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named William Thornbury, connected with the trade carried on upon the coast, Drury endeavoured to interest him in his behalf ; nor was he unsuccessful. After a lapse of many months, two ships arrived at a place called Yong-Owl to trade.] This (continues Drury) I was overjoyed to hear, and Hattered myself that William Thornbury had not forgotten me. They staid there several days, and slaves were sent to be sold, and guns and other goods were returned for them. I was at a loss how to break my mind to Rer Moume, hoping he would say something to me of his own accord ; but as I was sitting with him one evening, two men came in with a basket of palmetto leaves sewed up, and delivered it to the prince, who opened it, and finding a letter, asked the men what they meant by giving him that. 'The captain,' they said, 'gave it us for your white man, but we thought proper to let you see it first.' Rer Moume now handed me the packet, which, to my great surprise, contained a letter from Captain William Macket, directed To Robert Drury, on the island of Madagascar. I opened it, and the contents were to the following effect : That he had a letter on board from my father, with full instructions, as well from him as his owners, to purchase my liberty, let it cost what it would; and in case I could not possibly come down myself, to send him word the reason of it, and what measures he should take to

serve me.

Rer Moume perceived that my countenance changed whilst I was reading the letter, and asked me what was the matter. I told him that the captain desired to speak with me, and that my father had sent for me home, and hoped he would be pleased to give his consent. How do you know all this?' says the prince. “Can you conjure ?' Then turning to the messengers : ‘Have you, pray, heard anything like this?' 'Yes,' said they, 'it is all the discourse at the sea-side that Robin's father sent both these ships for him.' Rer Moume took the letter, and turning it over and over, said he had heard of such methods of conveying intelligence to one another, but never actually saw it before, and could not conceive which way it could be done without conjuration. I endeavoured to demonstrate to him, as well as I could, how we learned in our infancy the characters first, and then we put them together. “But,' says he, ‘I presume you have no inclination to leave us now, since you live here so much at your ease? You have several cattle and a slave, and if you shall want more, you shall have them. These offers I of course put aside, and besought him to let me go. I said that if he thought proper to demand any consideration of the captain for my freedom, it should be paid. Rer Moume answered, that if I wished to go, he should take nothing for my release ; but that if my friends would make him a present of a good gun, he should accept of the favour, and call it Robin, in remembrance of me. This generous answer gave me such joy, that I immediately kneeled down and licked his feet with the utmost sincerity, as justly thinking I could never sufficiently express my gratitude. He would not dismiss me instantly, but did in a day or two after, and ordered the messengers to be taken care of in the meantime.

How joyful were my feelings when I at length departed, and came in sight of the sea-coast, with the huts which had been erected for trading with the commanders of the vessels! At these huts, or factory, as I may call it, I met Mr Hill, the steward of the Drake, Captain Macket's ship, and two or three more of the crew, who took me for a wild man; and in a letter which Hill sent off by a canoe to the captain, he told him the wild Englishman was come. I desired him to say I could speak but little English ; and for several days I was frequently puzzled for words to express my meaning.

Captain Macket soon came on shore, along with Captain Bloom, of the ship Sarah; the other ship lay in the offing. I gazed at them intently as my deliverers, but not more so than they gazed at me. I was little better than a savage ; and what added to the wildness of my appearance was that I had nothing on but my lamber. My skin being swarthy and full of freckles, and my hair long and matted together, I really made a frightful figure. But they soon restored me to my original form. Mr Hill cut my hair off, and ordered me to be shaved, and dressed in a neat seaman's habit, light, and fit for the country. The captain asked me what ransom was expected for my freedom. I told him nothing but a gun for a present, to be kept in remembrance of me. He thereupon picked out a handsome and very good bucanier gun, as also some powder, flints, and a case of spirits, as a present to Rer Moume. He gave likewise knives and beads to his two men, and a small gun to the messengers who went for me. For my own part, I presented the captain with my slave Anthony. After this, he gave me a letter from my father, expressive of his happiness in hearing from Mr Thornbury that I was alive, and desiring me to put myself under the charge of Captain Macket, who would do everything for my comfort.

About three days after, I went abroad; but the sea and change of diet made me very sick for some time; after which, the two captains took me to another part of the coast, to help them to trade, which I was able to do, by being able to speak the language of the natives. Other two vessels also arrived at this time, and there was a great trade carried on in buying slaves.* On the 20th of January 1717, we bade adieu to the island of Madagascar. We did not touch at the Cape of Good Hope, but at St Helena ; and from thence we sailed in a short time to Jamaica, where we delivered our cargo. After a stay of some time, taking in West India goods, we sailed for England, and crossing the Atlantic, arrived in the Downs on the oth of September, after I had been absent from my native country sixteen years and about nine months—fifteen years of which had been spent in captivity. By the captain's direction, I went ashore, he having previously supplied me with what was necessary for my journey to London ; yet I did not set forward till I had returned thanks to God, in the most solemn manner, for my safe arrival, and for my deliverance from the many dangers I had escaped, and from the many miseries I had so long endured.

* It may be observed that although Drury had himself just escaped from the horrors of slavery, he does not seem to have considered that he was committing a crime in helping to reduce others to a similar condition. In this respect, however, he did not act more inconsistently than the modern upholders of negro slavery.—ED.

