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deriving any aid from his Lucanian allies. (Diod. Sic. XVI. 15. Strab. VI. 255. Just. XXIII.)

The enterprising and turbulent spirit of this people was next directed against the Greek colonies; and in proportion as these were rapidly declining, from jealousies and internal dissensions, and still more from luxury and indolence, their antagonists were acquiring a degree of vigour and stability which soon enabled them to accomplish their downfall. The Greek towns on the western coast, from being weaker and more detached from the main body of the Italiot confederacy, first fell into the hands of the Brutii. The principal cities of which this league was composed now became alarmed for their own security, and sought the aid of the Molossian Alexander against these dangerous enemies, with whom the Lucanians also had learnt to make common cause. This gallant prince, by his talents and valour, for a time checked the progress of these active barbarians, and even succeeded in penetrating into the heart of their country; but after his death, which occurred before the fatal walls of Pandosia, (Liv. VIII. 24.) they again advanced, like a resistless torrent, and soon reduced the whole of the peninsula between the Laus and Crathis, with the exception of Crotona, Locri, and Rhegium. At this period, Rome, the universal foe of all, put an end at once to their conquests and their independence. After sustaining several defeats, both the Lucani and Brutii are said to have finally submitted to L. Papirius Cursor, -A. U. C. 480, which was two years after Pyrrhus had withdrawn his troops from Italy. (Liv. Epit. XIV. Zonar. Ann. Polyb. I. 6.)

The arrival of Hannibal once more, however,


Ager Ca


roused the Brutii to exertion; they flocked eagerly to the victorious standard of that general, who was by their aid enabled to maintain his ground in this corner of Italy, when all hope of final success seemed to be extinguished. But the consequences of this protracted warfare proved fatal to the country in which it was carried on; many of the Brutian towns being totally destroyed, and others so much impoverished as to retain scarcely a vestige of their former prosperity. To these misfortunes was added the weight of Roman vengeance; for that power, when freed from her formidable enemy, too well remembered the support he had derived from the Brutii for so many years, to allow their defection to pass unheeded. A decree was therefore passed, reducing this people to a most abject state of dependence: they were pronounced incapable of being employed in a military capacity, and their services were confined to the menial offices of couriers and letter-carriers. (Strab. V. 251. and VI. 253.)

According to the method hitherto followed, I shall first detail the maritime topography of this province, beginning from the mouth of the Crathis.

Close to this river was a district alluded to by Ovid under the name of Camere.

Est prope piscosos lapidosi Crathidis amnes

Purus ager; Cameren incola turba vocat.

FAST. III. 581.

Beyond is a small river called Lucido", which

Lusias fl. probably answers to the Lusias spoken of by Ælian. (Hist. Anim. X. 38.) It may be inferred from Athenæus, that the Sybarites held this limpid stream in

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Quattromani, Not. in Barr. de Antiq. et Sit. Calabr. 1. v. c. 4. Romanelli, t. i. p. 229.

great estimation for the use of their baths. (Athen. XII. 3.)


At the mouth of another stream was the haven of the Thurians, as Procopius affirms, and which he names Roscia. He adds, that higher up the Ro- Portus mans had constructed a fortress, which the Itinerary of Antoninus calls Roscianum, now Rossano. Two Rosciapasses led from thence to the Lucanian and Brutian mountains; the one termed Petra Sanguinis, the Petra Sanother Lambula. (Procop. Rer. Goth. III.) Accord- Lambula. ing to Holstenius, these are the defiles of Morano and Rosetox.



The river Hylias, which formed, as may be col- Hylias fl. lected from Thucydides, the line of separation between the territories of Thurii and Crotona, answers, according to Romanelli, to a rivulet named Calonato. The Greek historian informs us, that the Athenian troops which were sent to reinforce their army in Sicily, having landed at Thurii, marched along the coast till they arrived on the banks of the Hylias, where they were met by a deputation sent from Crotona to interdict their progress through the territory of that city. (VII. 35.)

The Trionto, which follows, is naturally looked upon as the ancient Traens, rendered memorable by Traens fl. the bloody defeat of the Sybarites on its banks, as Jamblichus reports. (Vit. Pythag. 35.) Some years after, a remnant of this unfortunate people were again attacked on this spot, and destroyed by the Brutii. (Diod. Sic. XII. 22.)

