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Yet say, could even a prostrate tribune's power, And loud and upright, till their prize be known, Or a mock senate, in Rome's servile hour, They thwart the King's supplies to raise their own. Insult so much the claims, the rights of man, But bees, on flowers alighting, cease their humAs doth that fetter'd mob, that free divan,
So, settling upon places, Whigs grow dumb. Of noble tools and honourable knaves,
And, though most base is he who, 'neath the shade Of pension'd patriots and privileg'd slaves;- Of Freedom's ensign plies corruption's trade, That party-colour'd mass, which nought can warm And makes the sacred flag he dares to show But rank corruption's heat— whose quicken'd His passport to the market of her foe,
Yet, yet, I own, so venerably dear Spread their light wings in Bribery's golden sky, Are Freedom's grave old anthems to my ear, Buzz for a period, lay their eggs, and die ;- That I enjoy them, though by traitors sung, That greedy vampire, which from freedom's tomb And reverence Scripture even from Satan's tongue. Comes forth, with all the mimicry of bloom Nay, when the constitution has expir'd, Upon its lifeless cheek, and sucks and drains I'll have such men, like Irish wakers, hir'd A people's blood to feed its putrid veins !
To chant old " Habeas Corpus” by its side,
And ask, in purchas'd ditties, why it died ? Thou start'st, my friend, at picture drawn so dark
See yon smooth lord, whom nature's plastic pains " Is there no light ?” thou ask'st—" no ling’ring Would seem to've fashion'd for those Eastern reigns spark
When eunuchs flourish'd, and such nerveless things * Of ancient fire to warm us ? Lives there none, As men rejected were the chosen of Kings ;3 —
To act a Marvell's part ?" — alas! not one. Even he, forsooth, (oh fraud, of all the worst!)
For centuries of wrong, for dark deceit Not bolder truths of sacred Freedom hung And with’ring insult — for the Union thrown | From Sidney's pen or burn'd on Fox's tongue, Into thy bitter cup4, when that alone
Than upstart Whigs produce each market night, Of slavery's draught was wanting : -- if for this While yet their conscience, as their purse, is light; Revenge be sweet, thou hast that dæmon's bliss ; While debts at home excite their care for those For, sure, 'tis more than hell's revenge to see Which, dire to tell, their much-lov'd country owes, That England trusts the men who've ruin’d thee ;
1 Andrew Marvell, the honest opposer of the court during Eastern prince would have chosen an entire administration the reign of Charles the Second, and the last member of par. upon this principle. Jiameat who, according to the ancient mode, took wages from his constituents. The Commons have, since then, much
“And in the cup an Union shall be thrown."
Hamlet. changed their pay-masters. — See the State Poems for some rude but spirited effusions of Andrew Marvell.
5 Among the many measures, which, since the Revolution, • The following artless speech of Sir Francis Winnington, have contributed to increase the influence of the throne, and in the reign of Charles the Second, will amuse those who are to feed up this “ Aaron's serpent" of the constitution to its fully aware of the perfection we have since attained in that present health and respectable magnitude, there have been systern of government whose humble beginnings so much few more nutritive than the Scotch and Irish Unions. Sir astonisbed the worthy baronet. "I did observe (says he) John Packer said, in a debate upon the former question, that that all those who had pensions, and most of those who had "he would submit it to the House, whether men who had chces, voted all of a side, as they were directed by some basely betrayed their trust, by giving up their independent great officer, exactly as if their business in this House had
constitution, were fit to be admitted into the English House teed to preserve their pensions and offices, and not to make of Commons.” But Sir John would have known, if he had lax for the good of them no sent them here." He allude not been out of place at time, that the pliancy of such to that parliament which was called, par excellence, the Pen- materials was not among the least of their recommendations. sionary Parliament.
