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consequences more and more remote, and to keep an eye' not only on the affairs of one society of men but also on those of others. Curiosity is in proportion to intellectual improvement.

It may, we fear, appear at first sight to our Readers, that we had loft fight of the truth of these observations, when, in drawing up the iIistory of Europe for 1797, we devoted fo large a portion of our space to- the affairs of Great Britain. But it will soon be perceived, that, the British history for that year comprehends events more important to Europe, and, to the British nation, particularly, more striking and alarming than those of any year preceding it, since the commencement of the Annual Register" without were fightings, within were fears :" Not only the British constitution trembled on the pivot of fortune, but the political balance of Europe. An extension of the British hif1 tory, beyond its usual limits, was unavoidable.- To

fwell this part of our Work, by copious accounts of parliamentary debates, with other domestic transactions ; and, on the other hand, by a proportionable reduction, to confine the history of all Europe besides, to cnefifth, or even fixth, part of our narrative, would be

a great

a great saving of labour ; and, indeed, an easy matter, But it is impollible, that any intelligent and liberal mind should approve of such economy. Our Readers will do us the justice to acknowledge, that our Annual volumes are not written on this plan: if, in the present, we have brought forward Great Britain, which, at all times, makes so conspicuous a figure in the circle of civilization, fiill more prominently than usual, this conduct, by the clouded aspect of the political horizon, in our quarter, is abundantly justified.

From a combination of causes, to which we have buen, at different times, compelled to allude, the publication of the Annual Register was every year more and more protracted: and the complaint was just, that it had become extremely dilatory, if not, as was apprehended by some, uncertain. The publication of this Volume at this time, in which we have faithfully obferved, and even soinewhat exceeded, the engagement we came under in our Volume for 1793, will, we trust, afford to our Readers an earnest of that ailiduous zeal with which we endeavour to give them satisfaction.

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Comparaiire View of the Confederacy and the French Republic, at the Close

of 1796.-Spain, drawn into an Alliance with France, declares War azainst England.--Conjoined Efforts of the French, Spanish, and Dutch, Fleets, for overthrowing the naval Domination of England.--1Var in Italy. -Capture of Mantua.-Political Conduet and military Preparations of the Court of Rome.-- letters from Buonaparte to the Cardinal Mattæi.Tke Cardinal's Answer.--The Court of Madrid refuses its Mediation, in Behalf of the Pope, with the French Republic.---Republican Party in Rome, and other parts of the Ecclefiaftical States.-Buonaparle declares War

and the Pope. -A French Army enters the Papal Dominions. 1'e Papal Troops completely routed.Bronaparte, by Promises and Ti reats, induces the Romans to submit to the French, without the Effufion 0; Blood.Takes Pollefion of several Provinces in the Ecclefiaftical States, - Advances touards Rome.---Treaty of Peace with the Pope.


"HE rapid progress of the of the year, was completely turn-
French arms, in
in 1796, pro-

ed. On the termination of the duced different fensations on the armistice, between the Austrians Oppotite fides of the mountains. and the French, in the month of The Italian states and princes were May, in that year, the army of the ftruck with terror. But a spirit Sambre and Meuse, under Jourdan, of indignation and exertion was penetrated into Franconia; that of rouzed in Germany; where the the Rhine and Moselle, under MoLide of fortune, towards the end reau, into the heart of Germany VOL. XXXIX



and seemed on a quick march to having, in the year 1795, conVienna. The authority of the cluded a peace with the republic, archduke Charles, now commander- had afterwards entered into an in-chief of the Austrian armies on alliance, defensive and offensive, the Rbine, restrained diffentions with it, that was explicitly levelled and contests among general officers: at Great Britain. This treaty, his example inlpired courage into which took place in Auguft, '1796, every officer and foldier: and his was followed, in the commencecourage, guided by cool delibera- ment of October, by a formal declation, as well as prompt decision, in ration of war against England, and the very throat of danger and fate, by the preparation of a formidable was victorious.

naval firength, to act in conjunction Yet, on the whole, on weighing with that of France. In Italy, every the prosperous against the adverte prince and state was either in peace events of the year, the balance was or confederacy with the French, the greatly in favour of the Frerch re- pope alone excepted; whose fituapablic. Jourdan), though defeated tion, however, was such, that he in several engagemerts, by the could not long defer fubmiflion to yourg Auftrian hero, had been able their own terms. Germany could to effect his retreat to Dutieldorf. not be reputed hostile to France.

And Moreau, who, for want of a Though certainly averse to the enthird French army, was exposed on trance of its armies into the empire, bis flanks, to total excision or cap. yet the secondary ranks of princes ture, had made a mafierly retreat, and states, of which it is composed, and conducted the main body of his were not dissatisfied at the humiliaarmy, through many dangers and tion of Austria, of which they dread. contiets, across the Rhine, into a ed the power and pretensions. filuation of safety, within the French These were permanent, and had frontier. Thus, though the French ofien endangered the liberties of were repulfed from Germany, the ho- Germany: whereas, the irruptions nourof their arms, even in that quar- of the French could never be more ter, was unimpaired, while, in ano, than occasional and transitory. The ther, they were gloriously triumphant. precedents of former times had

The policy of France was not Dhewn, that the politics of France, less fuccefstul. After detaching which must continue the same, Pruflia and Spain from the con- whicther it were a monarchy or a federacy, she had succeeded, through republic, would always aim at holddint of artifice and intrigue, in ing the balance between the head connecting herself with both of and the members of the empire. these powers by a close alliance. In the north of Europe, the two The former of these had not, indeed, kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden publicly declared in its favour, but were too conscious of the impend-' was well understood to be so inti. ing power of Rullia, to lend themmately connected with the republic; felves to the depreffion of France, that, in case of abfolute necellity, which they now considered as neno doubt was entertained of its de- celary to preserve the dominion of termination to allift France to the the Baltic equally divided between utnost of its capacity. The latter those three potentates.


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