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besides Herodotus, and he cites as his authority for the existence of that place, Lycus of Rhegium, the adoptive father of Lycophron. Cluverius has omitted all mention of it; Holstenius thought it might be placed at Cetraro, to the east of the river Laod; but as we know that Laus was a maritime town, it is reasonable to suppose that Scidrus was also situated near the sea, as indeed were all the Greek settlements; and that this was the case with regard to Scidrus, is in fact intimated by Herodotus. On this account, as well as for other reasons, we must prefer the opinion of the learned and judicious topographer of Lucania, who fixes it at Sapri, a few miles to the south-east of Policastro, where he has observed extensive ruins, and also vestiges of an ancient porte.

Further south, and on the Via Aquilia, as we learn from the Itineraries, was Blanda, a town of Lucania Blanda. referred to by Livy, (XXIV. 20.) as well as by Pliny (III. 5.) and Ptolemy. (p. 67.) The latter geographer classes it incorrectly among the inland towns of the province. Holstenius has fixed its position at Maratea, and he is followed by Antonini and Romanelli 5.

The last Lucanian city on this coast is Laus, si- Laus. tuated on a gulf and river of the same name. It has been already observed that this was a colony of the Sybarites; (Herod. VI. 20. Strab. VI. 253.) but beyond that fact, we are very little acquainted with its history. Strabo reports that the allied Greeks met with a signal defeat in the vicinity of this place from the Lucanians. These were probably the Posi


d Holsten. Adnot. p. 288.
e Antonin. Lucan. p. ii. disc.

f Adnot. p. 288..

Lucan. p.ii. disc. 12. Romanelli, t. i. p. 379.


Laus fl.

doniatæ and the other colonists on this coast, and we may conjecture that this disaster led to the downfall of their several towns. In Pliny's time Laos no longer existed. (III. 5. Ptol. p. 67. Steph. Byz. v. Aãos.) Cluverius identified its site with the present Laino, but later topographers have justly observed, that this town is fourteen miles from the sea, whereas the Table Itinerary evidently marks the position of Lacus near the coast. It is more probable, therefore, that Scalea represents this ancient city *. The Sinus Laus derives its present name from Policastro, and the river is called Lao.

It will now be necessary to retrace our steps towards the northern frontier of Lucania, for the purpose of giving some account of the towns situated in the interior of that province.

Near the junction of the Silarus and Tanager, and between the latter river and the Calor, is a ridge of Alburnus mountains known formerly by the name of Mons

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Est lucos Silari circa, ilicibusque virentem
Plurimus Alburnum volitans, cui nomen asilo
Romanum est, œstrum Graii vertere vocantes;
Asper, acerba sonans; quo tota exterrita sylvis
Diffugiunt armenta, furit mugitibus æther
Concussus, sylvæque, et sicci ripa Tanagri.

GEORG. III. 146.

It is now commonly called Monte di Postiglione, and sometimes Alburno.

h The alliance of Laos and Posidonia is attested by a coin of the former city, with the epigraph AAI. and Пo. Others are inscribed AAINOM. Sestini, Lett.

Numis. I. 9. p. 69. and Monet.
Vet. p. 16.

Ital. Antiq. II. p. 1262.
k Antonin. Lucan. p. ii. disc.
12. Romanelli, t. i. p. 383.

The Tanager rises in the central chain of the Tanager fl. Apennines, between Casal nuovo and Lago Negro, and, after flowing thirty miles through the valley of Diano, loses itself underground for the space of two miles, and not twenty, as is stated in Pliny. (II. 103.) It reappears beyond la Polla, at a place called Pertosa, and falls into the Silarus below Contursi1. The modern name of this river is Negro.

sive Vol

To the north of the Tanager, Vulceium, or Volcen- Vulceium tum, is now Buccino, as several inscriptions disco- centum. vered there abundantly testify m. The Volcentes are stated by Livy to have sided in the first instance with Hannibal, but afterwards to have again submitted to the Romans, to whom they delivered up the Carthaginian garrison. It is probable that in the passage alluded to, we ought to read, instead of "Lucani "et Volscentes," Lucani Volcentes. (XXVII. 15. Cf. Plin. III. 11. Ptol. p. 67. Front. de Col.) Numistro, Numistro. another Lucanian town, mention of which we find in Livy, seems to have been situated still more to the north, and near the frontiers of Apulia. That historian speaks of an engagement which took place in its vicinity between Marcellus and Hannibal. (XXVII.1. Cf. Plut. vit. Marcell. Plin. III. 12.) Ptolemy (p. 67.) incorrectly ascribes it to the Brutii. Romanelli, with great appearance of probability, fixes this ancient site in the neighbourhood of Muro, where several Roman monuments and inscriptions have been discovered ".