The little river Fiumenica is supposed to answer to the Crimisa", and the Capo dell' Alice to the Crimisa fl.

* Adnot. p. 306.

7 Cluver. Ital. Antiq. II. p.

y Romanelli, t. i. p. 221.


rium et

Promonto- promontory of the same namea. The city of CriOppidum. misa was said to have been founded by Philoctetes after the siege of Troy, as Strabo affirms on the authority of Apollodorus, who wrote a history of the Grecian fleet. (Strab. VI. 254. Steph. Byz. v. Kpía.) The same tradition is also alluded to by Lycophron.


Τὸν δ ̓ Αἰσάρου τε ῥεῖθρα, καὶ βραχύπτολις
Οἰνωτρίας γῆς κεγχρίνῃ βεβρωμένον

Κρίμισσα φιτροῦ δέξεται μιαιφόνον.

LYCOPHR. V. 911.

A temple, consecrated to Apollo Alæus, by Philoctetes, stood likewise on the shore, together with that hero's tomb. (Aristot. de Mirab.)

Κρᾶθις δὲ τύμβους ὄψεται δεδουπότος,
Εὐρὰξ ̓Αλαίου Παταρέως ἀνακτόρων.
Ναύαιθος ἔνθα πρὸς κλύδων ̓ ἐρεύγεται.

LYCOPHR. V. 919.

At a much later period, Crimisa is supposed to have changed its name to Paternum, under which it is noticed in the Itinerary of Antoninus, and by which it was known as a bishop's see after the fall of the western empire. The modern Cirò seems to retain something of its original appellation.

At some distance from the coast, we may notice several small towns of which mention is made only Calasarna. by Strabo. (VI. 254.) Calasarna is supposed, by the Calabrian topographers, to accord with the site of Campana, near the source of the Fiumenicaa. 307. Romanelli, t. i. p. 213.

a Barr. de Antiq. et Sit. Calabr. 1. iv. c. 23.

b Heyn. Apollod. Athen. Bibl. c Barr. de Antiq. et Sit. Calab. 1. iv. c. 23. Holsten. Adnot. p.

d Barr. 1. iv. c. 24. Cf. Acet. not. 2. Quattrom. ad loc. cit. not. 6. Girol. Maraf. 1. iii. c. 18.

Vertinæ preserves in great measure its ancient name Vertina. in that of Verzine, on the Nieto.

Chone, said to have been also a colony of Philoc- Chone. tetes, belonged originally to the Chones, an early tribe of Enotrian descent, who are represented as more civilized than the other barbarians of Italy. (Strab. VI. 255.) According to some judicious antiquaries, this ancient site corresponds with that of Casabuona, near Strongoli.


Pumentum is another obscure town placed in this Pumenvicinity by Strabo, which, according to Barrio, occupied the situation of Cerenza, on the right bank of the Nietos.

Brystacia, mentioned by Stephanus as a town of Brystacia. the Enotri, (v. Bpvoтakía.) stood, according to the generality of modern geographers, at Umbriatico, about six miles to the west of Cirò.


Tempsa, termed Montana to distinguish it from Tempsa a more celebrated town of the same name on the western sea, is not mentioned by any writer of antiquity; but its existence is attested by the Tabula Theodosiana, and by various acts of councils, which speak of the bishoprics of Tempsa and of Paternum as being united: it is therefore probable that these two places were situated near each other.

Petilia was another settlement of Philoctetes,

hic illa ducis Melibœi

Parva Philoctetæ subnixa Petilia muro.

e Barr. I. iv. c. 18. Maraf, 1. iii. c. 18.

f Quattromani, in Barr. 1. iv. c. 22. Romanelli, t. i. p. 215. 8 Barr. loc. cit. Maraf. 1. iii. c. 18.

EN. III. 401.

h Barr. de Antiq. et Sit. Calabr. 1. iv. c. 23. Quattrom. et Acet. not. in Barr. loc. cit. Cluver. Ital. Antiq. II. p. 1316.

i Acet. not. in Barr. 1. iv. c. 23. Romanelli, t. i. p. 213.


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