[The pleasure which Drury felt on reaching London, was greatly damped by the intelligence of the death of his father and mother, grief at his loss having for years preyed on their spirits. His father had died only lately, and left him the sum of £200, with a house at Stoke-Newington. Discouraged by the loss of his parents, he tells us that, after settling his affairs, he returned to Madagascar on a trading expedition ; and having there procured a cargo of slaves, and taken them to Virginia, he came back to England in September 1720. Here his narrative terminates; and we are led to infer that, settling in London on the moderate competence he had acquired, he did not again tempt the dangers of the ocean. before his death, says the editor of his volume, he was to be spoken with every day at Old Tom's Coffee-house, in Birchin Lane; at which place several inquisitive gentlemen received from his own mouth the confirmation of those particulars which seemed dubious, or carried with them the least air of a romance.

We have only to add, in regard to the present condition of Madagascar, that one of the tribes, the Hovas, who seem to be of Malay or Polynesian origin, have acquired a kind of supremacy over most of the others of African race, and that, in the beginning of this century, under a chief or king of the Hovas, Christian missionaries were established, and some progress was made in introducing European arts. The female sovereign who succeeded him endeavoured to exterminate Christianity, and banished Europeans from the island. Her son and successor (1862) gave promise of favouring European civilisation, but he soon fell a victim to a conspiracy, and further progress is in the meantime arrested. The French have formed a settlement on the islet of Sainte-Marie, on the east coast, and this will probably end in their taking possession of the whole island.]*

Some years

* The present tract is an abridgment of a somewhat scarce and curious autobiography, in one volume, published originally in London in 1743, and reprinted in 1807.-ED.


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T an early period, the boundaries of England differed

considerably from their present_limits. The southeastern provinces of Lothian and Berwickshire belonged to England, while the south-western frontier of Scotland

was enlarged beyond its present bounds by the possession of the ancient British kingdom of Cumberland. In the year 1018, Eadulf, Earl of Northumberland, ceded to Malcolm II. the whole district of Lothian and Berwickshire to the Tweed. But this extension of territory on the eastern frontier was balanced by the loss of Cumberland, which was wrested from Malcolm Canınore by William the Conqueror. After this period, no permanent change took place on the boundaries of the two kingdoms; and the Borders, with the exception of Berwick on the east, and the 'Debatable Land' on the west, which were constant subjects of dispute, might be considered as finally settled according to the present limits.

At the eastern extremity of the boundary-line between England and Scotland stands the town of Berwick, on the north bank of the 'Tweed. This ancient town was the key of the kingdom on this side, and was therefore the object of perpetual strife for several centuries. It was finally left in possession of the English about the close of the fifteenth century. In 1551 the town, and a small district adjoining to it, called Berwick Bounds-in all about eight miles-were made


No. 37


independent of both England and Scotland, and in acts of parliament applicable to England and Wales, “the good town of Berwickon-Tweed' was always added. But this practice has been abolished, and Berwick, with its liberties, now forms part of the county of Northumberland. In consequence of this circumstance, the boundary-line between the two countries at its eastern extremity leaves the German Ocean about three miles to the north of the Tweed, and proceeding in a south-westerly direction, strikes the river about three miles from the sea.

From this point the Tweed forms the line of demarcation as far as Carham, four miles west from Coldstream, when the boundary proceeds southward, inclining to the east for a distance of fifteen or sixteen miles ; it afterwards turns towards the south-west, in which direction it continues nearly the whole of the remaining distance. For forty or fifty miles the dividing line runs through a wild and mountainous country, and along the highest ridges of the Cheviot Hills—the waterbreak, as it is called, being understood as the proper boundary. A large extent of the district through which this part of the line runs was formerly in the condition of a forest, and now consists of extensive sheep-walks. On leaving the mountain ridges which divide Northumberland from Roxburghshire, the line takes the bottom of a valley, along by a stream called the Kershope (a branch of the Liddel), and afterwards along the river Liddel, till about four miles north of Longtown, when it strikes off abruptly from the course of this stream in a direction due west, being marked by an old ditch and embankment called the Scots Dike. This dike is four miles in length, and terminates on the banks of a stream called the Sark, which flows in a southerly direction towards the Solway, and forms the boundary of the two countries between the place where the Scots Dike touches it and its efflux into the Solway. The Solway Firth, which separates Cumberland from the Scottish counties of Dumfries and Kirkcudbright, may be considered as forming the remaining portion of the boundary between the two kingdoms. In ordinary conversation it is customary to speak of the Tweed as the great dividing line of England and Scotland; but it will be observed from the above that the Tweed really forms a comparatively small part of the boundary, by far the larger portion being an ill-marked track across a mountainous country.

From the indistinctness of the line in many parts of its course, there are, in different places, disputed or debatable lands, claimed by opposite jurisdictions; but these being desolate pastoral tracts, no practical inconvenience ensues.

In consequence of the mutual discord which long unhappily subsisted between England and Scotland, as well as from the feebleness of the administrative law on both sides, the tract of country along the Borders, extending to a length of seventy or eighty miles, by an irregular breadth of from ten to thirty or forty, was distinguished as the scene of almost perpetual disturbance. Apart from that of

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