to one's ear. I missed the lion; so did H. I loaded again and ran after him and fired, and missed. The elephants, which were not more than forty and fifty yards off, went off in another direction, and the lion, passing through some trees, put up' a herd of large deer, which went also in a different direction. It was a sight grand enough, but we had made a terrible mess of the whole thing: we ought not to have fired at the lion, and, as the servant said, 'If you had killed the elephants, plenty of lions would have come to pick the bones.' I may tell my readers that the lions in Abyssinia are not like the familiar picture that is everywhere to be seen of animals with enormous manes, as the species in this country have no mane at all. We then walked back to the hill whereon we were to
camp that night, all of us disappointed and crestfallen."
The Abyssinians, Lord Mayo informs us, "are the only black race of Christians existing;" but, as regards the purity and rationality of their religious belief, we fear a favourable opinion cannot be entertained. They are represented as "great bigots, and the whole country is very much at the present time under the influence of the priests. The King himself is very particular about his religious observances, and priests and monasteries are very often richly endowed." The version in vogue among them concerning the "Fall of Man" runs thus:
"Adam and Eve, who lived in a beautiful garden, were happy and contented, till one day the serpent came and said to Eve, Where is Adam? She answered, 'He is in another part of the garden. So the serpent sneeringly said, Oh, indeed, do you think so? Eve rejoined, For what reason do you sneer?' The serpent replied,
You think yourself the only woman in the world?' and she said, 'Yes, and a most beautiful woman.' The serpent then said, Adam often stays away from you, does he not, now? I will show you another woman;' on which he produced a looking-glass. Eve saw her image reflected in it and immediately became jealous. The serpent then said, 'If you wish to secure Adam's love for ever and ever, you must eat of the fruit which I will point out to you.'
"So came about the fall of man, according to Abyssinians. This is quite consistent with Abyssinian character and ideas, as probably no people are more vain or conceited than they; jealousy in all things is one of their chief failings."
Though this volume only professes to contain the notes of a sporting tour, still there is interspersed throughout a good deal of
instructing information concerning mind in a healthy state requires no
Mr. Pattison here writes more
which is learnt for a Essays on the Endoument of purpose. Science which is not Research. By various Writers. H. disinterested ceases to be science.” S. King & Co.-It might naturally in that case, we fear there is be expected that a volume of essays
not much science among us, by Oxford Fellows on University ever likely to be. The number matters would contain much that is of those who have at once the worthy of attention at the present
power and the will to scale the time, and the expectation is amply heights of science and dive into fulfilled in the present case.
But the depths of learning-to "scorn the writers travel over a wider delights and live laborious days” in range of topics than the title of the the pursuit of knowledge for its book implies, treating rather of own sake-must always be very university management in general small. It is not every one who is than simply the endowment of gifted with Jr. Pattison's apperesearch.
tite for reading and power of diMr. Pattison, who was the first gesting what he reads. The to preach years ago the doctrine Jesuits, who, he tells us, first inthat the universities should be not troduced the prize system, evinced merely teaching and examining a true knowledge of human nature institutions, but also seats of learn- as it is, if not as it ought to be. ing, commences the volume with Undoubtedly it would be better an interesting - Review of the if knowledge were sought simply Situation,” in which he sketches on its own account; but it is of the past history and present little use to indulge in Utopian position of the universities in re- dreams and aspirations as to what lation to the legislature and the might be done if men were what country.