Indeed, the promoters of the Scotch Union were by no means . According to Xenophon, the chief circumstance which disappointed in the leading object of their measure, for the recommended these creatures to the service of Eastern triumphant majorities of the court-party in parliament may princes was the igpominious station they held in society, and be dated from the admission of the 45 and the 16. Once or the probability of their being, upon this account, more de- twice, upon the alteration of their law of treason and the imvoted to the will and caprice of a master, from whose notice position of the malt-tax (measures which were in direct vioalone they derived consideration, and in whose favour they lation of the Act of Union), these worthy North Britons might seek refuge from the general contempt of mankind. – arrayed themselves in opposition to the court ; but finding Αξει εντες οι ευνουχει παρα τους αλλους ανθρώπους και δια τουτο this effort for their country unavailing, they prudently deterδυστυτου επικουρου προσδιονται. – But I doubt whether even an mined to think thenceforward of themselves, and few men
That, in these awful days, when every hour Such are the men that guard thy threaten'd shore,
“ This clamour, which pretends to be raised for the safety Of that unpitying power, whose whips and chains of religion, has almost worn out the very appearance of it,
and rendered us not ouly the most divided but the most Drove Ireland first to turn, with harlot glance,
immoral people upon the face of the earth." Tow'rds other shores, and woo th' embrace of
Addison, Freeholder, No. 37. France; Those hack’d and tainted tools, so foully fit Start not, my friend, nor think the muse will stain For the grand artizan of mischief, P-tt,
Her classic fingers with the dust profane So useless ever but in vile employ,
Of Bulls, Decrees, and all those thund'ring serolls, So weak to save, so vigorous to destroy
Which took such freedom once with royal souls, s
have ever kept to a laudable resolution more firmly. The tyrants, and asserting the will of the people to be the only effect of Irish representation on the liberties of England will true fountain of power. Bellarmine, the most violent of the be po less perceptible and permanent.
advocates for papal authority, was one of the first to maintaia Ουδ' όγε Ταυρου
(De Puntiff. lib. i. cap. 7.), “that kings have not their authoΛειτεται αντιλλοντος, και
rity or office immediately from God nor his law, but only The infusion of such cheap and useful ingredients as my
from the law of nations;" and in King James's “ Defence Lord L., Mr. D. B., &c. &c. into the legislature, cannot but
of the Rights of Kings against Cardinal Perron," se find his act as a powerful alterative on the constitution, and clear it by Majesty expressing strong indignation against the Cardinal degrees of all troublesome humours of honesty.
for having asserted “that to the deposing of a king the con· The magician's shield Ariosto:
sent of the people must be obtained” –“ for by these words E tolto per vertù dello splendore
(says James) the people are exalted above the king, and made
the judges of the king's deposing," p. 424. — Even in Mariana's La libertate a loro.
celebrated book, where the nonsense of bigotry does not We are told that Cæsar's code of morality was contained in
interfere, there may be found many liberal and enlightened the following lines of Euripides, which that great man fre
views of the principles of government, of the restraints which quently repeated :
should be imposed upon royal power, of the subordination of Ειτες γαρ αδικειν χρη τυραννιδος περι
the Throne to the interests of the people, &c. &c. (De Rege Καλλιστον αδικείν' τάλλα δ' ευσεβειν χρεων. .
et Regis Institutione. See particularly lib. i. cap. 6. &. and This is also, as it appears, the moral code of Napoleon. 9). - It is rather remarkable, too, that England should be
9 The following prophetic remarks occur in a letter written indebted to another Jesuit for the earliest desence of that by Sir Robert Talbot, who attended the Duke of Bedford to principle upon which the Revolution was founded, namely, Paris in 1762. Talking of states which have grown powerful the right of the people to change the succession. — (See in commerce, he says, “ According to the nature and common Doleman's “ Conferences," written in support of the title of course of things, there is a confederacy against them, and con- the Infanta of Spain against that of James I.) - When sequently in the same proportion as they increase in riches, Englishmen, therefore, say that Popery is the religion of they approach to destruction. The address of our King slavery, they should not only recollect that their own boasted William, in making all Europe take the alarm at France, has constitution is the work and bequest of popish ancestors ; brought that country before us near that inevitable period. they should not only remember the laws of Edward III., We must necessarily have our turn, and Great Britain will “ under whom (says Bolingbroke) the constitution of our attain it as soon as France shall have a declaimer with organs parliaments, and the whole form of our government, becane as proper for that political purpose as were those of our reduced into better form ;" but they should know thateren the William the Third.
