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COMPENDIOUS VIEW OF THE JEWISH HISTORY, &c. Antony, who admired her even upon the fame of her Hyrcanus to come, but sent an embassy to Phraates, beauty, might take her to himself, after his death. But king of Parthia, to solicit his permission. Contrary, Joseph imprudently divulged the secret to Mariamne, therefore, to the advice of all his friends, Hyrcanus rewhich exceedingly offended her and her mother Alex- turned to Jerusalem, in the second year of Herod's andra; and the latter plotted to fly for protection to a reign; who treated him with all seeming respect; until Roman legion, stationed near the city. Upon Herod's his wicked policy tempted him to cut off his king and return, his sister Salome, the firebrand of her family, his benefactor, six years after. disclosed to him all that had happened, and malignantly Herod's next care, before he went to make his peace accused her own husband Joseph, of too great fami- with Augustus, was to secure his own family and trealiarity with Mariamne, ready to sacrifice him to her sures, in case he should be unsuccessful. His mother, hatred of the latter; who being a woman of high birth, sister, wives, and children he placed in the strong forand still higher spirit, looked down on Salome as her tress of Massada, under the care of his brother Pheroras. inferiour, and treated her with contempt: an offence But Mariamne and her mother Alexandra he left in not to be forgiven by a haughty and revengeful woman. Alexandrium, under the care of Sohemus, a trusty Herod, though struck with jealousy, restrained himself Idumean, with orders to put them to death, if Augustus through love to Mariamne, and questioned her in pri- should treat him harshly, and then endeavour to secure vate about the charge.

But she vindicated herself so the crown for his children. fully, with all the persuasiveness of conscious innocence, Augustus however gave him a most favourable recepthat the king was satisfied, and asked her pardon for tion: and not only, restored him his diadem, which on listening to such injurious reports; and assuring her of entering he had laid aside, but afterwards enlarged his his love, pressed her to return it; but she resentfully dominions, and always treated him with more distinction remarked, that his conduct did not correspond with and regard than any of the tributary kings of the Roman his professions, for that “ if he loved her, how could he empire. order her to be put to death, though innocent, in case Herod however was most unhappy at home. The afAntony should determine against him?” This imprudent fections of Mariamne were still further alienated from declaration rekindled his jealousy, and convinced him him by the discovery of his last directions to Sohemus. that the charge was true ; he flung her from his arms, She received him on his return home with sadness and ordered Joseph to be put to death, without admitting coldness; and thus raised his displeasure, which she him into his presence; and though his love at this time failed not to aggravate by her reserve and haughtiness. restrained his rage against Mariamne, he put her mo- Whilst he was fluctuating between love and resentment ther Alexandra into custody, as the cause of all these for a year, she brought matters to a crisis, by refusing mischiefs.

one day his proffered love, and upbraiding him with the In the year B.C. 32, Herod was commissioned by murder of her father, (or grandfather, Hyrcanus,) and Antony, at the desire of Cleopatra, to invade Malchus, of her brother. Enraged at this, and spurred on by the king of Arabia Petrea, who withheld from her the tri- false accusations of Salome, he put her confidential bute which he had paid for a part of his territory chamberlain to the torture, who declared that her hatred adjoining Egypt. But being treacherously deserted by towards him proceeded from what Sohemus had told Cleopatra's general, he was overthrown with great her. This instantly excited his jealousy of Sohemus, slaughter, and hardly escaped himself with the remnant who he concluded must have been too intimate with of his army. But the following year, having defeated her, for that otherwise he would not have betrayed the the Arabians in two successive engagements, he com- secret. He ordered him to be immediately seized, and pelled them to sue for peace; which he granted on his put to death : he also caused Mariamne to be tried, and own terms, and returned in triumph to Jerusalem, condemned, by intimidated judges; and at the instihaving reduced the Arabians under his dominion. gation of his sister Salome, fearing he might relent,

After the battle of Actium, B.C. 31, Herod in vain executed immediately, under the alarming suggestion, attempted to support the cause of Antony: he thought it that if her life was spared, it might excite a public time therefore to look to himself, and to make his peace commotion. with Augustus on the best terms he could. Apprehen- While she was leading to execution, her unworthy sive however that he might be deposed, and Hyrcanus mother Alexandra, fearing to be involved in her doom, restored to his throne, he pretended that the poor old met her on the way; reproached her with ingratitude to prince had held a treasonable correspondence with Mal- her husband, adding that she was justly punished ; and chus, king of Arabia, and caused him to be beheaded, even dared to pull her by the hair. But Mariamne, withafter he had passed his eightieth year.