they ought to be. We must take As to what future changes should them and deal with them as they be made, he is rather sparing of In this practical country and remark, partly, perhaps, because he material age education would be at has treated that subject at length a much lower ebb if it were not in a former work, and partly be. fostered by rewards and bounties cause he does not feel called upon in some shape or other; though to commit himself to specific de- Mr. Pattison says the absence of tails just now. He does, however, external stimulus to study is "the unhesitatingly condemn the system only true foundation on which a of holding out prizes in the shape university can be placed," and deof fellowships, scholarships, and ex- nounces idle fellowships" as "the hibitions as inducements to the prizes by which we attract numbers pursuit of learning and science. who have no vocation for either He holds that a youthful intelligent science or letters to pretend to study
science and classics till they are plead not only expediency, but the twenty-two." He does not openly original intention of founders of advocate their abolition ; nor will colleges and long usage. There they be converted to professor- can be no doubt that the chief ships or appropriated to the en. purpose for which colleges were dowment of research without strong founded, and endowments instiopposition and careful deliberation. tuted, was that the fellows and Mr. Cotton rightly observes :
scholars might be enabled to devote
their whole life to study; and for " Sinecure fellows and college tutors may be both alike historical fully fulfilled. Consequently, those
many years this purpose was faithabuses and economical blunders, who ask for the endowment of rebut they may yet have their place search are merely seeking to effect in a country which can afford to
à restoration, not a revolutionindulge its taste for anomalies.
restoration, too, which all acknowHigher education in England has
ledge to be desirable. It would been moulded according to the
seem, therefore, that the issue candemands of the academical curri.
not be doubtful. culum, and has been stimulated But in addition to the opposition into its present efficiency by the
which will certainly be made to the hopes engendered by university
abolition of the “ idle fellowships,” premiums. Much yet needs to be
there is the difficulty of devising done before its condition can be
any feasible scheme for endowing regarded with entire satisfaction.
research likely to meet with general It would be mischievous to with
acceptance, and work well.
Mr. draw the stimulus at a time when
Pattison, who has pondered the the minor endowed schools are still subject perhaps longer and more struggling in the pangs of a second
carefully than any one else, shrinks
from proposing any definite plan.
” , cognition.”
higher function which we now deAs to the desirableness of some mand of a university is, and how permanent provision for the encour- a university is to be organized agement of original research in for its performance, are matters on science and literature, there cannot which even the most advanced be two opinions, though it is not thinkers may well at present not very easy to see the essential dif
see their way." ference, so far as the worker is The other writers who touch upon concerned, between giving money the subject show similar caution. for intellectual work already done. The late Professor Covington, how.
, and paying beforehand for work to ever, in his evidence to the Combe done hereafter. Of course the mission of 1852, which is here rework of the discoverer in science printed in an appendix, entered and the original investigator in with some hesitation into more literature is of a higher character, explicit detail; and the appendix though of less marketable value, containing his remarks, together than that of the mere learner; still, with that consisting of an extract in both cases pecuniary resources
from Professor Max Müller's "Chips are necessary, and may surely be from a German Workshop,” forms sought and accepted without de- a more important contribution to stroying the value of the work done. the practical discussion of the
The advocates of endowments for proper subject of the volume than the encouragement of research may can be found elsewhere in it. He
proposed that two-thirds of the
partially employed in tuition or fellowship revenues should continue required to give his whole time to to be employed as prizes for the study. Mr. Sorby, guided by his encouragement of education, the own fortunate experience, is strongly remaining third being devoted to of opinion that the endowment the foundation of pensions, tenable ought to be ample enough to preby resident students willing to de- clude the necessity of any other vote themselves to the prosecution occupation, and completely free the of some special branch of study in mind from all disturbing cares. literature or science, and found But that discovery can be combined competent, by examination, to do with professorial duties is abunso with advantage.
dantly proved by the case of Fara
day, not to mention living pro“It would be necessary, too, that fessors, both in this country and in they should be subjected periodically, Germany, who have contributed to at least during the earlier part of their the advance of science. It is plain literary career, to some kind of additional examination in order to ascer
that the problem to be solved is by tain the use which they might be
no means easy of solution. making of their opportunities, facili.
We have no room to touch upon ties being provided for the removal of the various other university matters such as should be judged unworthy of discussed in this volume, and must their position. Probably something in content ourselves with observing the shape of a yearly dissertation that it merits the attention of all would be the least objectionable duty
who are interested in the advance. to impose, nor would there be any
ment of learning and science among reason why such occasional publications should not assist rather than hinder the course of study."
It may be questioned whether many so highly gifted as to be On Fermentation. By P. Schütqualified, for making important zenberger. With twenty-eight illusadditions to existing knowledge in trations. H. S. King and Co.literature or science would be The value of scientific knowledge is willing to submit to such condi. now generally admitted.