Without doubt, my Lord, errors charged on Popery have leaned to the cause of liberty. Great Britain must lower her flight. Europe will remind us and that Papists were the first promulgators of the doctrines of the balance of commerce, as she has reminded France of which led to the Revolution. – In general, however, the the balance of power. The address of our statesmen will im- political principles of the Roman Catholics have been demortalise them by contriving for us a descent which shall not scribed as happened to suit the temporary convenience of be a fall, by making us rather resemble Holland than Carthage their oppressors, and have been represented alternately as and Venice.” – Letters on the French Nation.
slavish or refractory, according as a pretext for tormenting 3 The king-deposing doctrine, not withstanding its many them was wanting. The same inconsistency has marked mischievous absurdities, was of no little service to the cause every other imputation against them. They are charged of political liberty, by inculcating the right of resistance to with laxity in the observance of oaths, though an oath has
been found sufficient to shut them out from all worldly data * From Aratus (v.715.), a poet who wrote upon astronomy, though, as Cicero assures us, he knew nothing whatever about the subject : just as
vantages. If they reject certain decisions of their church the great Harvey wrote “ De Generatione," though he had as little to do they are said to be sceptics and bad Christians ; if they adar.it with the matter as my Lord Viscount C.
those very decisions, they are branded as bigots and bad subwhips, 5 Placemen alone are privileged not to see - Blood on their hands, and Scripture on their lips, jerts. We are told that confidence and kindness will make 4 The example of toleration, which Bonaparte has held them enemies to the government, though we know that forth, will, I fear, produce no other effect than that of deterexclusion and injuries have hardly prevented them from mining the British government to persist, from the very being its friends. In short, nothing can better illustrate the spirit of opposition, in their own old system of intolerance and nisery of those shifts and evasions by which a long course injustice ; just as the Siamese blacken their teeth,“ because," ol.cowardly injustice must be supported, than the whole his- as they say, "the devil has white ones." a tory of Great Britain's conduct towards the Catholic part of 5 One of the unhappy results of the controversy between her empire.
When heaven was yet the pope's exclusive trade, Oh! turn awhile, and, though the shamrock
Than his own opiate tongue now deals around, Enough for me, whose heart has learn'd to scorn Shall wait th' impeachment of that awful day Bigots alike in Rome or England born,
Which even his practis'd hand can't bribe away. Who loathe the venom, whencesoe'er it springs, From popes or lawyers, pastry-cooks or kings, – Yes, my dear friend, wert thou but near me Enough for me to laugh and weep by turns,
now, As mirth provokes, or indignation burns,
To see how Spring lights up on Erin's brow As C—nn-ng vapours, or as France succeeds, Smiles that shine out, unconquerably fair, As H-wk-sb'ry proses, or as Ireland bleeds! Even through the blood-marks left by C-md-13
there, And thou, my friend, if, in these headlong days, Could'st thou but see what verdure paints the sod When bigot Zeal her drunken antics plays Which none but tyrants and their slaves have trod, So near a precipice, that men the while
And didst thou know the spirit, kind and brave, Look breathless on and shudder while they smile- That warms the soul of each insulted slave, If, in such fearful days, thou'lt dare to look Who, tir'd with struggling, sinks beneath his lot, To hapless Ireland, to this rankling nook
And seems by all but watchful France forgot 4 Which Heaven hath freed from poisonous things in Thy heart would burn — yes, even thy Pittite heart vain,
Would burn, to think that such a blooming part While G-ff—rd's tongue and M-sgr-ve's pen Of the world's garden, rich in nature's charms, remain
And fill'd with social souls and vigorous arms, If thou hast yet no golden blinkers got
Should be the victim of that canting crew, To shade thine eyes from this devoted spot, So smooth, so godly,- yet so devilish too ; Whose wrongs, though blazon'd o'er the world who, arm'd at once with prayer-books and with they be,
Protestants and Catholics, is the mutual exposure which i The ** Sella Stercoraria" of the popes. - The Right their criminations and recriminations have produced. In vain Honourable and learned Doctor will find an engraving of do the Protestants charge the Papists with closing the door this chair in Spanheim's “ Disquisitio Historica de Papå of salvation upon others, while many of their own writings Fæminá" (p. 118.); and I recommend it as a model for the and articles breathe the same uncharitable spirit. No canon fashion of that seat which the Doctor is about to take in the of Constance or Lateran ever damned heretics more effectuprieg-council of Ireland.
