Τ Ε Σ
[ 401 ]
Teutonic The Teutonic language is supposed to have been the lan. used for a certain passage of scripture, chosen by a preacher Texture
guage of the ancient Germans, and hence is reckoned a. to be the subject of his sermon. Text.
mongst the mother-tongues. See PHILOLOGY, n° 219. TEXTURE, properly denotes the arrangement and co.
TEUTONIC Order, an order of military knights, established hesion of several slender bodies or threads interwoven or en.
towarde the close of the twelfth century, on the following tangled among each other, as in the webs of spiders, or in
occasion. When the emperor Barbaroffa engaged in a cru- the cloths, stuffs, &c.
fade for the recovery of the Holy Land out of the hands Texture is also used in speaking of any union or consti-
of Saladin, he was followed by great numbers of German . tuent particles of a concrete body, whether by weaving,
volunteers, who from various motives enlisted under his ban. hooking, knitting, tying, chaining, indenting, intruding,
ners. . After the death of Barbarossa, the Germans, who compressing, attracting, or any other way. In which fenfe
had fignalized themselves before Acre or Ptolemais, resolved we say, a close compact texture, a lax porous texture, a
to choose another leader; and at last fixed their choice upon regular or irregular texture, &c.
Frederic duke of Suabia, second son to the emperor, and TEWIT, in ornithology. See Trinca.
Henry duke of Brabant. Under thefe generals they be. THABOR. See Tabor.
haved with so much bravery, that Henry king of Jerusalem, THALES, a celebrated Greek philosopher, and the first
the patriarch, and feveral other princes, determined to re. of the seven wise men of Greece, was born at Miletus
ward their valour by instituting an order of knighthood in about 640 B. C. In order to improve himself in the know-
their favour. This was accordingly done ; and our new ledge of the sciences, he travelled into Egypt, where he
knights had at first the title of the knights of St George; discoursed with the priests and other learned men.
afterwards it was thought proper to put them under the say that he married ; but others observe, that he eluded
tutelage of the Virgin Mary, to whom there was already the solicitations of his mother on this head; by telling her,
an hospital dedicated on Mount Zion, for the relief of Ger. when he was young, that it was too soon; and afterwards,
man pilgrims. From this time they were called Equites that it was two late. Thales acquired great reputation by
Mariani, or knights of St Mary. Laws, regulations, and his wisdom and learning : he was the first among the Greeks
statutes, were drawn up for them by the Christian kings in Sy- who foretold eclipses of the fun, and made extraordinary
ria and the patriarch; and among other obligations it was re- discoveries in astronomy. Thales was the author of the
quired, that every person admitted to the privileges of the or. Tonian feet of philosophers, who were thus called from his
der should be of noble parenta e; that the order fould defend being born at Miletus, a city of Ionia. He maintained
the Christian religion and the Holy Land; that they should that water was the principle of which all the bodies in the
exercise hospitality towards the Chriftians in general, but par. universe are compaled; that the world was the work of
ticularly those of their own country; and that they should with God; and that God fees the most secret thoughts in the
all their power endeavour to propa: ate and extend the Chri- heart of man. He said, “That the most difficult thing in
ftian faith and the religion of Jesus. In the year 1190, ha- the world is to know ourselves; the most easy to advise
ving become rich by donations from the fuperftitious, they e others; and the most sweet to accomplish our desires. "That,
lected their first grandmaster, Henry Walpot, a German, who in order to live well, we ought to abftain from what we
had diftinguished himfelf by his zeal and valour; and their find fault with in others. That the bodily felicity confifts in
choice was confirmed by the emperor. The following year, health, and that of the mind in knowledge. That the
pope Celestine III. confirmed their privileges already granted, most ancient of beings is God, because he is uncreated :
giving them the title of the Teutonic knights of the hospital of St that nothing is more beautiful than the world, because it
Mary the Virgin. By the conditions of this bull, they vowed is the work of God; nothing more extensive than space,
perpetual continence, obedience, and poverty, obligations quicker than spirit, stronger than necessity, wiser than time."
which it may well be imagined were not very strictly kept. It was also one of his sentences, “ That we ought never
See POLAND, no 59, 61, 67–69. and PRUSSIA, n° 3, 4. to say that to any one that may be turned to our prejudice;
TEWKESBURY, a town in Glouceftershire, formerly and that we fhould live with our friends as with persons
noted for its monastery. It is now a large handsome cor- that
become our enemies.” He thanked God for poration, containing about 500 houses, with a magnificent three things; that he was born of the human, not of the church. It is seated at the confluence of the rivers Severn brute species; a man, and not a woman; a Greek, and not and Avon, has a cotton manufactory, and sends two mem- a barbarian. None of the ancient philosophers ever applied bers to parliament. W. Long. 2. 12. N. Lat. 52. O. themielves more earnestly to the study of attronomy than
TEXEL, a town of the United Provinces, in north Thales. Diotenes Laertius reports, that leavin his lod. Holland, feated at the mouth of the Zuyde:-Zee, with a ging with an old woman to contemplate the stars, he tell good harbour, and a strong fort. It is feated in a fruittul into a ditch ; on which the good woman cried, “ How isand, known all over the world by the great number of canst thou know what is doing in the heavens, when thòu Thips that pass this way every day from all parts ; it is about canst not perceive what is at thy feet?" He went to see fix miles long, and five broad, lying a little northward to Crosus, who was marching with a powerful army into Cap.
the continent of Holland, between which and the island is padocia, and enabled him to pass the river Halys without Nugent's
one of the principal paffages out of the Zuyder-Zee into making a bridge. Thales died soon after, at about 90 Grand the ocean. It is de!ended from the sea by fand hills and years
age. He composed several treatises in verle, on strong banks. Most of the soil is applied to feed sheep, of meteors, the equinoxes, &c. but they are all loft. vol. i.
which they have great flocks; and the cheese made of their THALIA, in Pagan mythology, one of the nine muses.
milk is said to vie with the Parmesan. This island con. She prefided over Comedy; and is represented crowned with
tains several fair villages, and a town on the east fide, called a garland of ivy, holding a maik in her hard, and wearing
Burch, strongly fortified and garrisoned, and inhabited chiefly buskins on her feet.
by fishermen. N. Lat. 53. 8. E. Long. 4.51.
THALIA, in botany: A genus of plants belonging to the TEXT, a relative term, contradiflinguished to glofs or class of monandria, and order of monogynia; and in the nacommentary, and fignifying an original discourse exclusive tural system ranging under the 8th order, Scitaminee. The of any note or interpretation. This word is particularly corolla is pentapetalous and undulated; and the drupe has a VOL. XVIII. Part II.