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played either by two persons, or four: for simplicity's sake, we will first suppose that two are playing : they sit opposite to each other, and make signs with the hands simultaneously : the one whose turn it is to count making one or other of three signs, i. e. by a sudden jerk of his arm, presseping either his open hand, his closed hand, or the extended index finger, (the others and the thumb being clinched,) his opponent at the same moment also makes a sign, and if it happens to be the same, it becomes his turn to play, and the first gains nothing; but if he succeeds in making one or other of these three signs, without his opponent making the same, five different times running, he throws down a little stick, of which he holds five in his left hand : it is now the other's turn to play, and he must endeavour to do the same ; and whichever in this manner disposes of his five sticks first, wins the game: but if his antagonist imitates him before he can make five signs, we will suppose at the fourth, he has a right to demand what were the three other movements on each side ; and if his opponent cannot mention them in the order in which they happened, and give a feigned reason for every individual motion on both sides, in the technical language of the game, according to a certain invariable system laid down, he may begin his count again : giving these supposed or artificial reasons for each move is the most difficult part of the game, because it will vary according to the order of each of the moves that preceded it. When four play, they sit as in our game of whist, but each is the antagonist of the one opposite to him ; and when one has got out his five sticks, he assists his partner by taking one or two of his sticks, and continuing to play. The rapidity with which these motions are made is almost incredible, and no inexperienced eye can catch one of them: the eagerness with which they play, the enthusiasm which they work themselves into, the readiness with which those that are clever give the requisite explanation to every combination of signs, always appear very extraordinary to a stranger.

Fanna Kalai : for a description of this sport, see page 160.

Fanna Gooma, or rat-shooting : for a description of this sport, see page 177.

Jia Loobe, catching pigeons with a net. This is not a very usual sport at present, though formerly it used to be. The net used for the

purpose is small, with a narrow opening, affixed to the end of a rod of about twelve feet in length : the sportsman who holds it

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is concealed in a small cabin about five feet high, nearly in form of a bee-hive, in which there is a perpendicular slit dividing it quite in balf, by which he can move his rod completely from side to side. There are eight or pine of these cabins, in each of which perhaps there is a sportsman with his net : the only mode of entrance is by separating the two halves of the cabin from each other. These receptacles are usually situated round the upper part of a raised mount. On the outside of each there is a trained pigeon tied by the leg, and near at hand stands an attendant with another trained bird, tied in like manner to the end of a very long line, which is suffered to fly out to the whole extent of the string, the other end being held by the man: the pigeon thus describes a considerable circle in the air round the mount beneath : the flight of this bird, and the constant cooing of those below, attract a number of wild pigeons to the neighbourhood, when the man by checking the string calls in his pigeon, which immediately perches upon his finger: he then conceals himself with the other attendants, in a sort of alcove at the top of the mount. The wild pigeons now approaching the tame ones, are caught in the nets by the dexterous management of the sportsmen.

Alo, catching Bonito. This is performed by a line and hook affixed to a long bamboo, and is so placed that the line falls very near the stern of the canoe, and the hook just touches the surface of the water, upon which it skims along as the canoe proceeds with velocity. The hook is not barbed, and there is no bait attached to it. The moment the fish is hooked, the fisherman, by a dexterous turn of the rod, gives the line

sweep round, and the fish swings into his hand.

Toló, throwing up a heavy spear, with intent that it shall fall on, and stick into the top of a piece of soft wood fixed on the end of a post. There are generally six or eight players on each side, and whichever party in three throws sticks in most spears wins the game. The post is about five or six feet high, and the surface of the soft wood is about nine inches in diameter. The thrower may stand at what distance he pleases,

Fanífn, swimming in the surf. This bold and manly exercise has been well described by Cook, as seen by him at the Sandwich islands ; but the natives of Tonga use no board.

Fungatoóa, wrestling ; Fetági, club-fighting ; Foóhoo, boxing ; Toitaców, a general boxing-match, have been already described. Láffo, or pitching beans upon a mat, with endeavours to strike off others that have been pitched there before.

Tow pápá, or throwing false spears at one another, to practise the eye in avoiding them.

They have a sport the name of which is forgotten ; but it consists in carrying a large stone under water ten feet deep, from one post to another, at the distance of seventy yards, the party who carries the stone running along the bottom : the difficulty is to pursue a straight course : a person may thus run much faster than another can swim.

Matooa : this game is somewhat similar to liagi,but there is no discussion about the moves : it is usually practised by the lower orders.

Hico, throwing up balls, five in number, discharging them from the left hand, catching them in the right, and transferring them to the left again, and so on in constant succession, keeping always four balls in the air at once. This is usually practised by women: they recite verses at the same time, each jaculation from the right to the left hand being coincident with the cadence of the verse : for every verse that she finishes without missing she counts one : sometimes seven or eight play alternately.

Hábo: this is a game similar to cup and ball, and is also practised by women only.