Considerably to the east of Numistro, and near the source of the Casuentus, Potenza recalls the ancient Potentia, a considerable city of Lucania, as may Potentia.

p. 326.

1 Romanelli, t. i.

m Holsten. Adnot.

p. 290.

Romanelli, t. i. p. 422.
n Romanelli, t. i. p. 434.

be collected from the ruins which are yet standing, together with various inscriptions collected by Muratori, Antonini, and others. It is also noticed by Pliny (III. 12.) and Frontinus. (de Col.)

The spot which witnessed the death of Tib. Gracchus by the hands of a treacherous band of LucaCampi Ve- nians, and which is called Campi Veteres by Livy, may be placed near Potenza, at Vietri, which seems to be a corruption of its ancient name". (Liv. XXV. 16. Appian. Han. 35.)






Not far from the Tanager, Atena represents the Atina of the Lucani. (Plin. III. 12. Front. de Col.) Several inscriptions, and many remains of walls and buildings, prove that it was no inconsiderable town.

About five miles further to the south stood Marciliana, noticed by the Itineraries and also by Cassiodorus, who informs us that this place was a suburb to the more ancient and important town of Cosilynum, and that in his time a great concourse of people used to assemble here annually on the day of S. Cyprian. This custom, he affirms, was of very early date, being in fact a remnant of a pagan superstition called Leucothea. (Cassiod. Var. Ep. VIII. 33.) This ancient site is proved very satisfactorily by Romanelli to answer to la Sala, on the right bank of the Negro.

Cosylinum, according to the same antiquary, could not have been far from Padula, which is situated in the mountains above the valley of the Tanagers.

• Murator. Thesaur. Inscript.
Class. XV. Antonin. Lucan. p.
ii. disc. 2. Romanelli, t. i. p.

? Romanelli, t. i. p. 438.
"Antonin. Lucan. p. ii. disc. 2.

Romanelli, t. i. p. 423.
r Ibid. t. i. p. 409.

s Holsten. Geogr. S. Paul. Antonin. Lucan. p. iii. disc. 8. Romanelli, t. i. p. 406.

Besides Cassiodorus, we have the authority of Frontinus for the existence of this city, as he classes it among the præfecturæ of Lucania'. (de Colon.)

On the left bank of the Tanager, Diano, which communicates its name to the beautiful valley watered by that river, was probably the ancient city of Tegianum, as numerous inscriptions discovered there Tegianum. Frontinus probably refers to it when he

attest ".

speaks of the præfectura Tegianensis. (de Col.)

Further south, and among the mountains, Sanzo occupies the site of Sontia, the inhabitants of which Sontia. are called Sontini by Pliny *. (III. 11.)

Considerably to the east, and near the source of

the Aciris, Marsico vetere is thought by Cluverius y

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and D'Anville to accord with the situation of Abel- Abellinum

linum Marsicum. (Plin. III. 11.)



Further south, and on the right bank of the same river, we must place Grumentum, a town of some note Grumenmentioned by Livy in reference to the second Punic war, (XXVII. 41.) and by Appian during the Social war. (Civ. Bell. I. 41.) Frontinus reports that it

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According to Lanzi, it records
a grant of a dwelling house and
the rights appertaining to it,
from the Demiurgus and other
magistrates of the town of Son-
tia, (ΣΑΟΤΙΣ,Doric for ΣΩΝΤΙΣ,)
to a person named Sicenia. If
Lanzi's interpretation is correct,
Sontia must have been at that
period in the possession of some
Greek colony, possibly of the
Sybarites, who, according to
Strabo, held several towns in
Lucania. Lanzi, t. i. p. 108.

y Ital. Antiq. II. p. 1280.

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