Natural tions. The idea of subjecting them science forms an essential part of to examination seems impractic- the regular course of education in able; for they are supposed to be our universities and public schools; studying in advance of all others and special scholarships, exhibiin their special department. And tions, and prizes are offered as init appears absurdly unreasonable ducements to pursue this study. to call upon a man to make some As a necessary consequence, there scientific discovery, or produce is a demand for text-books adapted some new manuscript, inscription, to the present advanced state of reading, or interpretation, some knowledge, and giving information fresh edition of an ancient author, with regard to the latest discoveries. some fresh ligbt from the com- This demand is intended to be sup. parison of languages every year, on plied by “ The International Scienpain of losing his pension. Then, tific Series," of which this is the again, it is a question whether the twentieth volume. It is a great reencouragement of research should commendation of the series, that it be in the form of a permanent is not composed exclusively of the pension or a temporary grant, and works of English authors, or those whether the investigator should be of any single nation. The area of
choice being thus extended, greater It breathes, transforms and modifies its excellence may be reasonably an- proximate principles in a continuous ticipated; when, as sometimes hap
manner, and certainly in the same way
as other cells; like these, it can be pens, foreign philosophers have
multiplied by buds and spores. The made a particular branch of science
only important and decidedly distinctheir special study, it is desirable to
tive character which seems to render it receive an account of their re- a form of life absolutely apart from searches and discoveries directly other forms in creation, was removed from them, and those who cannot from it by M. Lechartier and M. Belread their language should at least lamy, when these chemists succeeded in have as much assistance as can be establishing, that the cells of fruits, afforded them by means of trans
seeds, and leaves, and even animal
cells, are capable of changing sugar lations. This is what is offered in
into alcohol and carbon dioxide." the volume before us, which reads more like an original work than a It is only within a comparatively translation.
few years that this doctrine has M. Schützenberger's high official
been generally received, if it is even position as Director of the Chemical
Liebig attributed fermentaLaboratary at the Sorbonne, in Paris, tion to molecular motion communiis in itself an ample guarantee that cated by a decomposing body to he is not only thoroughly master of
other matter in contact with it, the difficult subjects he has under- "Yeast," he said, “and in general taken to expound, but well skilled
all animal and vegetable matters in in the art of communicating the a state of putrefaction, will commuknowledge he has acquired. The
nicate to other bodies the condition student will here find as explicit of decomposition in which they are and complete an account of fermen- themselves placed ; the motion tation, both direct and indirect, as which is given to their own elehe can desire.
ments by the disturbance of equiliM. Schützenberger follows Pas
brium, is also communicated to the teur and others in describing fer- elements of the bodies which come mentation as the vegetation of a into contact with them." As late species of fungus, to which, with
as 1870 he published a treatise in Rees, he gives the name of Sacchar
which he endeavoured to show that omyces cerevisia, and which he
Pasteur's experiments were not speaks of as not merely living, but conclusive. That the action of breathing.
yeast on blood closely resembles, if
it is not identical with, that of ani. " Yeast is a living organism belong- mal respiration, seems scarcely ing to the family of fungi, genus Saccharomyces, destitute of 'mycelium, disputable from what follows: capable of reproduction, like all the “The behaviour of the yeast with elementary fungi, by buds and spores; reference to blood may be explained in its composition, as we have just seen, the following manner : The cells of singularly resembles that of other
Saccharomyces diffused in the liquid vegetable tissues, and especially of the breathe at the expense of the oxygen plants of the same family. The ex- physically dissolved in the plasm or amination of its biological functions, serum in the midst of which swim the studied more particularly in their red globules of blood. In proportion chemical aspect, shows us clearly that as the plasmic liquid grows less rich in this elementary form of life does not
oxygen, a portion of this body, feebly differ in essentials from other elemen- combined with hæmaglobin, is separtary cells, unprovided with chlorophyll, ated, and enters into physical dissoluwhether isolated or in groups, and be- tion, by a dissociation comparable to longing to the more complex organs. that presented by potassium bicarbon