ally than the eighth of the Thirty-nine Articles consigns to 2 When Innocent X. was entreated to decide the con perdition every single member of the Greek church ; and I trorersy between the Jesuits and the Jansenists, he answered, doubt whether a more sweeping clause of damnation was ever that " he had been bred a lawyer, and had therefore nothing proposed in the most bigoted council, than that which the to do with divinity." – It were be wished that some of our Calvinistic theory of predestination in seventeenth of English pettifoggers knew their own fit element as well as these Articles exhibits. It is true that no liberal Protestant Poge Innocent X.
avows such exclusive opinions ; that every honest clergyman ; Not the C-md-n who speaks thus of Ireland:
must feel a pang while he subscribes to them ; that some * To wind up all, whether we regard the fruitfulness of the even assert the Athanasian Creed to be the forgery of one soil, the advantage of the sea, with so many commodious Vigilius Tapsensis, in the beginning of the sixth century, and havens, or the natives themselves, who are warlike, inge- that eminent divines, like Jortin, have not hesitated to say, sious, handsome, and well-complexioned, soft-skinned and “ There are propositions contained in our Liturgy and ArFery nimble, by reason of the pliantness of their muscles, this ticles, which no man of common sense amongst us believes." b Island is in many respects so happy, that Giraldus might But while all this is freely conceded to Protestants; while very well say. 'Nature had regarded with more favourable
a See l'Histoire Naturelle et Polit. du Royaume de Siam, &c. eyes than ordinary this Kingdom of Zephyr.'"
b Strictures on the Articles, Subscriptions, &c.
Tyrants by creed, and torturers by text,
Which builds on heavenly cant its earthly sway, Make this life hell, in honour of the next!
And in a convert mourns to lose a prey; Your R-desd—les, P-rc-v-Is-great, glo- Which grasping human hearts with double hold, rious Heaven,
Like Danäe's lover mixing god and gold, ?If I'm presumptuous, be my tongue forgiven, Corrupts both state and church, and makes an When here I swear, by my soul's hope of rest,
oath I'd rather have been born, ere man was blest The knave and atheist's passport into both; With the pure dawn of Revelation’s light, Which, while it dooms dissenting souls to know Yes, — rather plunge me back in Pagan night, Nor bliss above nor liberty below, And take my chance with Socrates for bliss, Adds the slave's suffering to the sinner's fear, Than be the Christian of a faith like this,
And, lest he 'scape hereafter, racks him here !3
nobody doubts their sincerity, when they declare that their or limbo of their own, where their employment, it must be articles are not essentials of faith, but a collection of opinions owned, is not very enviable - "Senza speme vivemo in which have been promulgated by fallible men, and from desio." - Cant. iv. - Among the numerous errors imputed many of which they feel themselves justified in dissenting, – to Origen, he is accused of having denied the eternity of while so much liberty of retractation is allowed to Protestants future punishment; and, if he never advanced a more irra. upon their own declared and subscribed Articles of religion, tional doctrine, we may venture, I think, to forgive him. He is it not strange that a similar indulgence should be so obsti- went so far, however, as to include the devil himself in the nately refused to the Catholics, upon tenets which their general hell-delivery which he supposed would one day or church has uniformly resisted and condemned, in every other take place, and in this St. Augustin thinks him rather country where it has independently flourished? When the too merciful — " Miserecordior profecto fuit Origenes, qui et Catholics
“The Decree of the Council of Lateran, which ipsum diabolum," &c. (De Civitat. Dei, lib. xxi. cap. 17.)you object to us, has no claim whatever upon either our faith According to St. Jerom, it was Origen's opinion, that “the or our reason; it did not even profess to contain any doc- devil himself, after a certain time, will be as well off as the trinal decision, but was merely a judicial proceeding of that angel Gabriel"_" Id ipsum fore Gabrielem quod diabolum." assembly; and it would be as fair for us to impute a wife- (See his Epistle to Pammachius.) But Halloix, in his killing doctrine to the Protestants, because their first pope, Defence of Origen, denies strongly that his learned father Henry VIII., was sanctioned in an indulgence of