The natives very often amuse themselves with these games : when any dispute arises in their play, the women decide it by spinning a cocoa-nut, and the men by a wrestling-match : as to a serious quarrel from this source, Mr. Mariner never witnessed one during the whole time he was there. Conversation with people who have travelled is another great source of amusement to them: they are very fond of tales and anecdotes, and there are many individuals who are tolerably skilful in inventing these things, wbich are then mostly of a burlesque or humourous tendency, but always given as fables. The kind of conversation, which appears to afford them most pleasure is, concerning the manners and customs of the people of Papalangi, as being not only strange and wonderful but also true! They employ themselves in conversation, not only at any time during the day, but also at night: if one wakes, and is not disposed to go to sleep again, he wakens his neighbour to have some talk :* by and by, perhaps, they are all roused, and join in

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* Sometimes two or three, at other times thirty or forty, may be sleeping in the same house.

the conversation : it sometimes happens that the chief has order: ed his cooks, in the evening, to bake a pig, or some fish, and bring it in hot in the middle of the night, with some yams : in this case the torches are again lighted, and they all get up to eat their share; after which they retire to their mats ; the torches are put out ; some go to sleep, and others, perhaps, talk till day-light. The first appearance of day is the time of rising : they then get up, wrap their gnatoos round them, and go out to bathe either in the sea or in a pond ; or, if neither is at hand, they have water poured over them out of cocoa-nut shells: they are very particular in cleaning their mouths, and frequently rub their teeth either with cocoa-nut husk or charcoal : they dry themselves with a piece of gnatoo, wrap their dress loosely round them, return to their houses, and oil themselves all over, generally with cocoa-nut oil scented with the aroma of flowers ; great chiefs frequently use the same oil scented with sandal-wood. When bathing, they either wear an apron of gnatoo, or of the leaves of the chi tree. When they have bathed and oiled themselves, they put on their dress with all possible neatness : that of the men consists but of one piece of gnatoo, measuring about eight feet by five or six; this is folded round the body in a very neat manner : there are two or three modes, but the one which is considered the most elegant, and therefore the most usual among chiefs, is represented in the frontispiece : that part which circles round the waist is readily loosened, and brought over the head and shoulders, in case it should be necessary to go out at night. There is a band which goes round the body just

above the hips, made also of gnatoo, but which is, for the most i part concealed by the folds that go round the waist. There is

some little difference in the way in which females adjust their gnatoos, but the chief distinction of their dress is a small mat,* which they wear round the middle, and is about a foot in breadth. Pregnant women, and old women, wear their dress in front so as to cover their breasts. Children are not encumbered with dress when at home till they are about two years old : when they go out, they have a piece of gnatoo wrapped round them.

Having bathed, oiled, and dressed themselves, the chiefs hold cava parties, at which women seldom attend, for as they are no

* It would be considered highly inddecorous and contrary to the táboo for females to appear without this mat.

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great cava drinkers, they generally form a circle of their own, and eat a meal; they take cava, however, at the same time, in a small quantity; whilst the men, on the contrary, take a large quantity of cava, and most of them very little food, as they generally eat a hearty meal about the middle of the day. The inorning cava party usually lasts from two to five hours, according to the pleasure of the chiefs. After cava, the old men generally retire to their houses to sleep, or to amuse themselves with farther conversation. The younger ones follow the example or wishes of their superior chiefs, and make an excursion with them to some distant part of the island; and whilst an entertainment is preparing for them at the plantation of some friend or relation, they amuse themselves at some game, or, perhaps, in inspecting the building of a canoe, or a large house, or examining the state of the plantations ; or in sailing about, if near the sea, or in fishing; or in practising dancing and singing. In these excursions the unmarried women generally accompany them. The married women, and those who choose to stay at the mood, in the mean time employ themselves in one or other of the occupations suitable to their sex, or if their husbands make an excursion to another island, they usually take a trip with them. The very young girls are generally employed in the early part of the day in making wreaths of flowers, which they have been out to gather in the morning before sun rise, while the dew was yet on them; for, being plucked at that time, they remain longer fresh.

Sometimes they amuse themselves with walking near Licoo* where there are many romantic spots; at Vavaoo for instance they often visit the cave of Tootáwi and the beach of Mofooe, places celebrated in the song, page 447. Concerning the person after whom the cave is named, it may be interesting to give the following account, which Mr. Mariner often heard from the natives.

A considerable time before the revolution of Tonga, when V00na was governor of Vavaoo, there lived at the latter place a mood whose name was Tootawi. He was a man of a solitary and refleclive disposition; to indulge his humour, he would often take with him provisions and retire to the northern or unfrequented part of

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* Licoo is the name given to the back or unfrequented part of any island, which is generally bold and rocky, and not fitted for the entrance of canoes. Some parts of the Licoo at Vavaoo were particularly romantic.

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