out uttering a word, bore it with dignified composure, Of all the atrocious cruelties of Herod, this was ashamed of her mother's baseness; and without changmarked with the highest perfidy, ingratitude, and ing colour, submitted to death, retaining her nobleness breach of hospitality: Hyrcanus had lived in exile, for of mind even to the last. some time, in Seleucia, where he was treated with the Alexandra did not long escape; for when Herod fell highest respect by the king of Parthia, and honoured as sick next year, B. C. 28, oppressed with the most their king by the Jews of Babylonia, and of the Parthian poignant grief and remorse for the injured Mariamne's empire, who composed a body altogether more nume- death; she laid a plot for seizing the government, but rous and wealthy than those of Judea, and supplied him it was disclosed to Herod by the officers whose fidelity with a maintenance suitable to his rank and dignity. she endeavoured to corrupt, and he instantly ordered But on hearing of the death of Antigonus, and ad- her to be put to death. vancement of Herod to the throne of Judea, his love of Herod was still harassed with domestick troubles. his country prompted him to return home, and put him- His turbulent sister Salome, having fallen out with her self under the protection of Herod, who owed to him second husband, Costobarus the Idumean, B. C. 25, the rise of all his fortunes, his affinity with the royal accused him to Herod of plotting with several of the family, and even his life, when arraigned before the Asmonean party. Herod put them all to death ; but he Sanhedrim. Herod also was anxious for his coming, in was nevertheless disturbed with tumults and conspiracies order to have him in his power, that he might, by his during the remainder of his reign. death, prevent his restoration to the throne, in case of a To secure himself the better, he built several strong reverse of fortune. He therefore not only importuned / cities and fortresses in the land. He also built a strong

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COMPENDIOUS VIEW OF THE JEWISH HISTORY, &c. and magnificent palace for himself on mount Sion. But Doris, when he was in a private station, and whom he his greatest and noblest work was the rebuilding of the had divorced on his marriage with Mariamne. But this temple, which had gone greatly out of repair by length measure only provoked them to greater discontents, and of time, and had also been materially injured by the civil more intemperate language than before. Of which

Antipater, who was no less artful and malicious, than 'The after the foundation was laid, Herod went ambitious, failed not to avail himself; and took care to to Rome to visit Augustus, and to see his two sons by have them constantly reported to his father by his own Mariamne, Alexander and Aristobulus, who had been emissaries; while he openly espoused their cause, and educated there for three years past, under the immediate endeavoured to excuse them from the charges, so as to inspection of the emperour himself, who had them lodged persuade the old king that he was no less attached to in the royal palace. He was received with great honour his brothers than to his father : and at length he preand kindness by Augustus, and took back his sons, vailed on Herod to recommend him to Augustus as his whose education was now complete, to Judea ; and soon successor, and obtain the emperour's permission to after married the elder to Glaphyra, the daughter of leave the crown to him, in the first instance, and afterArchelaus, king of Cappadocia, and the younger to wards to the sons of Mariamne, B. C. 11. Berenice, the daughter of Salome, his sister. But the Josephus gives a full detail of all the various plots wicked Salome, notwithstanding her close affinity, en- that were laid by Antipater and his wicked associates, vied the young princes their merited popularity, fearing Salome, the sister, and Pheroras, the brother to Herod, also that she might suffer for having advised their mo- to compass the destruction of the unfortunate princes, ther Mariamne's death; and she never ceased to calum- which they at length accomplished, by a false charge niate them both to Herod, until at length his jealousy that they intended to poison their father; and Herod, got the better of his paternal affection. For she was so in his rage, at last ordered them both to be strangled base, as to alienate her own daughter's affections from at Sebaste, after he had accused, and got them to be her husband, and prevail on her to betray his confi- condemned to death, in a council held at Berytus, before dential conversations, respecting the king's cruelty and Saturninus and Volumnius, governours of Syria, B.C. ill treatment ; which she reported, with aggravations, 6. By the death of these two unfortunate brothers, the to Herod.



noble family of the Asmoneans became utterly extinct ; To check the pride and insolence of Mariamne's and this disastrous period, marked by civil wars, and sons, who certainly were not sufficiently guarded in domestick treasons and massacres, was brought to a their conversation respecting their father; three years conclusion, according to prophecy, about the birth of after their return, Herod brought to court, B. C. 13, his John the Baptist, Mal. iv. 5, 6. eldest son, Antipater, whom he had by his first wife





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