that pro- had any such misplaced tenderness for the devil. pensity, as for you to conclude that we have inherited a king- 2 Mr. Fox, in his Speech on the Repeal of the Test Act deposing taste from the acts of the Council of Lateran, or the (1790), thus condemns the intermixture of religion with the secular pretensions of our popes. With respect, too, to the political constitution of a state : -" What purpose (he asks) Decree of the Council of Constance, upon the strength of can it serve, except the baleful purpose of communicating and which you accuse us of breaking faith with heretics, we do receiving contamination ? Under such an alliance corruption not hesitate to pronounce that Decree a calumnious forgery, must alight upon the one, and slavery overwhelm the other." a forgery, too, so obvious and ill-fabricated, that none but Locke, too, says of the connection between church and our enemies have ever ventured to give it the slighest credit state, “The boundaries on both sides are fixed and immovefor authenticity." — When the Catholics make these declar- able. He jumbles heaven and earth together, the things ations (and they are almost weary with making them), when most remote and opposite, who mixes these two societies, they show, too, by their conduct, that these declarations are which are in their original, end, business, and in every thing, sincere, and that their faith and morals are no more regulated perfectly distinct and intinitely different from each other."by the absurd decrees of old councils and popes, than their First Letter on Toleration. science is influenced by the papal anathema against that The corruptions introduced into Christianity may be dated Irishman who first found out the Antipodes, - is it not from the period of its establishment under Constantine, nor strange that so many still wilfully distrust what every good could all the splendour which it then acquired atone for the man is so much interested in believing? That so many peace and purity which it lost. should prefer the dark-lantern of the 13th century to the 3 There has been, after all, quite as much intolerance sunshine of intellect which has since overspread the world ; among Protestants as among Papists. According to the hackand that every dabbler in theology, from Mr. Le Mesurier neyed quotation down to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, should dare to
Iliacos intra muros peccatur et extra. oppose the rubbish of Constance and Lateran to the bright
Even the great champion of the Reformation, Melanchthon, and triumphant progress of justice, generosity, and truth?
whom Jortin calls “a divine of much mildness and googa ! In a singular work, written by one Franciscus Collius,
nature," thus expresses his approbation of the burning of “upon the Souls of the Pagans," the author discusses, with
Servetus : “ Legi (he says to Bullinger) quæ de Serveti blas. much coolness and erudition, all the probable chances of sal- phemiis respondistis, et pietatem ac judicia vestra probo. vation upon which a heathen philosopher might calculate.
Judico etiam senatum Genevensem rectè fecisse, quod hoConsigning to perdition, without much difficulty, Plato, So
minem pertinacem et non omissurum blasphemias sustulit; crates, &c., the only sage at whose fate he seems to hesitate is
ac miratus sum esse qui severitatem illam improbent."-I Pythagoras, in consideration of his golden thigh, and the
have great pleasure in contrasting with these "mild and many iniracles which he performed. But, having balanced
good-natured" sentiments the following words of the Papist a little his claims, and finding reason to father all these miracles on the devil, he at length, in the twenty-fifth chapter,
Baluze, in addressing his friend Conringius: “ Interim amedecides upon damning him also. (De Animabus Paganorum, causâ religionis, moribus tamen diversi non simus, qui eadem
mus, mi Conringi, et tametsi diversas opiniones tuemur in lib. iv. cap. 20. and 25.) - The poet Dante compromises the matter with the Pagans, and gives them a neutral territory secund. p. 56.
literarum studia sectamur." - Herman. Conring. Epistol. par.
Hume tells us that the Commons, in the beginning of - Virgilius, surnamed Solivagus, a native of Ireland, who maintained, in the Sth century, the doctrine of the Antipodes, and was anathematised
Charles the First's reign, "attacked Montague, one of the accordingly by the Pope. John Scotus Erigena, another Irishman, was
King's chaplains, on account of a moderate book which he the first that ever wrote against transubstantiation.
had lately composed, and which, to their great disgust, sared virtuous Catholics, as well as other Christians, from eternal 99.) – If men who acted thus were bigots, what shall we call torments." - In the same manner a complaint was lodged Mr. P-rc-v-1? before the Lords of the Council against that excellent writer In Sutcliffe's “ Survey of Popery " there occurs the followHooker, for having, in a Sermon against Popery, attempted ing assertion:-“Papists, that positively hold the heretical to save many of his Popish ancestors for ignorance. – To and false doctrines of the modern church of Rome, cannot these examples of Protestant toleration I shall beg leave to possibly be saved." - As a contrast to this and other specioppose the following extract from a letter of old Roger mens of Protestant liberality, which it would be much more Aschamn (the tutor of Queen Elizabeth), which is preserved easy than pleasant to collect, I refer my reader to the Decla. among the Harrington Papers, and was written in 1566, to the ration of Le Père Courayer ;- doubting not that, while he Earl of Leicester, complaining of the Archbishop Young, reads the sentiments of this pious man upon toleration, he #bo bad taken away his prebend in the church of York: will feel inclined to exclaim with Belsham, “ Blush, ye Pro* Master Bourne a did never grieve me half so moche in offer. testant bigots ! and be confounded at the comparison of your ing me wrong, as Mr. Dudley and the Byshopp of York doe, own wretched and malignant prejudices with the generous in taking away my right. No byshopp in Q. Mary's time and enlarged ideas, the noble and animated language of this would have so dealt with me: not Mr. Bourne hymself, when | Popish priest." —Essays, xxvii. p. 86. Winchester lived, durst have so dealt with me, For suche | “La tolérance est la chose du monde la plus propre à good estimation in those dayes even the learnedst and wysest ramener le siècle d'or, et à faire un concert et une harmonie men, as Gardener and Cardinal Poole, made of my poore de plusieurs voix et instruments de différents tons et notes, service, that although they knewe perfectly that in religion, aussi agréable pour le moins que l'uniformité d'une seule both by open wrytinge and pryvie talke, I was contrarye unto voix.” Bayle, Commentaire Philosophique, &c. part ii. chap. them; yea, when Sir Francis Englefield by name did note me vi. – Both Bayle and Locke would have treated the subject speciallye at the councill-board, Gardener would not suffer of Toleration in a manner much more worthy of themselves me to be called thither, nor touched ellswheare, saiinge suche and of the cause, if they had written in an age less distracted Fords of me in a lettre, as, though lettres cannot, I blushe to by religious prejudices. write them to your lordshipp. Winchester's good-will stoode 9 Ariosto, canto iv. not in speaking faire and wishing well, but he did in deede
But no- far other faith, far milder beams but afterwards, for some reason which I do not
Our history, for many centuries past, is creditHe weeps to see abus'd Religion twine
able neither to our neighbours nor ourselves, and Round Tyranny's coarse brow her wreath divine; ought not to be read by any Irishman who wishes And he, while round him sects and nations raise either to love England or to feel proud of Ireland. To the one God their varying notes of praise, The loss of independence very early debased our Blesses each voice, whate'er its tone may be, character; and our feuds and rebellions, though That serves to swell the general harmony. frequent and ferocious, but seldom displayed that
generous spirit of enterprise with which the pride Such was the spirit, gently, grandly bright, of an independent monarchy so long dignified the That fill’d, oh Fox! thy peaceful soul with light; struggles of Scotland. It is true this island has While free and spacious as that ambient air given birth to heroes who, under more favourable Which folds our planet in its circling care, circumstances, might have left in the hearts of The mighty sphere of thy transparent mind their countrymen recollections as dear as those of Embrac'd the world, and breath’d for all mankind. a Bruce or a Wallace; but success was wanting to Last of the great, farewell!-yet not the last- consecrate resistance, their cause was branded Though Britain's sunshine hour with thee be past, with the disheartening name of treason, and their lerne still one ray of glory gives,
oppressed country was such a blank among nations, And feels but half thy loss while Grattan lives. that, like the adventures of those woods which
Rinaldo wished to explore, the fame of their actions was lost in the obscurity of the place where they achieved them.
Errando in quelli boschi
Trovar potria strane avventure e molte,
Ma come i luoghi i fatti ancor son foschi,
Che non se n'ha notizia le più volte. 2 To the foregoing Poem, as first published, were Hence is it that the annals of Ireland, through sabjoined, in the shape of a Note, or Appendix, a lapse of six hundred years, exhibit not one of the following remarks on the History and Music those shining names, not one of those themes of of Ireland. This fragment was originally intended national pride, from which poetry borrows her to form part of a Preface to the Irish Melodies; noblest inspiration; and that history, which ought
a Sir John Bourne, Principal Secretary of State to Queen Mary. that for meb whereby my wife and children shall live the
b By Gardener's favour Ascham long held his fellowship, though not better when I am gone." (See Nuge Antiquæ, vol. i. pp. 98, resident.